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Found 34320 matches. Displaying 71-80
Deng PJ, Zhou YQ, Jiang JY, Li HJ, Tian W, Cao YH, Qin Y, Kim J, Roeder RG, Patel DJ, Wang ZX
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Transcriptional elongation factor Paf1 core complex adopts a spirally wrapped solenoidal topology

The polymerase-associated factor 1 (Paf1) complex is a general transcription elongation factor of RNA polymerase II, which is composed of five core subunits, Paf1, Ctr9, Cdc73, Leo1, and Rtf1, and functions as a diverse platform that broadly affects gene expression genome-wide. In this study, we solved the 2.9-A crystal structure of the core region composed of the Ctr9-Paf1-Cdc73 ternary complex from a thermophilic fungi, which provides a structural perspective of the molecular details of the organization and interactions involving the Paf1 subunits in the core complex. We find that Ctr9 is composed of 21 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that wrap three circular turns in a right-handed superhelical manner around the N-terminal region of an elongated singlepolypeptide-chain scaffold of Paf1. The Cdc73 fragment is positioned within the surface groove of Ctr9, where it contacts mainly with Ctr9 and minimally with Paf1. We also identified that the Paf1 complex preferentially binds single-strand-containing DNAs. Our work provides structural insights into the overall architecture of the Paf1 complex and paves the road forward for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the Paf1 complex in transcriptional regulation.
Horn Z, Behesti H, Hatten ME
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N-cadherin provides a cis and trans ligand for astrotactin that functions in glial-guided neuronal migration

Prior studies demonstrate that astrotactin (ASTN1) provides a neuronal receptor for glial-guided CNS migration. Here we report that ASTN1 binds N-cadherin (CDH2) and that the ASTN1: CDH2 interaction supports cell-cell adhesion. To test the function of ASTN1: CDH2 binding in glial-guided neuronal migration, we generated a conditional loss of Cdh2 in cerebellar granule cells and in glia. Granule cell migration was slowed in cerebellar slice cultures after a conditional loss of neuronal Cdh2, and more severe migration defects occurred after a conditional loss of glial Cdh2. Expression in granule cells of a mutant form of ASTN1 that does not bind CDH2 also slowed migration. Moreover, in vitro chimeras of granule cells and glia showed impaired neuron-glia attachment in the absence of glial, but not neuronal, Cdh2. Thus, cis and trans bindings of ASTN1 to neuronal and glial CDH2 form an asymmetric neuron-glial bridge complex that promotes glial-guided neuronal migration.
De Bruyne M, Hoste L, Bogaert DJ, Van den Bossche L, Tavernier SJ, Parthoens E, Migaud M, Konopnicki D, Yombi JC, Lambrecht BN, van Daele S, de Medeiros AKA, Brochez L, Beyaert R, De Baere E, Puel A, Casanova JL, Goffard JC, Savvides SN, Haerynck F, Staal J, Dullaers M
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A CARD9 Founder Mutation Disrupts NF-kappa B Signaling by Inhibiting BCL10 and MALT1 Recruitment and Signalosome Formation

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 2018 OCT 31; 9(?):? Article 2366
Background: Inherited CARD9 deficiency constitutes a primary immunodeficiency predisposing uniquely to chronic and invasive fungal infections. Certain mutations are shown to negatively impact CARD9 protein expression and/or NF-kappa B activation, but the underlying biochemical mechanism remains to be fully understood. Objectives: To investigate a possible founder origin of a known CARD9 R70W mutation in five families of Turkish origin. To explore the biochemical mechanism of immunodeficiency by R70W CARD9. Methods: We performed haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers and SNPs. We designed a model system exploiting a gain-of-function (GOF) CARD9 L213L1 mutant that triggers constitutive NE-kappa B activation, analogous to an oncogenic CARD11 mutant, to study NF-KB signaling and signalosome formation. We performed reporter assays, immunoprecipitation and confocal imaging on HEK cells overexpressing different CARD9 variants. Results: We identified a common haplotype, thus providing evidence for a common Turkish founder. CARD9 R70W failed to activate NF-kappa B and abrogated NF-kappa B activation by WT CARD9 and by GOF CARD9. Notably, R70W CARD9 also exerted negative effects on NF-kappa B activation by CARD10, CARD11, and CARD14. Consistent with the NF-kappa B results, the R70W mutation prevented GOF CARD9 to pull down the signalosome partner proteins BCL10 and MALT1. This reflected into drastic reduction of BCL10 filamentous assemblies in a cellular context. Indeed, structural analysis revealed that position R70 in CARD9 maps at the putative interface between successive CARD domains in CARD9 filaments. Conclusions: The R70W mutation in CARD9 prevents NF-kappa B activation by inhibiting productive interactions with downstream BCL10 and MALT1, necessary for assembly of the filamentous CARD9-BCL10-MALT1 signalosome.
Czarnowicki T, He H, Leonard A, Malik K, Magidi S, Rangel S, Patel K, Ramsey K, Murphrey M, Song T, Estrada Y, Wen HC, Krueger JG, Guttman-Yassky E, Paller AS
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The Major Orphan Forms of Ichthyosis Are Characterized by Systemic T-Cell Activation and Th-17/Tc-17/Th-22/Tc-22 Polarization in Blood

