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Found 34783 matches. Displaying 71-80
Background Nalfurafine is the first clinically approved kappa-opioid receptor (KOP-r) agonist as an antipruritus drug with few side effects in humans (e.g., sedation, depression, and dysphoria). No study, however, has been done using nalfurafine on alcohol drinking in rodents or humans. Methods We investigated whether nalfurafine alone or in combination with mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r) antagonist naltrexone changed excessive alcohol drinking in male and female C57BL/6J (B6) mice subjected to a chronic intermittent-access drinking paradigm (2-bottle choice, 24-hour access every other day) for 3 weeks. Neuronal proopiomelanocortin enhancer (nPE) knockout mice with brain-specific deficiency of beta-endorphin (endogenous ligand of MOP-r) were used as a genetic control for the naltrexone effects. Results Single administration of nalfurafine decreased alcohol intake and preference in both male and female B6 mice in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with nor-BNI (a selective KOP-r antagonist) blocked the nalfurafine effect on alcohol drinking, indicating a KOP-r-mediated mechanism. Pharmacological effects of a 5-dosing nalfurafine regimen were further evaluated: The repeated nalfurafine administrations decreased alcohol consumption without showing any blunted effects, suggesting nalfurafine did not develop a tolerance after the multidosing regimen tested. Nalfurafine did not produce any sedation (spontaneous locomotor activity), anhedonia-like (sucrose preference test), anxiety-like (elevated plus maze test), or dysphoria-like (conditioned place aversion test) behaviors, suggesting that nalfurafine had few side effects. Investigating synergistic effects between low-dose naltrexone and nalfurafine, we found that single combinations of nalfurafine and naltrexone, at doses lower than individual effective dose, profoundly decreased excessive alcohol intake in both sexes. The effect of nalfurafine on decreasing alcohol consumption was confirmed in nPE-/- mice, suggesting independent mechanisms by which nalfurafine and naltrexone reduced alcohol drinking. Conclusion The clinically utilized KOP-r agonist nalfurafine in combination with low-dose naltrexone has potential in alcoholism treatment.
Czarnowicki T, He H, Leonard A, Kim HJ, Kameyama N, Pavel AB, Li R, Estrada Y, Wen HC, Kimmel GW, Kim HJ, Chima M, Lebwohl M, Krueger JG, Guttman-Yassky E
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Blood endotyping distinguishes the profile of vitiligo from that of other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases

Background: Peripheral blood skin-homing/cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) T cells emerge as biomarkers of cutaneous immune activation in patients with inflammatory skin diseases (atopic dermatitis [AD] and alopecia areata [AA]). However, blood phenotyping across these subsets is not yet available in patients with vitiligo. Objective: We sought to measure cytokine production by circulating skin-homing (CLA(+)) versus systemic (CLA(-)) "polar'' CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and activated T-cell subsets in patients with vitiligo compared with patients with AA, AD, or psoriasis and control subjects. Methods: Flow cytometry was used to measure levels of the cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-13, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 in CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells in the blood of 19 patients with moderate-to-severe nonsegmental/generalized vitiligo, moderate-to-severe AA (n = 32), psoriasis (n = 24), or AD (n = 43) and control subjects (n = 30). Unsupervised clustering differentiated subjects into groups based on cellular frequencies. Results: Patients with Vitiligo showed the highest CLA(+)/CLA(-) T(H)1/type 1 cytotoxic T-cell polarization, with parallel T(H)2/T(H)9/T(H)17/T(H)22 level increases to levels often greater than those seen in patients with AA, AD, or psoriasis (P < .05). Total regulatory T-cell counts were lower in patients with vitiligo than in control subjects and patients with AD or psoriasis (P < .001). Vitiligo severity correlated with levels of multiple cytokines (P < .1), whereas duration was linked with IFN-gamma and IL-17 levels (P < .04). Patients and control subjects grouped into separate clusters based on blood biomarkers. Conclusions: Vitiligo is characterized by a multicytokine polarization among circulating skin-homing and systemic subsets, which differentiates it from other inflammatory/autoimmune skin diseases. Future targeted therapies should delineate the relative contribution of each cytokine axis to disease perpetuation.
Abel GJ, Cohen JE
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Bilateral international migration flow estimates for 200 countries

SCIENTIFIC DATA 2019 JUN 17; 6(?):? Article 82
Data on stocks and flows of international migration are necessary to understand migrant patterns and trends and to monitor and evaluate migration-relevant international development agendas. Many countries do not publish data on bilateral migration flows. At least six methods have been proposed recently to estimate bilateral migration flows between all origin-destination country pairs based on migrant stock data published by the World Bank and United Nations. We apply each of these methods to the latest available stock data to provide six estimates of five-year bilateral migration flows between 1990 and 2015. To assess the resulting estimates, we correlate estimates of six migration measures from each method with equivalent reported data where possible. Such systematic efforts at validation have largely been neglected thus far. We show that the correlation between the reported data and the estimates varies widely among different migration measures, over space, and over time. We find that the two methods using a closed demographic accounting approach perform consistently better than the four other estimation approaches.
Varble A, Marraffini LA
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Three New Cs for CRISPR: Collateral, Communicate, Cooperate

