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Found 36319 matches. Displaying 71-80
Kaustio M, Nayebzadeh N, Hinttala R, Tapiainen T, Astrom P, Mamia K, Pernaa N, Lehtonen J, Glumoff V, Rahikkala E, Honkila M, Olsen P, Hassinen A, Polso M, Al Sukaiti N, Al Shekaili J, Al Kindi M, Al Hashmi N, Almusa H, Bulanova D, Haapaniemi E, Chen P, Suo-Palosaari M, Vieira P, Tuominen H, Kokkonen H, Al Macki N, Al Habsi H, Lopponen T, Rantala H, Pietiainen V, Zhang SY, Renko M, Hautala T, Al Farsi T, Uusimaa J, Saarela J
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Loss of DIAPH1 causes SCBMS, combined immunodeficiency, and mitochondrial dysfunction

JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2021 AUG; 148(2):599-611
Background: Homozygous loss of DIAPH1 results in seizures, cortical blindness, and microcephaly syndrome (SCBMS). We studied 5 Finnish and 2 Omani patients with loss of DIAPH1 presenting with SCBMS, mitochondrial dysfunction, and immunodeficiency. Objective: We sought to further characterize phenotypes and disease mechanisms associated with loss of DIAPH1. Methods: Exome sequencing, genotyping and haplotype analysis, B- and T-cell phenotyping, in vitro lymphocyte stimulation assays, analyses of mitochondrial function, immunofluorescence staining for cytoskeletal proteins and mitochondria, and CRISPR-Cas9 DIAPH1 knockout in heathy donor PBMCs were used. Results: Genetic analyses found all Finnish patients homozygous for a rare DIAPH1 splice-variant (NM_005219:c.68411G>A) enriched in the Finnish population, and Omani patients homozygous for a previously described pathogenic DIAPH1 frameshift-variant (NM_005219:c.2769delT;p.F923fs). In addition to microcephaly, epilepsy, and cortical blindness characteristic to SCBMS, the patients presented with infection susceptibility due to defective lymphocyte maturation and 3 patients developed B-cell lymphoma. Patients' immunophenotype was characterized by poor lymphocyte activation and proliferation, defective B-cell maturation, and lack of naive T cells. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of DIAPH1 in PBMCs from healthy donors replicated the T-cell activation defect. Patient-derived peripheral blood T cells exhibited impaired adhesion and inefficient microtubule-organizing center repositioning to the immunologic synapse. The clinical symptoms and laboratory tests also suggested mitochondrial dysfunction. Experiments with immortalized, patient-derived fibroblasts indicated that DIAPH1 affects the amount of complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that individuals with SCBMS can have combined immune deficiency and implicate defective cytoskeletal organization and mitochondrial dysfunction in SCBMS pathogenesis.
Johnson DS, Deneau T, Toledo-Crow R, Simon SM
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Microscope Enclosure for Temperature Regulation and Light Isolation

APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL 2021 AUG; 11(15):? Article 6812
Featured Application Here we present the design of a temperature regulation and light isolation microscope enclosure. This design can be readily adapted to the specific configurations of a custom imaging system. Light isolation and temperature regulation are often required for microscopic imaging. Commercial enclosures are available to satisfy these requirements, but they are often not flexible to the variety of custom systems found in research laboratories. We present the design for an affordable enclosure which utilizes aluminum t-slot profiles to support opaque expanded PVC panels. Temperature is regulated by exchanging the enclosure air with an external heater. In addition, we demonstrate baffles integrated into the enclosure improve temperature uniformity. Example designs for both upright and inverted microscopes are given, providing a starting point for creating a system-specific custom enclosure.
Gedman G, Haase B, Durieux G, Biegler MT, Fedrigo O, Jarvis ED
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As above, so below: Whole transcriptome profiling demonstrates strong molecular similarities between avian dorsal and ventral pallial subdivisions

JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 2021 AUG; 529(12):3222-3246
Over the last two decades, beginning with the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum in 2000, major revisions have been made to our understanding of the organization and nomenclature of the avian brain. However, there are still unresolved questions on avian pallial organization, particularly whether the cells above the vestigial ventricle represent distinct populations to those below it or similar populations. To test these two hypotheses, we profiled the transcriptomes of the major avian pallial subdivisions dorsal and ventral to the vestigial ventricle boundary using RNA sequencing and a new zebra finch genome assembly containing about 22,000 annotated, complete genes. We found that the transcriptomes of neural populations above and below the ventricle were remarkably similar. Each subdivision in dorsal pallium (Wulst) had a corresponding molecular counterpart in the ventral pallium (dorsal ventricular ridge). In turn, each corresponding subdivision exhibited shared gene co-expression modules that contained gene sets enriched in functional specializations, such as anatomical structure development, synaptic transmission, signaling, and neurogenesis. These findings are more in line with the continuum hypothesis of avian brain subdivision organization above and below the vestigial ventricle space, with the pallium as a whole consisting of four major cell populations (intercalated pallium, mesopallium, hyper-nidopallium, and arcopallium) instead of seven (hyperpallium apicale, interstitial hyperpallium apicale, intercalated hyperpallium, hyperpallium densocellare, mesopallium, nidopallium, and arcopallium). We suggest adopting a more streamlined hierarchical naming system that reflects the robust similarities in gene expression, neural connectivity motifs, and function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of overall vertebrate brain evolution.
Chen CC, Chen BR, Wang YN, Curman P, Beilinson HA, Brecht RM, Liu CC, Farrell RJ, de Juan-Sanz J, Charbonnier LM, Kajimura S, Ryan TA, Schatz DG, Chatila TA, Wikstrom JD, Tyler JK, Sleckman BP
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Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) activity is required for V(D)J recombination

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2021 AUG 2; 218(8):? Article e20201708
A whole-genome CRISPR/Cas9 screen identified ATP2A2, the gene encoding the Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) 2 protein, as being important for V(D)J recombination. SERCAs are ER transmembrane proteins that pump Ca2+ from the cytosol into the ER lumen to maintain the ER Ca2+ reservoir and regulate cytosolic Ca2+-dependent processes. In preB cells, loss of SERCA2 leads to reduced V(D)J recombination kinetics due to diminished RAG-mediated DNA cleavage. SERCA2 deficiency in B cells leads to increased expression of SERCA3, and combined loss of SERCA2 and SERCA3 results in decreased ER Ca2+ levels, increased cytosolic Ca2+ levels, reduction in RAG1 and RAG2 gene expression, and a profound block in V(D)J recombination. Mice with B cells deficient in SERCA2 and humans with Darier disease, caused by heterozygous ATP2A2 mutations, have reduced numbers of mature B cells. We conclude that SERCA proteins modulate intracellular Ca2+ levels to regulate RAG1 and RAG2 gene expression and V(D)J recombination and that defects in SERCA functions cause lymphopenia.
Biegler MT, Cantin LJ, Scarano DL, Jarvis ED
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Controlling for activity-dependent genes and behavioral states is critical for determining brain relationships within and across species

JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 2021 AUG; 529(12):3206-3221
The genetic profile of vertebrate pallia has long driven debate on homology across distantly related clades. Based on an expression profile of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 in mouse and chicken brains, Puelles et al. (The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2016, 524, 665-703) concluded that the avian lateral mesopallium is homologous to the mammalian claustrum, and the medial mesopallium homologous to the insula cortex. They argued that their findings contradict conclusions by Jarvis et al. (The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2013, 521, 3614-3665) and Chen et al. (The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2013, 521, 3666-3701) that the hyperpallium densocellare is instead a mesopallium cell population, and by Suzuki and Hirata (Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 2014, 8, 783) that the avian mesopallium is homologous to mammalian cortical layers 2/3. Here, we find that NR4A2 is an activity-dependent gene and cannot be used to determine brain organization or species relationships without considering behavioral state. Activity-dependent NR4A2 expression has been previously demonstrated in the rodent brain, with the highest induction occurring within the claustrum, amygdala, deep and superficial cortical layers, and hippocampus. In the zebra finch, we find that NR4A2 is constitutively expressed in the arcopallium, but induced in parts of the mesopallium, and in sparse cells within the hyperpallium, depending on animal stimulus or behavioral state. Basal and induced NR4A2 expression patterns do not discount the previously named avian hyperpallium densocellare as dorsal mesopallium and conflict with proposed homology between the avian mesopallium and mammalian claustrum/insula at the exclusion of other brain regions. Broadly, these findings highlight the importance of controlling for behavioral state and neural activity to genetically define brain cell population relationships within and across species.
Wang ZJ, Muecksch F, Schaefer-Babajew D, Finkin S, Viant C, Gaebler C, Hoffmann HH, Barnes CO, Cipolla M, Ramos V, Oliveira TY, Cho AL, Schmidt F, Da Silva J, Bednarski E, Aguado L, Yee J, Daga M, Turroja M, Millard KG, Jankovic M, Gazumyan A, Zhao Z, Rice CM, Bieniasz PD, Caskey M, Hatziioannou T, Nussenzweig MC
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Naturally enhanced neutralizing breadth against SARS-CoV-2 one year after infection

