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Found 35740 matches. Displaying 31-40
Zhang WZ, Watanabe R, Konishi HA, Fujiwara T, Yoshimura SH, Kumeta M
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Redox-Sensitive Cysteines Confer Proximal Control of the Molecular Crowding Barrier in the Nuclear Pore

CELL REPORTS 2020 DEC 15; 33(11):? Article 108484
The nuclear pore complex forms a highly crowded selective barrier with intrinsically disordered regions at the nuclear membrane to coordinate nucleocytoplasmic molecular communications. Although oxidative stress is known to alter the barrier function, the molecular mechanism underlying this adaptive control of the nuclear pore complex remains unknown. Here we uncover a systematic control of the crowding barrier within the nuclear pore in response to various redox environments. Direct measurements of the crowding states using a crowding-sensitive FRET (Forster resonance energy transfer) probe reveal specific roles of the nuclear pore subunits that adjust the degree of crowding in response to different redox conditions, by adaptively forming or disrupting redox-sensitive disulfide bonds. Relationships between crowding control and the barrier function of the nuclear pore are investigated by single-molecular fluorescence measurements of nucleartransport. Based on these findings, we propose a proximal control model of molecular crowding in vivo that is dynamically regulated at the molecular level.
Orange DE, Mehta B
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Rethinking the Balance of Risks and Rewards of Chronic Low-Dose Glucocorticoids in Rheumatoid Arthritis

ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE 2020 DEC 1; 173(11):933-935
Bouchami O, Fraqueza MJ, Faria NA, Alves V, Lawal OU, de Lencastre H, Miragaia M
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Evidence for the Dissemination to Humans of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 through the Pork Production Chain: A Study in a Portuguese Slaughterhouse

MICROORGANISMS 2020 DEC; 8(12):? Article 1892
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) ST398 was recovered from infections in humans exposed to animals, raising public health concerns. However, contact with food producing chain as a means of transmission of LA-MRSA to humans remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess if pork production chain is a source of MRSA ST398 for human colonization and infection. MRSA from live pigs, meat, the environment, and slaughterhouse workers were analyzed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), spa, MLST typing, SNPs and for antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiles. We compared core and accessory genomes of MRSA ST398 isolated from slaughterhouse and hospital. We detected MRSA ST398 (t011, t108, t1451) along the entire pork production chain (live pigs: 60%; equipment: 38%; meat: 23%) and in workers (40%). All MRSA ST398 were multidrug resistant, and the majority carried genes encoding biocide resistance and enterotoxins. We found 23 cross-transmission events between live pigs, meat, and workers (6-55 SNPs). MRSA ST398 from infection and slaughterhouse environment belonged to the same clonal type (ST398, t011, SCCmec V), but differed in 321-378 SNPs. Pork production chain can be a source of MRSA ST398 for colonization of human slaughterhouse workers, which can represent a risk of subsequent meat contamination and human infection.
Lilic M, Chen J, Boyaci H, Braffman N, Hubin EA, Herrmann J, Muller R, Mooney R, Landick R, Darst SA, Campbell EA
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The antibiotic sorangicin A inhibits promoter DNA unwinding in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerase

Rifampicin (Rif) is a first-line therapeutic used to treat the infectious disease tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The emergence of Rif-resistant (RifR) Mtb presents a need for new antibiotics. Rif targets the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP). Sorangicin A (Sor) is an unrelated inhibitor that binds in the Rif-binding pocket of RNAP. Sor inhibits a subset of RifR RNAPs, including the most prevalent clinical RifR RNAP substitution found in Mtb infected patients (S456>L of the beta subunit). Here, we present structural and biochemical data demonstrating that Sor inhibits the wild-type Mtb RNAP by a similar mechanism as Rif: by preventing the translocation of very short RNAs. By contrast, Sor inhibits the RifR S456L enzyme at an earlier step, preventing the transition of a partially unwound promoter DNA intermediate to the fully opened DNA and blocking the template-strand DNA from reaching the active site in the RNAP catalytic center. By defining template-strand blocking as a mechanism for inhibition, we provide a mechanistic drug target in RNAP. Our finding that Sor inhibits the wild-type and mutant RNAPs through different mechanisms prompts future considerations for designing antibiotics against resistant targets. Also, we show that Sor has a better pharmacokinetic profile than Rif, making it a suit able starting molecule to design drugs to be used for the treatment of TB patients with comorbidities who require multiple medications.
Stern SA, Bulik CM
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Alternative Frameworks for Advancing the Study of Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are life-interrupting psychiatric conditions with high morbidity and mortality, yet the basic mechanisms underlying these conditions are understudied compared with other psychiatric disorders. In this opinion, we suggest that recent knowledge gleaned from genomic and neuroimaging investigations of eating disorders in humans presents a rich opportunity to sharpen animal models of eating disorders and to identify neural mechanisms that contribute to the risk and maintenance of these conditions. Our article reflects the state of the science, with a primary focus on anorexia nervosa (AN) and binge-eating behavior, and encourages further study of all conditions categorized under feeding and eating disorders.
Schwarz C, Hadjantonakis AK
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Cells under Tension Drive Gastrulation