TRENDS IN GENETICS 2019 JUN; 35(6):446-456
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci and their associated (cas) genes provide protection against invading phages and plasmids in prokaryotes. Typically, short sequences are captured from the genome of the invader, integrated into the CRISPR locus, and transcribed into short RNAs that direct RNA-guided Cas nucleases to the nucleic acids of the invader for their degradation. Recent work in the field has revealed unexpected features of the CRISPR-Cas mechanism: (i) collateral, nonspecific, cleavage of host nucleic acids; (ii) secondary messengers that amplify the immune response; and (iii) immunosuppression of CRISPR targeting by phage-encoded inhibitors. Here, we review these new and exciting findings.
Varble A, Meaden S, Barrangou R, Westra ER, Marraffini LA
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Recombination between phages and CRISPR-cas loci facilitates horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci

NATURE MICROBIOLOGY 2019 JUN; 4(6):956-963
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) loci and their associated (cas) genes encode an adaptive immune system that protects prokaryotes from viral(1) and plasmid(2) invaders. Following viral (phage) infection, a small fraction of the prokaryotic cells are able to integrate a small sequence of the invader's genome into the CRISPR array(1). These sequences, known as spacers, are transcribed and processed into small CRISPR RNA guides(3-5) that associate with Cas nucleases to specify a viral target for destruction(6-9). Although CRISPR-cas loci are widely distributed throughout microbial genomes and often display hallmarks of horizontal gene transfer(10)(-12), the drivers of CRISPR dissemination remain unclear. Here, we show that spacers can recombine with phage target sequences to mediate a form of specialized transduction of CRISPR elements. Phage targets in phage 85, Phi NM1, Phi NM4 and Phi 12 can recombine with spacers in either chromosomal or plasmid-borne CRISPR loci in Staphylococcus, leading to either the transfer of CRISPR-adjacent genes or the propagation of acquired immunity to other bacteria in the population, respectively. Our data demonstrate that spacer sequences not only specify the targets of Cas nucleases but also can promote horizontal gene transfer.
Murthy S, Kane GA, Katchur NJ, Mejia PSL, Obiofuma G, Buschman TJ, McEwen BS, Gould E
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Perineuronal Nets, Inhibitory Interneurons, and Anxiety-Related Ventral Hippocampal Neuronal Oscillations Are Altered by Early Life Adversity

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2019 JUN 15; 85(12):1011-1020
BACKGROUND: In humans, accumulated adverse experiences during childhood increase the risk of anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In rodents, the ventral hippocampus (vHIP) is associated with anxiety regulation, and lesions in this region alter both anxiety-like behavior and activity levels. Neuronal oscillations in the vHIP of the theta frequency range (4-12 Hz) have been implicated in anxious states and derive in part from the activity of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus, some of which are enwrapped with perineuronal nets (PNNs), extracellular matrix structures known to regulate plasticity. We sought to investigate the associations among early life stress-induced anxiety and hyperactivity with vHIP neuronal oscillations, inhibitory interneurons, and PNNs in mice. METHODS: We used repeated maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW) to model accumulated early life adversity in mouse offspring and studied the underlying cellular and electrophysiological changes in the vHIP that are associated with excessive anxiety and hyperactivity. RESULTS: We found increased anxiety-like behavior and activity levels in MSEW adult males, along with increased theta power and enhanced theta-gamma coupling in the vHIP. MSEW mice showed reduced intensity of parvalbumin as well as increased PNN intensity around parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the vHIP. We further observed that MSEW increased orthodenticle homeobox protein 2, a transcription factor promoting PNN development, in the choroid plexus, where it is produced, as well as in parvalbumin-positive interneurons, where it is sequestered. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise the possibility of causal links among parvalbumin-positive interneurons, PNNs, orthodenticle homeobox protein 2, and MSEW-induced anxiety and hyperactivity.
Smith T, Cunningham-Rundles C
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Primary B-cell immunodeficiencies

HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY 2019 JUN; 80(6):351-362
Primary B-cell immunodeficiencies refer to diseases resulting from impaired antibody production due to either molecular defects intrinsic to B-cells or a failure of interaction between B-cells and T-cells. Patients typically have recurrent infections and can vary with presentation and complications depending upon where the defect has occurred in B-cell development or the degree of functional impairment. In this review, we describe B-cell specific immune defects categorized by presence or absence of peripheral B-cells, immunoglobulins isotypes and evidence of antibody impairment.
Tamari R, Rapaport F, Zhang N, McNamara C, Kuykendall A, Sallman DA, Komrokji R, Arruda A, Najfeld V, Sandy L, Medina J, Litvin R, Famulare CA, Patel MA, Maloy M, Castro-Malaspina H, Giralt SA, Weinberg RS, Mascarenhas JO, Mesa R, Rondelli D, Dueck AC, Levine RL, Gupta V, Hoffman R, Rampal RK
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Impact of High-Molecular-Risk Mutations on Transplantation Outcomes in Patients with Myelofibrosis

