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Found 36144 matches. Displaying 71-80
Pac M, Casanova JL, Reisli I, Marodi L
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Editorial: Advances in Primary Immunodeficiency in Central-Eastern Europe

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 2021 MAY 14; 12(?):? Article 667727
Ito K, Schneeberger M, Gerber A, Jishage M, Marchildon F, Maganti AV, Cohen P, Friedman JM, Roeder RG
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Critical roles of transcriptional coactivator MED1 in the formation and function of mouse adipose tissues

GENES & DEVELOPMENT 2021 MAY 1; 35(9-10):729-748
The MED1 subunit has been shown to mediate ligand-dependent binding of the Mediator coactivator complex to multiple nuclear receptors, including the adipogenic PPAR gamma, and to play an essential role in ectopic PPAR gamma-induced adipogenesis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. However, the precise roles of MED1, and its various domains, at various stages of adipogenesis and in adipose tissue have been unclear. Here, after establishing requirements for MED1, including specific domains, for differentiation of 3T3L1 cells and both primary white and brown preadipo-cytes, we used multiple genetic approaches to assess requirements for MED1 in adipocyte formation, maintenance, and function in mice. We show that MED1 is indeed essential for the differentiation and/or function of both brown and white adipocytes, as its absence in these cells leads to, respectively, defective brown fat function and lipodys-trophy. This work establishes MED1 as an essential transcriptional coactivator that ensures homeostatic functions of adipocytes.
Michailidis E, de Jong YP
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Primary human hepatocyte gene editing: Prometheus' chains are loosening

MOLECULAR THERAPY 2021 MAY 5; 29(5):1666-1667
Ukadike KC, Ni K, Wang XX, Taylor MS, LaCava J, Pachman LM, Eckert M, Stevens A, Lood C, Mustelin T
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IgG and IgA autoantibodies against L1 ORF1p expressed in granulocytes correlate with granulocyte consumption and disease activity in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus

ARTHRITIS RESEARCH & THERAPY 2021 MAY 29; 23(1):? Article 153
Background Most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have IgG autoantibodies against the RNA-binding p40 (ORF1p) protein encoded by the L1 retroelement. This study tested if these autoantibodies are also present in children with pediatric SLE (pSLE) and if the p40 protein itself could be detected in immune cells. Methods Autoantibodies in the plasma of pSLE patients (n = 30), healthy children (n = 37), and disease controls juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 32) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) (n = 60), were measured by ELISA. Expression of p40 in immune cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Markers of neutrophil activation and death were quantitated by ELISA. Results IgG and IgA autoantibodies reactive with p40 were detected in the pSLE patients, but were low in healthy controls and in JIA or JDM. pSLE patients with active disease (13 of them newly diagnosed) had higher titers than the same patients after effective therapy (p = 0.0003). IgG titers correlated with SLEDAI (r = 0.65, p = 0.0001), ESR (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), and anti-dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.49, p < 0.03), and inversely with complement C3 (r = -0.55, p = 0.002) and C4 (r = -0.51, p = 0.006). p40 protein was detected in a subpopulation of CD66b(+) granulocytes in pSLE, as well as in adult SLE patients. Myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase complexed with DNA and the neutrophil-derived S100A8/A9 were elevated in plasma from pSLE patients with active disease and correlated with anti-p40 autoantibodies and disease activity. Conclusions Children with active SLE have elevated IgG and IgA autoantibodies against L1 p40, and this protein can be detected in circulating granulocytes in both pediatric and adult SLE patients. P40 expression and autoantibody levels correlate with disease activity. Markers of neutrophil activation and death also correlate with these autoantibodies and with disease activity, suggesting that neutrophils express L1 and are a source of p40.
Dordevic JM, Mari S, Vdovic M, Milosevic A
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Links between conspiracy beliefs, vaccine knowledge, and trust: Anti-vaccine behavior of Serbian adults

SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 2021 MAY; 277(?):? Article 113930
Rationale: Immunization is a critical tool in the fight against infectious disease epidemics. Understanding hesitancy towards immunization is even more important nowadays, with the continuous threat of COVID-19 pandemic. Medical conspiracy beliefs, scientific skepticism, as well as low trust in governmental institutions, and evidence-based knowledge all have troubling effects on immunization. Objective: To examine how these factors cross-react to influence vaccine behavior against any vaccine preventable disease (VPD), we hypothesized a model consisting of the belief in conspiracy theories as the predictor, and as the mediators subjective and objective vaccine knowledge, and trust in the health care system and science. The model was tested by examining the vaccine intentions for the children and self for any VPD. Methods: Two separate studies were conducted on the representative samples of Serbian population; the first study investigated the intentions for child vaccination and the second study examined the vaccine intentions against any VPD, including adult vaccination. We used path analysis followed by logistic regression to analyze the data. Results: The results revealed high vaccine hesitancy motivated by the belief in the vaccine conspiracy theories, through its effect on reduced trust in medical science and institutions, and low objective vaccine knowledge. Conclusions: The results of this study may be used to implement appropriate policy changes and implementation of the public health campaigns to promote immunization with a wide range of vaccines against common diseases, such as measles, human papillomaviruses, or pertussis, and novel diseases, such as COVID.
Garst EH, Lee H, Das T, Bhattacharya S, Percher A, Wiewiora R, Witte IP, Li YM, Peng T, Im W, Hang HC
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Site-Specific Lipidation Enhances IFITM3 Membrane Interactions and Antiviral Activity

ACS CHEMICAL BIOLOGY 2021 MAY 21; 16(5):844-856
Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are S-palmitoylated proteins in vertebrates that restrict a diverse range of viruses. S-palmitoylated IFITM3 in particular engages incoming virus particles, prevents their cytoplasmic entry, and accelerates their lysosomal clearance by host cells. However, how S-palmitoylation modulates the structure and biophysical characteristics of IFITM3 to promote its antiviral activity remains unclear. To investigate how site-specific S-palmitoylation controls IFITM3 antiviral activity, we employed computational, chemical, and biophysical approaches to demonstrate that site-specific lipidation of cysteine 72 enhances the antiviral activity of IFITM3 by modulating its conformation and interaction with lipid membranes. Collectively, our results demonstrate that site-specific S-palmitoylation of IFITM3 directly alters its biophysical properties and activity in cells to prevent virus infection.
Hogg SJ, Motorna O, Cluse LA, Johanson TM, Coughlan HD, Raviram R, Myers RM, Costacurta M, Todorovski I, Pijpers L, Bjelosevic S, Williams T, Huskins SN, Kearney CJ, Devlin JR, Fan Z, Jabbari JS, Martin BP, Fareh M, Kelly MJ, Dupere-Richer D, Sandow JJ, Feran B, Knight D, Khong T, Spencer A, Harrison SJ, Gregory G, Wickramasinghe VO, Webb AI, Taberlay PC, Bromberg KD, Lai A, Papenfuss AT, Smyth GK, Allan RS, Licht JD, Landau DA, Abdel-Wahab O, Shortt J, Vervoort SJ, Johnstone RW
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Targeting histone acetylation dynamics and oncogenic transcription by catalytic P300/CBP inhibition

MOLECULAR CELL 2021 MAY 20; 81(10):2183-2200.e13
To separate causal effects of histone acetylation on chromatin accessibility and transcriptional output, we used integrated epigenomic and transcriptomic analyses following acute inhibition of major cellular lysine acetyltransferases P300 and CBP in hematological malignancies. We found that catalytic P300/CBP inhibition dynamically perturbs steady-state acetylation kinetics and suppresses oncogenic transcriptional networks in the absence of changes to chromatin accessibility. CRISPR-Cas9 screening identified NCOR1 and HDAC3 transcriptional co-repressors as the principal antagonists of P300/CBP by counteracting acetylation turnover kinetics. Finally, deacetylation of H3K27 provides nucleation sites for reciprocal methylation switching, a feature that can be exploited therapeutically by concomitant KDM6A and P300/CBP inhibition. Overall, this study indicates that the steady-state histone acetylation-methylation equilibrium functions as a molecular rheostat governing cellular transcription that is amenable to therapeutic exploitation as an anticancer regimen.
Paijmans JLA, Barlow A, Becker MS, Cahill JA, Fickel J, Forster DWG, Gries K, Hartmann S, Havmoller RW, Henneberger K, Kern C, Kitchener AC, Lorenzen ED, Mayer F, OBrien SJ, von Seth J, Sinding MHS, Spong G, Uphyrkina O, Wachter B, Westbury MV, Dalen L, Bhak J, Manica A, Hofreiter M
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African and Asian leopards are highly differentiated at the genomic level

