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Found 37003 matches. Displaying 31-40
Han YL, Tan L, Zhou T, Yang LL, Carrau L, Lacko LA, Saeed M, Zhu JJ, Zhao ZP, Nilsson-Payant BE, Neto FTL, Cahir C, Giani AM, Chai JC, Li Y, Dong X, Moroziewicz D, NYSCF Global Stem Cell Array Team, Paull D, Zhang T, Koo S, Tan CSA, Danziger R, Ba Q, Feng LL, Chen ZM, Zhong AR, Wise GJ, Xiang JZ, Wang H, Schwartz RE, tenOever BR, Noggle SA, Rice CM, Qi QB, Evans T, Chen SB
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A human iPSC-array-based GWAS identifies a virus susceptibility locus in the NDUFA4 gene and functional variants

CELL STEM CELL 2022 OCT 6; 29(10):1475-+
Population-based studies to identify disease-associated risk alleles typically require samples from a large number of individuals. Here, we report a human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based screening strat-egy to link human genetics with viral infectivity. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a cluster of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cis-regulatory region of the NDUFA4 gene, which was asso-ciated with susceptibility to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Loss of NDUFA4 led to decreased sensitivity to ZIKV, dengue virus, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Isogenic hiPSC lines carrying non-risk alleles of SNPs or deletion of the cis-regulatory region lower sensitivity to viral infection. Mechanistic studies indicated that loss/reduction of NDUFA4 causes mitochondrial stress, which leads to the leakage of mtDNA and thereby upregulation of type I interferon signaling. This study provides proof-of-principle for the application of iPSC arrays in GWAS and identifies NDUFA4 as a previously unknown susceptibility locus for viral infection.
As scholars envision a new regulatory or statutory neurorights schema it is important to imagine unintended consequences if reforms are implemented before their implications are fully understood. This paper critically evaluates provisions proposed for a new Chilean Constitution and evaluates this movement against efforts to improve the diagnosis of, and treatment for, individuals with disorders of consciousness within the broader context of disability law, international human rights, and a capabilities approach to health justice as advanced by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Framed in this way, any neurorights regime would need to satisfy several criteria. First it would be obliged to balance both positive and negative rights in the furtherance of human capabilities. Second, it would need to be future oriented and informed about the science it sought to regulate and not fall prey to science fiction fantasies that remain ungrounded in reality. Third, it would need to be specific and avoid generalizations that would lead to conceptual confusion and litigation that could delay scientific progress. Finally, it would need to harmonize novel neurorights with long-established norms in international disability and human rights law. A failure to meet these criteria will destine any novel neurorights regime to the periphery. At this juncture Chile's nascent constitutional venture into neurorights fails to satisfy these criteria. While there yet may be a role for a more capacious and bivalent articulation of neurorights that account for capabilities and precedent, the current Chilean neurorights reforms are vague and premature. As such they should undergo additional scholarly scrutiny and should not be adopted by other jurisdictions.
Deere JU, Devineni AV
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Taste cues elicit prolonged modulation of feeding behavior in Drosophila

ISCIENCE 2022 OCT 21; 25(10):? Article 105159
Taste cues regulate immediate feeding behavior, but their ability to modulate future behavior has been less well studied. Pairing one taste with another can modulate subsequent feeding responses through associative learning, but this re-quires simultaneous exposure to both stimuli. We investigated whether exposure to one taste modulates future responses to other tastes even when they do not overlap in time. Using Drosophila, we found that brief exposure to sugar enhanced future feeding responses, whereas bitter exposure suppressed them. This modulation relies on neural pathways distinct from those that acutely regulate feeding or mediate learning-dependent changes. Sensory neuron activity was required not only during initial taste exposure but also afterward, suggesting that ongoing sensory activity may maintain experience-dependent changes in downstream circuits. Thus, the brain stores a memory of each taste stimulus after it disappears, enabling animals to integrate information as they sequentially sample different taste cues that signal local food quality.
Dam KMA, Barnes CO, Gristick HB, Schoofs T, Gnanapragasam PNP, Nussenzweig MC, Bjorkman PJ
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HIV-1 CD4-binding site germline antibody-Env structures inform vaccine design