NATURE 2021 JUL 15; 595(7867):426-431
More than one year after its inception, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains difficult to control despite the availability of several working vaccines. Progress in controlling the pandemic is slowed by the emergence of variants that appear to be more transmissible and more resistant to antibodies(1,2). Here we report on a cohort of 63 individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, 41% of whom also received mRNA vaccines(3,4). In the absence of vaccination, antibody reactivity to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing activity and the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remain relatively stable between 6 and 12 months after infection. Vaccination increases all components of the humoral response and, as expected, results in serum neutralizing activities against variants of concern similar to or greater than the neutralizing activity against the original Wuhan Hu-1 strain achieved by vaccination of naive individuals(2,5-8). The mechanism underlying these broad-based responses involves ongoing antibody somatic mutation, memory B cell clonal turnover and development of monoclonal antibodies that are exceptionally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutations, including those found in the variants of concern(4,9). In addition, B cell clones expressing broad and potent antibodies are selectively retained in the repertoire over time and expand markedly after vaccination. The data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting and that convalescent individuals who receive available mRNA vaccines will produce antibodies and memory B cells that should be protective against circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Lu SX, De Neef E, Thomas JD, Sabio E, Rousseau B, Gigoux M, Knorr DA, Greenbaum B, Elhanati Y, Hogg SJ, Chow A, Ghosh A, Xie A, Zamarin D, Cui D, Erickson C, Singer M, Cho HN, Wang ER, Lu B, Durham BH, Shah H, Chowell D, Gabel AM, Shen YD, Liu J, Jin J, Rhodes MC, Taylor RE, Molina H, Wolchok JD, Merghoub T, Diaz LA, Abdel-Wahab O, Bradley RK
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Pharmacologic modulation of RNA splicing enhances anti-tumor immunity

CELL 2021 JUL 22; 184(15):4032-4047.e31 Article e31
Although mutations in DNA are the best-studied source of neoantigens that determine response to immune checkpoint blockade, alterations in RNA splicing within cancer cells could similarly result in neoepitope production. However, the endogenous antigenicity and clinical potential of such splicing-derived epitopes have not been tested. Here, we demonstrate that pharmacologic modulation of splicing via specific drug classes generates bona fide neoantigens and elicits anti-tumor immunity, augmenting checkpoint immunotherapy. Splicing modulation inhibited tumor growth and enhanced checkpoint blockade in a manner dependent on host T cells and peptides presented on tumor MHC class I. Splicing modulation induced stereotyped splicing changes across tumor types, altering the MHC I-bound immunopeptidome to yield splicing-derived neoepitopes that trigger an anti-tumor T cell response in vivo. These data definitively identify splicing modulation as an untapped source of immunogenic peptides and provide ameans to enhance response to checkpoint blockade that is readily translatable to the clinic.
Loukeris M, Sanghai ZA, Vendome J, Hendrickson WA, Kloss B, Mancia F
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Fine Sampling of Sequence Space for Membrane Protein Structural Biology

JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 2021 JUL 23; 433(15):? Article 167055
We describe an enhancement of traditional genomics-based approaches to improve the success of structure determination of membrane proteins. Following a broad screen of sequence space to identify initial expression-positive targets, we employ a second step to select orthologs with closely related sequences to these hits. We demonstrate that a greater percentage of these latter targets express well and are stable in detergent, increasing the likelihood of identifying candidates that will ultimately yield structural information. (C) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brivanlou AH, Gleicher N
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The evolution of our understanding of human development over the last 10 years

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2021 JUL 29; 12(1):? Article 4615
As it fulfills an irresistible need to understand our own origins, research on human development occupies a unique niche in scientific and medical research. In this Comment, we explore the progress in our understanding of human development over the past 10 years. The focus is on basic research, clinical applications, and ethical considerations.
Gilligan CJ, Cohen SP, Fischetti VA, Hirsch JA, Czaplewski LG
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Reply to a letter to the editor regarding "Chronic low back pain, bacterial infection and treatment with antibiotics"

SPINE JOURNAL 2021 JUL; 21(7):1231-1232