CURRENT BIOLOGY 2021 MAY 10; 31(9):1872-1882.e5
Leopards are the only big cats still widely distributed across the continents of Africa and Asia. They occur in a wide range of habitats and are often found in close proximity to humans. But despite their ubiquity, leopard phylogeography and population history have not yet been studied with genomic tools. Here, we present population-genomic data from 26 modern and historical samples encompassing the vast geographical distribution of this species. We find that Asian leopards are broadly monophyletic with respect to African leopards across almost their entire nuclear genomes. This profound genetic pattern persists despite the animals' high potential mobility, and despite evidence of transfer of African alleles into Middle Eastern and Central Asian leopard populations within the last 100,000 years. Our results further suggest that Asian leopards originated from a single out-of-Africa dispersal event 500-600 thousand years ago and are characterized by higher population structuring, stronger isolation by distance, and lower heterozygosity than African leopards. Taxonomic categories do not take into account the variability in depth of divergence among subspecies. The deep divergence between the African subspecies and Asian populations contrasts with the much shallower divergence among putative Asian subspecies. Reconciling genomic variation and taxonomy is likely to be a growing challenge in the genomics era.
Witt E, Svetec N, Benjamin S, Zhao L
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Transcription Factors Drive Opposite Relationships between Gene Age and Tissue Specificity in Male and Female Drosophila Gonads

Evolutionarily young genes are usually preferentially expressed in the testis across species. Although it is known that older genes are generally more broadly expressed than younger genes, the properties that shaped this pattern are unknown. Older genes may gain expression across other tissues uniformly, or faster in certain tissues than others. Using Drosophila gene expression data, we confirmed previous findings that younger genes are disproportionately testis biased and older genes are disproportionately ovary biased. We found that the relationship between gene age and expression is stronger in the ovary than any other tissue and weakest in testis. We performed ATAC-seq on Drosophila testis and found that although genes of all ages are more likely to have open promoter chromatin in testis than in ovary, promoter chromatin alone does not explain the ovary bias of older genes. Instead, we found that upstream transcription factor (TF) expression is highly predictive of gene expression in ovary but not in testis. In the ovary, TF expression is more predictive of gene expression than open promoter chromatin, whereas testis gene expression is similarly influenced by both TF expression and open promoter chromatin. We propose that the testis is uniquely able to express younger genes controlled by relatively few TFs, whereas older genes with more TF partners are broadly expressed with peak expression most likely in the ovary. The testis allows widespread baseline expression that is relatively unresponsive to regulatory changes, whereas the ovary transcriptome is more responsive to trans-regulation and has a higher ceiling for gene expression.
O'Connor S, Murphy EA, Szwed SK, Kanke M, Marchildon F, Sethupathy P, Darnell RB, Cohen P
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AGO HITS-CLIP reveals distinct miRNA regulation of white and brown adipose tissue identity

GENES & DEVELOPMENT 2021 MAY 1; 35(9-10):771-781
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that associate with Argonaute (AGO) to influence mRNA stability and translation, thereby regulating cellular determination and phenotype. While several individual miRNAs have been shown to control adipocyte function, including energy storage in white fat and energy dissipation in brown fat, a comprehensive analysis of miRNA activity in these tissues has not been performed. We used high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) to comprehensively characterize the network of high-confidence, in vivo mRNA:miRNA interactions across white and brown fat, revealing >20,000 unique AGO binding sites. When coupled with miRNA and mRNA sequencing, we found an inverse correlation between depot-enriched miRNAs and their targets. To illustrate the functionality of our HITSCLIP data set in identifying specific miRNA:mRNA interactions, we show that miR-29 is a novel regulator of leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone that coordinates food intake and energy homeostasis. Two independent miR-29 binding sites in the leptin 3 ' UTR were validated using luciferase assays, and miR-29 gain and loss of function modulated leptin mRNA and protein secretion in primary adipocytes. This work represents the only experimentally generated miRNA targetome in adipose tissue and identifies multiple regulatory pathways that may specify the unique identities of white and brown fat.