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2022 OCT 17; 13(1):? Article 6123
BG24, a VRC01-class broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) against HIV-1 Env with relatively few somatic hypermutations (SHMs), represents a promising target for vaccine strategies to elicit CD4-binding site (CD4bs) bNAbs. To understand how SHMs correlate with BG24 neutralization of HIV-1, we report 4.1 angstrom and 3.4 angstrom single-particle cryo-EM structures of two inferred germline (iGL) BG24 precursors complexed with engineered Env-based immunogens lacking CD4bs N-glycans. Structures reveal critical Env contacts by BG24(iGL) and identify antibody light chain structural features that impede Env recognition. In addition, biochemical data and cryo-EM structures of BG24(iGL) variants bound to Envs with CD4bs glycans present provide insights into N-glycan accommodation, including structural modes of light chain adaptations in the presence of the N276(gp120) glycan. Together, these findings reveal Env regions critical for germline antibody recognition and potential sites to alter in immunogen design.
An U, Shenhav L, Olson CA, Hsiao EY, Halperin E, Sankararaman S
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STENSL: Microbial Source Tracking with ENvironment SeLection

MSYSTEMS 2022 OCT 26; 7(5):?
Microbial source tracking analysis has emerged as a widespread technique for characterizing the properties of complex microbial communities. However, this analysis is currently limited to source environments sampled in a specific study. In order to expand the scope beyond one single study and allow the exploration of source environments using large databases and repositories, such as the Earth Microbiome Project, a source selection procedure is required. Such a procedure will allow differentiating between contributing environments and nuisance ones when the number of potential sources considered is high. Here, we introduce STENSL (microbial Source Tracking with ENvironment SeLection), a machine learning method that extends common microbial source tracking analysis by performing an unsupervised source selection and enabling sparse identification of latent source environments. By incorporating sparsity into the estimation of potential source environments, STENSL improves the accuracy of true source contribution, while significantly reducing the noise introduced by noncontributing ones. We therefore anticipate that source selection will augment microbial source tracking analyses, enabling exploration of multiple source environments from publicly available repositories while maintaining high accuracy of the statistical inference. IMPORTANCE Microbial source tracking is a powerful tool to characterize the properties of complex microbial communities. However, this analysis is currently limited to source environments sampled in a specific study. In many applications there is a clear need to consider source selection over a large array of microbial environments, external to the study. To this end, we developed STENSL (microbial Source Tracking with ENvironment SeLection), an expectation-maximization algorithm with sparsity that enables the identification of contributing sources among a large set of potential microbial environments. With the unprecedented expansion of microbiome data repositories such as the Earth Microbiome Project, recording over 200,000 samples from more than 50 types of categorized environments, STENSL takes the first steps in performing automated source exploration and selection. STENSL is significantly more accurate in identifying the contributing sources as well as the unknown source, even when considering hundreds of potential source environments, settings in which state-of-the-art microbial source tracking methods add considerable error.
Rosas-Umbert M, Gunst JD, Pahus MH, Olesen R, Schleimann M, Denton PW, Ramos V, Ward A, Kinloch NN, Copertino DC, Escriba T, Llano A, Brumme ZL, Jones RB, Mothe B, Brander C, Fox J, Nussenzweig MC, Fidler S, Caskey M, Tolstrup M, Sogaard OS
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Administration of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies at ART initiation maintains long-term CD8(+) T cell immunity