Mutational profiling has demonstrated utility in predicting the likelihood of disease progression in patients with myelofibrosis (MF). However, there is limited data regarding the prognostic utility of genetic profiling in MF patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We performed high-throughput sequencing of 585 genes on pre-transplant samples from 101 patients with MF who underwent allo-HCT and evaluated the association of mutations and clinical variables with transplantation outcomes. Overall survival (OS) at 5 years post-transplantation was 52%, and relapse-free survival (RFS) was 51.1 % for this cohort. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) accounted for most deaths. Patient's age, donor's age, donor type, and Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System score at diagnosis did not predict for outcomes. Mutations known to be associated with increased risk of disease progression, such as ASXL1, SRSF2, IDH1/2, EZH2, and TP53, did not impact OS or RFS. The presence of U2AFI (P=.007) or DNMT3A (P=.034) mutations was associated with worse OS. A Mutation-Enhanced International Prognostic Scoring System 70 score was available for 80 patients (79%), and there were no differences in outcomes between patients with high risk scores and those with intermediate and low risk scores. Collectively, these data identify mutational predictors of outcome in MF patients undergoing allo-HCT. These genetic biomarkers in conjunction with clinical variables may have important utility in guiding transplantation decision making. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Yuferov V, Randesi M, Butelman ER, van den Brink W, Blanken P, van Ree JM, Ott J, Kreek MJ
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Association of variants of prodynorphin promoter 68-bp repeats in caucasians with opioid dependence diagnosis: Effect on age trajectory of heroin use

NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS 2019 JUN 21; 704(?):100-105
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (Dyn/KOR) system is involved in reward processing and dysphoria/anhedonia. Exposure to mu-opioid receptor agonists such as heroin increases expression of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) in the brain. In this study in a Caucasian cohort, we examined the association of the functional PDYN 68-bp repeat polymorphism with opioid use disorders. In this case-control study, 554 subjects with Caucasian ancestry (142 healthy controls, 153 opioid-exposed, but never opioid dependent, NOD, and 259 with an opioid dependence diagnosis, OD) were examined for association of the PDYN 68-bp repeats with the diagnosis of opioid dependence (DSM-IV criteria), with a dimensional measure of heroin exposure (KMSK scale), and age trajectory parameters of heroin use (age of heroin first use, and age of onset of heaviest use). The PDYN 68-bp repeat genotype (classified as: "short-short" [SS], "long-long" [LL], and "short-long" [SL], based on the number of repeats) was not associated with categorical opioid dependence diagnoses. However, the LL genotype was associated with later age of first heroin use than the SS + SL genotype (19 versus 18 years; p < 0.01). This was also confirmed by a significant positive correlation between the number of repeats and the age of first use of heroin, in volunteers with OD (Spearman r = 0.16; p = 0.01). This suggests that the functional PDYN 68-bp repeat genotype is associated with the age of first use of heroin in Caucasians diagnosed with opioid dependence.
Visvanathan S, Baum P, Vinisko R, Schmid R, Flack M, Lalovic B, Kleiner O, Fuentes-Duculan J, Garcet S, Davis JW, Grebe KM, Fine JS, Padula SJ, Krueger JG
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Psoriatic skin molecular and histopathologic profiles after treatment with risankizumab versus ustekinumab

Background: IL-23 contributes to the activation, maintenance, and proliferation of TH17 cells and plays a major role in psoriasis pathophysiology. IL-23p19 inhibition with risankizumab resulted in superior clinical responses in patients with psoriasis compared with ustekinumab (dual IL-12/IL-23 inhibitor), but comparative molecular effects have not been established. Objective: We investigated the similarities and differences in molecular and histopathologic profiles in skin lesions from patients with psoriasis receiving risankizumab versus ustekinumab at an early time point. Methods: Lesional skin biopsy samples from 81 patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis participating in 2 different studies (a phase I risankizumab study and a phase II study of risankizumab vs ustekinumab) were analyzed by using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and RNA sequencing. Results: Risankizumab induced a rapid decrease in levels of proteins and transcriptomic biomarkers associated with the IL-23 pathway, which were maintained through 8 weeks. At week 4, risankizumab decreased histopathologic expression of biomarkers, including K16, Ki67, CD3, lipocalin-2, CD11c, dendritic cell lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein, beta-defensin 2, and S100A7; global histopathologic scoring revealed that 54% and 69% of patients treated with 90 or 180 mg of risankizumab, respectively, were graded as experiencing "excellent improvement'' versus 29% of patients treated with ustekinumab. At week 4, there was a common decrease in expression of 2645 genes expressed in lesional skin between patients receiving risankizumab and ustekinumab and a significant decrease in 2682 genes unique to risankizumab treatment. Risankizumab more strongly downregulated expression of genes associated with keratinocytes, epidermal cells, and monocytes, versus ustekinumab. Conclusion: Risankizumab demonstrated more pronounced changes in the molecular and histopathologic profile of psoriatic skin lesions compared with ustekinumab at week 4.