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Found 36604 matches. Displaying 31-40
Milheirico C, Tomasz A, de Lencastre H
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Impact of the Stringent Stress Response on the Expression of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcaceae Strains Carrying mecA, mecA1 and mecC

ANTIBIOTICS-BASEL 2022 FEB; 11(2):? Article 255
The acquisition of the resistance determinant mecA by Staphylococcus aureus is of major clinical importance, since it confers a resistant phenotype to virtually the entire large family of structurally diverse beta-lactam antibiotics. While the common resistance determinant mecA is essential, the optimal expression of the resistance phenotype also requires additional factors. Previous studies showed that the great majority of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have a heterogeneous resistant phenotype, and we observed that strains carrying methicillin genetic determinants other than mecA also produce similar heterogeneous phenotypes. All these strains were able to express high and homogeneous levels of oxacillin resistance when sub-inhibitory concentrations of mupirocin, an effector of the stringent stress response, were added to growth media. Our studies show that the gene gmk, involved in guanine metabolism, was one of the first genes to exhibit mutations in homoresistant (H*R) derivatives obtained through serial passages (with increasing concentrations of oxacillin) of the prototype mecC-carrying MRSA strain LGA251. All these observations led us to propose that a common molecular mechanism for the establishment of high and homogeneous oxacillin resistance must be present among isolates carrying different methicillin resistance determinants. In this work, we tested this hypothesis using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to compare isogenic populations differing only in their degrees of oxacillin resistance and carrying various methicillin genetic determinants
Gonzalez H, Mei WB, Robles I, Hagerling C, Allen BM, Okholm TLH, Nanjaraj A, Verbeek T, Kalavacherla S, van Gogh M, Georgiou S, Daras M, Phillips JJ, Spitzer MH, Roose JP, Werb Z
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Cellular architecture of human brain metastases

CELL 2022 FEB 17; 185(4):729-+
Brain metastasis (BrM) is the most common form of brain cancer, characterized by neurologic disability and an abysmal prognosis. Unfortunately, our understanding of the biology underlying human BrMs remains rudimentary. Here, we present an integrative analysis of >100,000 malignant and non-malignant cells from 15 human parenchymal BrMs, generated by single-cell transcriptomics, mass cytometry, and complemented with mouse model-and in silico approaches. We interrogated the composition of BrM niches, molecularly defined the blood-tumor interface, and revealed stromal immunosuppressive states enriched with infiltrated T cells and macrophages. Specific single-cell interrogation of metastatic tumor cells provides a framework of 8 functional cell programs that coexist or anticorrelate. Collectively, these programs delineate two functional BrM archetypes, one proliferative and the other inflammatory, that are evidently shaped through tumor-immune interactions. Our resource provides a foundation to understand the molecular basis of BrM in patients with tumor cell-intrinsic and host environmental traits.
Bhattacharya S, Palillo A
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Structural and dynamic studies of the peptidase domain from Clostridium thermocellum PCAT1

PROTEIN SCIENCE 2022 FEB; 31(2):498-512
The export of antimicrobial peptides is mediated by diverse mechanisms in bacterial quorum sensing pathways. One such binary system employed by gram-positive bacteria is the PCAT1 ABC transporter coupled to a cysteine protease. The focus of this study is the N-terminal C39 peptidase (PEP) domain from Clostridium thermocellum PCAT1 that processes its natural substrate CtA by cleaving a conserved -GG- motif to separate the cargo from the leader peptide prior to secretion. In this study, we are primarily interested in elucidating the dynamic and structural determinants of CtA binding and how it is coupled to cleavage efficiency in the PCAT1 PEP domain. To this end, we have characterized CtA interactions with PEP domain and PCAT1 transporter in detergent micelles using solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The bound CtA structure revealed the disordered C-terminal cargo peptide is linked by a sterically hindered cleavage site to a helix docked within a hydrophobic cavity in the PEP domain. The wide range of internal motions detected by amide nitrogen (N-15) relaxation measurements in the free enzyme and substrate-bound complex suggests the binding site is relatively floppy. This flexibility plays a key role in the structural rearrangement necessary to relax steric inhibition in the bound substrate. In conjunction with previously reported PCAT1 structures, we offer fresh insight into the ATP-mediated association between PEP and transmembrane domains as a putative mechanism to optimize peptide cleavage by regulating the width and flexibility of the enzyme active site.
Aviram N, Thornal AN, Zeevi D, Marraffini LA
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Different modes of spacer acquisition by the Staphylococcus epidermidis type III-A CRISPR-Cas system

NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH 2022 FEB 22; 50(3):1661-1672
CRISPR-Cas systems provide prokaryotic organisms with an adaptive defense mechanism that acquires immunological memories of infections. This is accomplished by integration of short fragments from the genome of invaders such as phages and plasmids, called 'spacers', into the CRISPR locus of the host. Depending on their genetic composition, CRISPR-Cas systems can be classified into six types, I-VI, however spacer acquisition has been extensively studied only in type I and II systems. Here, we used an inducible spacer acquisition assay to study this process in the type III-A CRISPR-Cas system of Staphylococcus epidermidis, in the absence of phage selection. Similarly to type I and II spacer acquisition, this type III system uses Cas1 and Cas2 to preferentially integrate spacers from the chromosomal terminus and free dsDNA ends produced after DNA breaks, in a manner that is enhanced by the AddDNA repair complex. Surprisingly, a different mode of spacer acquisition from rRNA and tRNA loci, which spans only the transcribed sequences of these genes and is not enhanced by AddAB, was also detected. Therefore, our findings reveal both common mechanistic principles that may be conserved in all CRISPR-Cas systems, as well as unique and intriguing features of type III spacer acquisition.
Moldwin RM, Nursey V, Yaskiv O, Dalvi S, Macdonald EJ, Funaro M, Zhang CL, DeGouveia W, Ruzimovsky M, Rilo HR, Miller EJ, Najjar S, Tabansky I, Stern JNH
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Immune cell profiles of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a disorder characterized by bladder pain upon filling which severely affects quality of life. Clinical presentation can vary. Local inflammatory events typify the clinical presentation of IC/BPS patients with Hunner lesions (IC/BPS-HL). It has previously been proposed that B cells are more prevalent in HL, but understanding their exact role in this environment requires a more complete immunological profile of HL. We characterized immunological dysfunction specifically in HL using immunohistochemistry. We detected significantly more plasma cells (50x increase, p < 0.0001), B cells (28x increase, p < 0.0001), T cells (3x increase, p < 0.0001), monocytes/macrophages (6x increase, p < 0.0001), granulocytes (4x increase, p < 0.0001), and natural killer cells (2x increase, p = 0.0249) in IC/BPS patients with HL than in unaffected controls (UC). Patients with IC/BPS-HL also had significantly elevated urinary levels of IL-6 (p = 0.0054), TNF-alpha (p = 0.0064) and IL-13 (p = 0.0304) compared to patients with IC/BPS without HL (IC/BPS-NHL). In contrast, IL-12p70 levels were significantly lower in the patients with HL than in those without these lesions (p = 0.0422). Different cytokines were elevated in the urine of IC/BPS patients with and without HL, indicating that different disease processes are active in IC/BPS patients with and without HL. Elevated levels of CD138+, CD20+, and CD3+ cells in HL are consistent B and T-cell involvement in disease processes within HL.
Ren ZH, Kim A, Huang YT, Pi WC, Gong WD, Yu XF, Qi J, Jin J, Cai L, Roeder RG, Chen WY, Wang GG
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A PRC2-Kdm5b axis sustains tumorigenicity of acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) with the NUP98-NSD1 or mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) rearrangement (MLL-r) share transcriptomic profiles associated with stemness-related gene signatures and display poor prognosis. The molecular underpinnings of AML aggressiveness and sternness remain far from clear. Studies with EZH2 enzymatic inhibitors show that polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is crucial for tumorigenicity in NUP98-NSD1(+) AML, whereas transcriptomic analysis reveal that Kdm5b, a lysine demethylase gene carrying "bivalent" chromatin domains, is directly repressed by PRC2. While ectopic expression of Kdm5b suppressed AML growth, its depletion not only promoted tumorigenicity but also attenuated anti-AML effects of PRC2 inhibitors, demonstrating a PRC2-vertical bar Kdm5b axis for AML oncogenesis. Integrated RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), and Cleavage Under Targets & Release Using Nuclease (CUT&RUN) profiling also showed that Kdm5b directly binds and represses AML sternness genes. The anti-AML effect of Kdm5b relies on its chromatin association and/or scaffold functions rather than its demethylase activity. Collectively, this study describes a molecular axis that involves histone modifiers (PRC2-vertical bar Kdm5b) for sustaining AML oncogenesis.
Wang XT, Sacramento CQ, Jockusch S, Chaves OA, Tao CJ, Fintelman-Rodrigues N, Chien MC, Temerozo JR, Li XX, Kumar S, Xie W, Patel DJ, Meyer C, Garzia A, Tuschl T, Bozza PT, Russo JJ, Souza TML, Ju JY
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Combination of antiviral drugs inhibits SARS-CoV-2 polymerase and exonuclease and demonstrates COVID-19 therapeutic potential in viral cell culture