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2022 OCT 29; 13(1):? Article 6473
In simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected non-human primates, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against the virus appear to stimulate T cell immunity. To determine whether this phenomenon also occurs in humans we measured HIV-1-specific cellular immunity longitudinally in individuals with HIV-1 starting antiviral therapy (ART) with or without adjunctive bNAb 3BNC117 treatment. Using the activation-induced marker (AIM) assay and interferon-gamma release, we observe that frequencies of Pol- and Gag-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as Gag-induced interferon-gamma responses, are significantly higher among individuals that received adjunctive 3BNC117 compared to ART-alone at 3 and 12 months after starting ART. The observed changes in cellular immunity were directly correlated to pre-treatment 3BNC117-sensitivity. Notably, increased HIV-1-specific immunity is associated with partial or complete ART-free virologic control during treatment interruption for up to 4 years. Our findings suggest that bNAb treatment at the time of ART initiation maintains HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses that are associated with ART-free virologic control. Broadly neutralising anti-HIV-1 antibody (bNAb) administration in nonhuman primates has been shown to stimulate adaptive T cell-specific immunity, with infection prevention observed. In this work, the authors longitudinally analyse HIV-1 specific cellular immunity in HIV-1- infected individuals starting ART with or without adjunctive bNAb treatment.
Tabansky I, Tanaka AJ, Wang JY, Zhang GL, Dujmovic I, Mader S, Jeganathan V, DeAngelis T, Funaro M, Harel A, Messina M, Shabbir M, Nursey V, DeGouvia W, Laurent M, Blitz K, Jindra P, Gudesblatt M, Regeneron Genetics Ctr, King A, Drulovic J, Yunis E, Brusic V, Shen YF, Keskin DB, Najjar S, Stern JNH
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Rare variants and HLA haplotypes associated in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 2022 OCT 4; 13(?):? Article 900605
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are rare, debilitating autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. Many NMOSD patients have antibodies to Aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Prior studies show associations of NMOSD with individual Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and with mutations in the complement pathway and potassium channels. HLA allele associations with NMOSD are inconsistent between populations, suggesting complex relationships between the identified alleles and risk of disease. We used a retrospective case-control approach to identify contributing genetic variants in patients who met the diagnostic criteria for NMOSD and their unaffected family members. Potentially deleterious variants identified in NMOSD patients were compared to members of their families who do not have the disease and to existing databases of human genetic variation. HLA sequences from patients from Belgrade, Serbia, were compared to the frequency of HLA haplotypes in the general population in Belgrade. We analyzed exome sequencing on 40 NMOSD patients and identified rare inherited variants in the complement pathway and potassium channel genes. Haplotype analysis further detected two haplotypes, HLA-A*01, B*08, DRB1*03 and HLA-A*01, B*08, C*07, DRB1*03, DQB1*02, which were more prevalent in NMOSD patients than in unaffected individuals. In silico modeling indicates that HLA molecules within these haplotypes are predicted to bind AQP4 at several sites, potentially contributing to the development of autoimmunity. Our results point to possible autoimmune and neurodegenerative mechanisms that cause NMOSD, and can be used to investigate potential NMOSD drug targets.
Bachelez H, Barker J, Burden AD, Navarini AA, Krueger JG
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Generalized pustular psoriasis is a disease distinct from psoriasis vulgaris: evidence and expert opinion