DEVELOPMENTAL CELL 2020 DEC 21; 55(6):669-670
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Muncie et al. describe the generation of gastrulation-like foci of cells within micropatterned colonies of pluripotent stem cells. This demonstration of mechanosensitive beta-catenin/Wnt-dependent specification of cell fate during gastrulation illustrates the insights gleaned by placing stem cells in embryo-like mechanical environments.
Toubiana J, Levy C, Allali S, Jung C, Leruez-Ville M, Varon E, Bajolle F, Ouldali N, Chareyre J, Bechet S, Elbez A, Casanova JL, Chalumeau M, Cohen R, Cohen JF
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Association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome: a retrospective matched case-control study, Paris, France, April to May 2020

Chu CS, Hellmuth JC, Singh R, Ying HY, Skrabanek L, Teater MR, Doane AS, Elemento O, Melnick AM, Roeder RG
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Unique Immune Cell Coactivators Specify Locus Control Region Function and Cell Stage

MOLECULAR CELL 2020 DEC 3; 80(5):845-861.e10
Locus control region (LCR) functions define cellular identity and have critical roles in diseases such as cancer, although the hierarchy of structural components and associated factors that drive functionality are incompletely understood. Here we show that OCA-B, a B cell-specific coactivator essential for germinal center (GC) formation, forms a ternary complex with the lymphoid-enriched OCT2 and GC-specific MEF2B transcription factors and that this complex occupies and activates an LCR that regulates the BCL6 proto-oncogene and is uniquely required by normal and malignant GC B cells. Mechanistically, through OCA-B-MED1 interactions, this complex is required for Mediator association with the BCL6 promoter. Densely tiled CRISPRi screening indicates that only LCR segments heavily bound by this ternary complex are essential for its function. Our results demonstrate how an intimately linked complex of lineage- and stage-specific factors converges on specific and highly essential enhancer elements to drive the function of a cell-type-defining LCR.
Krebs S, Veach DR, Carter LM, Grkovski M, Fornier M, Mauro MJ, Voss MH, Danila DC, Burnazi E, Null M, Staton K, Pressl C, Beattie BJ, Zanzonico P, Weber WA, Lyashchenko SK, Lewis JS, Larson SM, Dunphy MPS
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First-in-Humans Trial of Dasatinib-Derivative Tracer for Tumor Kinase-Targeted PET

JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE 2020 NOV 1; 61(11):1580-1587
We developed a first-of-kind dasatinib-derivative imaging agent, F-18-SKI-249380 (F-18-SKI), and validated its use for noninvasive in vivo tyrosine kinase-targeted tumor detection in preclinical models. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using F-18-SKI for PET imaging in patients with malignancies. Methods: Five patients with a prior diagnosis of breast cancer, renal cell cancer, or leukemia underwent whole-body PET/CT imaging 90 min after injection of F-18-SKI (mean, 241.24 +/- 116.36 MBq) as part of a prospective study. In addition, patients underwent either a 30-min dynamic scan of the upper abdomen including, at least partly, cardiac left ventricle, liver, spleen, and kidney (n = 2) or three 10-min whole-body PET/CT scans (n = 3) immediately after injection and blood-based radioactivity measurements to determine the time course of tracer distribution and facilitate radiation dose estimates. A subset of 3 patients had a delayed whole-body PET/CT scan at 180 min. Biodistribution, dosimetry, and tumor uptake were quantified. Absorbed doses were calculated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0. Results: No adverse events occurred after injection of F-18-SKI. In total, 27 tumor lesions were analyzed, with a median SUVpeak of 1.4 (range, 0.7-2.3) and tumor-to-blood ratios of 1.6 (range, 0.8-2.5) at 90 min after injection. The intratumoral drug concentrations calculated for 4 reference lesions ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 nM. In all reference lesions, constant tracer accumulation was observed between 30 and 90 min after injection. A blood radioassay indicated that radiotracer clearance from blood and plasma was initially rapid (blood half-time, 1.31 +/- 0.81 min; plasma, 1.07 +/- 0.66 min; n = 4), followed variably by either a prolonged terminal phase (blood half-time, 285 +/- 148.49 min; plasma, 240 +/- 84.85 min; n = 2) or a small rise to a plateau (n = 2). Like dasatinib, F-18-SKI underwent extensive metabolism after administration, as evidenced by metabolite analysis. Radioactivity was predominantly cleared via the hepatobiliary route. The highest absorbed dose estimates (mGy/MBq) in normal tissues were to the right colon (0.167 +/- 0.04) and small intestine (0.153 +/- 0.03). The effective dose was 0.0258 mSv/MBq (SD, 0.0034 mSv/MBq). Conclusion: F-18-SKI demonstrated significant tumor uptake, distinct image contrast despite low injected doses, and rapid clearance from blood.
Glickman JW, Han J, Garcet S, Krueger JG, Pavel AB, Guttman-Yassky E
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Improving evaluation of drugs in atopic dermatitis by combining clinical and molecular measures