The ichthyoses are rare skin disorders with immune and barrier aberrations. Identifying blood phenotypes may advance targeted therapeutics. We aimed to compare frequencies of skin homing/cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (+) versus systemic/cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (-) "polar" CD4(+)/CD8(+) and activated T-cell subsets in ichthyosis versus atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and control blood, with appropriate clinical correlations. Flow cytometry was used to measure IFN-gamma, IL-13, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 cytokines in CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, with inducible co-stimulator molecule and HLA-DR defining mid-and long-term T-cell activation, respectively. We compared peripheral blood from 47 patients with ichthyosis (congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, lamellar ichthyosis, epidermolytic ichthyosis, and Netherton syndrome) with 43 patients with atopic dermatitis and 24 patients with psoriasis and 59 age-matched controls. Clinical measures included the ichthyosis severity score, with subsets for erythema and scaling, trans-epidermal water loss, and pruritus. All ichthyoses had excessive inducible co-stimulator molecule activation (P<0.001), particularly epidermolytic ichthyosis. Significantly elevated IL-17-(P<0.05) and IL-22-producing (P<0.01) T cells characterized ichthyoses, mainly Netherton syndrome and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (P<0.05). Increased T helper 2/cytotoxic T cell 2/T helper 9 (P<0.05) and similar IFN-gamma frequencies (P>0.1) versus controls were also noted. IL-17/IL-22-producing cells clustered with clinical measures, whereas IFN-gamma clustered with age. Our data show peripheral blood IL-17/IL-22 activation across the ichthyoses, correlating with clinical measures. Targeted therapies should dissect the relative contribution of polar cytokines to disease pathogenesis.
Suryawanshi H, Morozov P, Straus A, Sahasrabudhe N, Max KEA, Garzia A, Kustagi M, Tuschl T, Williams Z
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A single-cell survey of the human first-trimester placenta and decidua

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2018 OCT; 4(10):? Article eaau4788
The placenta and decidua interact dynamically to enable embryonic and fetal development. Here, we report single-cell RNA sequencing of 14,341 and 6754 cells from first-trimester human placental villous and decidual tissues, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis identified major cell types, many known and some subtypes previously unknown in placental villi and decidual context. Further detailed analysis revealed proliferating subpopulations, enrichment of cell type-specific transcription factors, and putative intercellular communication in the fetomaternal microenvironment. This study provides a blueprint to further the understanding of the roles of these cells in the placenta and decidua for maintenance of early gestation as well as pathogenesis in pregnancy-related disorders.
Horman T, Fernandes MF, Zhou Y, Fuller B, Tigert M, Leri F
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An exploration of the aversive properties of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in rats

PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2018 OCT; 235(10):3055-3063
Hypoglycemia can alter arousal and negatively impact mood. This study tests the hypothesis that acute drops in glucose metabolism cause an aversive state mediated by monoamine activity. In experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were either food deprived (FD) or pre-fed (PF) and tested on conditioned place avoidance (CPA; biased place conditioning design; 3 pairings drug/vehicle, each 30 min-long) induced by the glucose antimetabolite 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG; 0, 300 or 500 mg/kg, SC). Locomotion and blood glucose were also assessed. Experiment 2 examined whether clonidine (noradrenergic alpha 2 agonist, 0, 10 or 40 mu g/kg, SC) or bupropion (monoamine reuptake blocker, 0, 10 or 30 mg/kg, SC) could alter CPA induced by 500 mg/kg 2-DG. In experiment 3, blood corticosterone (CORT) was measured in response to 500 mg/kg 2-DG, alone or in combination with 40 mu g/kg clonidine or 30 mg/kg bupropion. Finally, experiment 4 controlled for possible place conditioning induced by 10 or 40 mu g/kg clonidine, or 10 or 30 mg/kg bupropion injected without 2-DG. It was found that 2-DG increased blood glucose and produced a robust CPA. The feeding status of the animals modulated these effects, including CORT levels. Both clonidine and bupropion attenuated the effects of 2-DG on CPA and CORT, but only bupropion reversed suppression of locomotion. Taken together, these results in rats suggest that impaired glucose metabolism can negatively impact arousal and mood via effects on HPA and monoamine systems.
Boyden E, Guo S, Klein R, Rico B, Ruta V
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Building a Better Brain

CELL 2018 OCT 18; 175(3):633-634
Brown M, Cohen JE
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In a family, parameterized by theta, of non-negative random variables with finite, positive second moment, Taylor's law (TL) asserts that the population variance is proportional to a power of the population mean as theta varies: sigma(2)(theta) = alpha[mu(theta)](b) , alpha > 0. TL, sometimes called fluctuation scaling, holds widely in science, probability theory, and stochastic processes. Here we report diverse examples of TL with b = 2 (equivalent to a constant coefficient of variation) arising from a difference of random variables in normed vector spaces of dimension 1 and larger. In these examples, we compute alpha exactly using, in some cases, a simple, new technique. These examples may prove useful in future models that involve differences of random variables, including models of the spatial distribution and migration of human populations.
Nacev BA, Tap WD
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TOMAS: revisiting PARP inhibitor combination therapy

LANCET ONCOLOGY 2018 OCT; 19(10):1269-1270
Xu X, Stoyanova EI, Lemiesz AE, Xing J, Mash DC, Heintz N
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Species and cell-type properties of classically defined human and rodent neurons and glia

ELIFE 2018 OCT 15; 7(?):? Article e37551
Determination of the molecular properties of genetically targeted cell types has led to fundamental insights into mouse brain function and dysfunction. Here, we report an efficient strategy for precise exploration of gene expression and epigenetic events in specific cell types in a range of species, including postmortem human brain. We demonstrate that classically defined, homologous neuronal and glial cell types differ between rodent and human by the expression of hundreds of orthologous, cell specific genes. Confirmation that these genes are differentially active was obtained using epigenetic mapping and immunofluorescence localization. Studies of sixteen human postmortem brains revealed gender specific transcriptional differences, cell-specific molecular responses to aging, and the induction of a shared, robust response to an unknown external event evident in three donor samples. Our data establish a comprehensive approach for analysis of molecular events associated with specific circuits and cell types in a wide variety of human conditions.