COMMUNICATIONS BIOLOGY 2022 FEB 22; 5(1):? Article 154
In this paper, the hepatitis C virus inhibitors Pibrentasvir and Ombitasvir are found to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 exonuclease and are shown to have therapeutic potential when combined with SARS-CoV-2 polymerase inhibitors in viral cell cultures. SARS-CoV-2 has an exonuclease-based proofreader, which removes nucleotide inhibitors such as Remdesivir that are incorporated into the viral RNA during replication, reducing the efficacy of these drugs for treating COVID-19. Combinations of inhibitors of both the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the exonuclease could overcome this deficiency. Here we report the identification of hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitors Pibrentasvir and Ombitasvir as SARS-CoV-2 exonuclease inhibitors. In the presence of Pibrentasvir, RNAs terminated with the active forms of the prodrugs Sofosbuvir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Molnupiravir and AT-527 were largely protected from excision by the exonuclease, while in the absence of Pibrentasvir, there was rapid excision. Due to its unique structure, Tenofovir-terminated RNA was highly resistant to exonuclease excision even in the absence of Pibrentasvir. Viral cell culture studies also demonstrate significant synergy using this combination strategy. This study supports the use of combination drugs that inhibit both the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase and exonuclease for effective COVID-19 treatment.
Navrazhina K, Garcet S, Frew JW, Zheng XZ, Coats I, Guttman-Yassky E, Krueger JG
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The inflammatory proteome of hidradenitis suppurativa skin is more expansive than that of psoriasis vulgaris

Background: Although hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) shares some transcriptomic and cellular infiltrate features with psoriasis, their skin proteome remains unknown. Objective: To define and compare inflammatory protein biomarkers of HS and psoriasis skin. Methods: We assessed 92 inflammatory biomarkers in HS (n = 13), psoriasis (n = 11), and control skin (n = 11) using Olink high-throughput proteomics. We also correlated HS skin and blood biomarkers using proteomics and RNA sequencing. Results: We identified 57 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in lesional psoriasis and 64 DEPs in lesional HS skin, compared to healthy controls. Both HS and psoriasis lesional skin demonstrated a significant upregulation of T helper 1 and T helper 17 proteins. Healthy-appearing perilesional HS skin had 63 DEPs compared to healthy controls. Nonlesional HS and psoriasis skin had 24 and 7 DEPs, respectively, compared to healthy controls. Tumor necrosis factor and 8 other proteins were significantly correlated with clinical severity in perilesional HS skin (2 cm from a nodule). Limitations: Inclusion of only moderate-to-severe patients and the cohort size. Conclusion: HS has a greater inflammatory profile and is more diffusely distributed compared with psoriasis. Proteins correlated with disease severity are potential disease mediators. Perilesional skin is comparably inflamed to lesional skin, suggesting the need to treat beyond skin nodules. ( J Am Acad Dermatol 2022;86:322-30.)
McKerrow W, Wang XY, Mendez-Dorantes C, Mita P, Cao S, Grivainis M, Ding L, LaCava J, Burns KH, Boeke JD, Fenyo D
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LINE-1 expression in cancer correlates with p53 mutation, copy number alteration, and S phase checkpoint

Retrotransposons are genomic DNA sequences that copy them-selves to new genomic locations via RNA intermediates; LINE-1 is the only active and autonomous retrotransposon in the human genome. The mobility of LINE-1 is largely repressed in somatic tissues but is derepressed in many cancers, where LINE-1 retrotransposition is correlated with p53 mutation and copy number alteration (CNA). In cell lines, inducing LINE-1 expression can cause double-strand breaks (DSBs) and replication stress. Reanalyzing multiomic data from breast, ovarian, endometrial, and colon cancers, we confirmed correlations between LINE-1 expression, p53 mutation status, and CNA. We observed a consistent correlation between LINE-1 expression and the abundance of DNA replication complex components, indicating that LINE-1 may also induce replication stress in human tumors. In endometrial cancer, high-quality phosphoproteomic data allowed us to identify the DSB-induced ATM-MRN-SMC S phase checkpoint pathway as the primary DNA damage response (DDR) pathway associated with LINE-1 expres-sion. Induction of LINE-1 expression in an in vitro model led to increased phosphorylation of MRN complex member RAD50, suggesting that LINE-1 directly activates this pathway.
Wang ZQ, Forelli N, Hernandez Y, Ternei M, Brady SF
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Lapcin, a potent dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor discovered by soil metagenome guided total chemical synthesis

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2022 FEB 11; 13(1):? Article 842
Chemical synthesis of secondary metabolites isolated from nature, and derivatives thereof, is still a paradigm of significance to drug development. Here the authors instead use bioinformatics to analyze a biosynthetic gene cluster found in the soil metagenome, and chemical synthesis of its predict product to produce lapcin, a dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor with promising activity against cancer cell lines. In natural product discovery programs, the power of synthetic chemistry is often leveraged for the total synthesis and diversification of characterized metabolites. The synthesis of structures that are bioinformatically predicted to arise from uncharacterized biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) provides a means for synthetic chemistry to enter this process at an early stage. The recent identification of non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) containing multiple rho-aminobenzoic acids (PABAs) led us to search soil metagenomes for BGCs that polymerize PABA. Here, we use PABA-specific adenylation-domain sequences to guide the cloning of the lap BGC directly from soil. This BGC was predicted to encode a unique N-acylated PABA and thiazole containing structure. Chemical synthesis of this structure gave lapcin, a dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor with nM to pM IC50s against diverse cancer cell lines. The discovery of lapcin highlights the power of coupling metagenomics, bioinformatics and total chemical synthesis to unlock the biosynthetic potential contained in even complex uncharacterized BGCs.