EXPERT REVIEW OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2022 OCT 3; 18(10):1033-1047
Introduction: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare, severe, clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by flares of widespread, noninfectious, macroscopically visible pustules that occur with or without systemic inflammation, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Historically, GPP has been classified as a variant of psoriasis vulgaris (PV, or plaque psoriasis); however, accumulating evidence indicates that these are distinct conditions, requiring different treatment approaches. Areas covered: In this perspective article we review evidence that supports the classification of GPP as distinct from PV. Expert opinion: The histopathologic and clinical appearance of GPP is distinct from that of PV and fundamental differences exist between the two conditions in terms of genetic causes and expression-related mechanisms of disease development. GPP results from dysregulation of the innate immune system, with disruption of the interleukin (IL)-36 inflammatory pathway, induction of inflammatory keratinocyte responses, and recruitment of neutrophils. PV is driven by the adaptive immune system, with a key role played by IL-17. Considering GPP as a separate disease will enable greater focus on its specific pathogenesis and the needs of patients. Many treatments for PV have insufficient efficacy in GPP and a therapeutic approach developed specifically for GPP might lead to better patient outcomes. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare disease. During episodes of worsening disease, the immune system attacks the skin. This causes large areas of skin to become red and painful, pus-filled blisters suddenly form. Some people with GPP have a history of another, more common, skin condition called psoriasis vulgaris (PV). People with PV develop patches of scaly, itchy skin. In the past, GPP was classed as a type of PV and treated with the same medicines. However, these medicines do not work well in GPP. Researchers now understand more about what causes GPP and how it differs from PV. GPP can cause medical problems throughout the body, leading to life-threatening complications. This means that people with GPP often need urgent medical treatment in hospitals. People with PV are mostly treated outside of hospitals. Any other medical problems are not usually due to PV itself. Researchers have found several genes that are altered in people with GPP and PV, and they differ between the two diseases. For example, changes in a gene called IL36RN are common in GPP but are not seen in PV. The skin of people with these two diseases also looks different under a microscope. Knowing more about GPP and how it differs from PV will help people with GPP to be diagnosed more quickly. It will also help researchers to develop new medicines specifically for GPP, so people can receive better treatment in the future.
Yang S, Hiotis G, Wang Y, Chen JJ, Wang JH, Kim M, Reinherz EL, Walz T
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Dynamic HIV-1 spike motion creates vulnerability for its membrane-bound tripod to antibody attack

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2022 OCT 27; 13(1):? Article 6393
Vaccines targeting HIV-1's gp160 spike protein are stymied by high viral mutation rates and structural chicanery. gp160's membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is the target of naturally arising broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), yet MPER-based vaccines fail to generate bnAbs. Here, nanodisc-embedded spike protein was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy and molecular-dynamics simulations, revealing spontaneous ectodomain tilting that creates vulnerability for HIV-1. While each MPER protomer radiates centrally towards the three-fold axis contributing to a membrane-associated tripod structure that is occluded in the upright spike, tilting provides access to the opposing MPER. Structures of spike proteins with bound 4E10 bnAb Fabs reveal that the antibody binds exposed MPER, thereby altering MPER dynamics, modifying average ectodomain tilt, and imposing strain on the viral membrane and the spike's transmembrane segments, resulting in the abrogation of membrane fusion and informing future vaccine development. The membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 spike protein is a broadly neutralizing antibody target. Here, cryo-electron microscopy and molecular dynamics reveal spontaneous ectodomain tilting, a vulnerability exploitable for vaccine design.
Deborde S, Gusain L, Powers A, Marcadis A, Yu YS, Chen CH, Frants A, Kao E, Tang LH, Vakiani E, Amisaki M, Balachandran VP, Calo A, Omelchenko T, Jessen KR, Reva B, Wong RJ
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Reprogrammed Schwann Cells Organize into Dynamic Tracks that Promote Pancreatic Cancer Invasion

CANCER DISCOVERY 2022 OCT; 12(10):2454-2473
Nerves are a component of the tumor microenvironment contributing to cancer pro-gression, but the role of cells from nerves in facilitating cancer invasion remains poorly understood. Here we show that Schwann cells (SC) activated by cancer cells collectively function as tumor-activated Schwann cell tracks (TAST) that promote cancer cell migration and invasion. Nonmyeli-nating SCs form TASTs and have cell gene expression signatures that correlate with diminished survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In TASTs, dynamic SCs form tracks that serve as cancer pathways and apply forces on cancer cells to enhance cancer motility. These SCs are activated by c-Jun, analogous to their reprogramming during nerve repair. This study reveals a mechanism of cancer cell inva-sion that co-opts a wound repair process and exploits the ability of SCs to collectively organize into tracks. These findings establish a novel paradigm of how cancer cells spread and reveal therapeutic opportunities. SIGNIFICANCE: How the tumor microenvironment participates in pancreatic cancer progression is not fully understood. Here, we show that SCs are activated by cancer cells and collectively organize into tracks that dynamically enable cancer invasion in a c-Jun-dependent manner.