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Found 34560 matches. Displaying 71-80
Li HD, Saucedo-Cuevas L, Yuan L, Ross D, Johansen A, Sands D, Stanley V, Guemez-Gamboa A, Gregor A, Evans T, Chen SB, Tan L, Molina H, Sheets N, Shiryaev SA, Terskikh AV, Gladfelter AS, Shresta S, Xu ZH, Gleeson JG
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Zika Virus Protease Cleavage of Host Protein Septin-2 Mediates Mitotic Defects in Neural Progenitors

NEURON 2019 MAR 20; 101(6):1089-1098.e4
Zika virus (ZIKV) targets neural progenitor cells in the brain, attenuates cell proliferation, and leads to cell death. Here, we describe a role for the ZIKV protease NS2B-NS3 heterodimer in mediating neurotoxicity through cleavage of a host protein required for neurogenesis. Similar to ZIKV infection, NS2B-NS3 expression led to cytokinesis defects and cell death in a protease activity-dependent fashion. Among binding partners, NS2B-NS3 cleaved Septin-2, a cytoskeletal factor involved in cytokinesis. Cleavage of Septin-2 occurred at residue 306 and forced expression of a non-cleavable Septin-2 restored cytokinesis, suggesting a direct mechanism of ZIKV-induced neural toxicity.
Spence JS, He RN, Hoffmann HH, Das T, Thinon E, Rice CM, Peng T, Chandran K, Hang HC
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IFITM3 directly engages and shuttles incoming virus particles to lysosomes

NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY 2019 MAR; 15(3):259-268
Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs 1, 2 and 3) have emerged as important innate immune effectors that prevent diverse virus infections in vertebrates. However, the cellular mechanisms and live-cell imaging of these small membrane proteins have been challenging to evaluate during viral entry of mammalian cells. Using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated IFITM-mutant cell lines, we demonstrate that human IFITM1, IFITM2 and IFITM3 act cooperatively and function in a dose-dependent fashion in interferon-stimulated cells. Through site-specific fluorophore tagging and live-cell imaging studies, we show that IFITM3 is on endocytic vesicles that fuse with incoming virus particles and enhances the trafficking of this pathogenic cargo to lysosomes. IFITM3 trafficking is specific to restricted viruses, requires S-palmitoylation and is abrogated with loss-of-function mutants. The site-specific protein labeling and live-cell imaging approaches described here should facilitate the functional analysis of host factors involved in pathogen restriction as well as their mechanisms of regulation.
Thi VLD, Wu XF, Rice CM
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Stem Cell-Derived Culture Models of Hepatitis E Virus Infection

COLD SPRING HARBOR PERSPECTIVES IN MEDICINE 2019 MAR; 9(3):? Article a031799
Similar to other hepatotropic viruses, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been notoriously difficult to propagate in cell culture, limiting studies to unravel its biology. Recently, major advances have been made by passaging primary HEV isolates and selecting variants that replicate efficiently in carcinoma cells. These adaptations, however, can alter HEV biology. We have explored human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cell (hESUiPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) as an alternative to conventional hepatoma and hepatocyte cell culture systems for HEV studies. HLCs are permissive for nonadapted HEV isolate genotypes (gt)1-4 replication and can be readily genetically manipulated. HLCs, therefore, enable studies of pan-genotype HEV biology and will serve as a platform for testing anti-HEV treatments. Finally, we discuss how hepatocyte polarity is likely an important factor in the maturation and spread of infectious HEV particles.
Botero S, Chiaroni-Clarke R, Simon SM
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Escherichia coli as a platform for the study of phosphoinositide biology

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2019 MAR; 5(3):? Article eaat4872
Despite being a minor component of cells, phosphoinositides are essential for eukaryotic membrane biology, serving as markers of organelle identity and involved in several signaling cascades. Their many functions, combined with alternative synthesis pathways, make in vivo study very difficult. In vitro studies are limited by their inability to fully recapitulate the complexities of membranes in living cells. We engineered the biosynthetic pathway for the most abundant phosphoinositides into the bacterium Escherichia coli, which is naturally devoid of this class of phospholipids. These modified E. coli, when grown in the presence of myo-inositol, incorporate phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) into their plasma membrane. We tested models of biophysical mechanisms with these phosphoinositides in a living membrane, using our system to evaluate the role of PIP2 in nonconventional protein export of human basic fibroblast growth factor 2. We found that PI alone is sufficient for the process.
Dominguez S, Flores-Montoya MG, Sobin C
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Early chronic exposure to low-level lead alters total hippocampal microglia in pre-adolescent mice

TOXICOLOGY LETTERS 2019 MAR 1; 302(?):75-82
Developmental lead (Pb) exposure alters brain function through mechanisms that are not yet understood. A previous study showed that early lead exposure reduced microglia number in the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Given the critical role of microglia in brain development, it is important to determine whether these differences are unique to the dentate gyrus, or occur throughout the hippocampus. Unbiased stereology was used to quantify microglia mean cell body number in total hippocampus, and compare the proportion of microglia in the ventral vs. dorsal regions. Total hippocampal volume was also measured and compared. The study included brain tissue from 30 pre-adolescent C57BL/6 J mice, exposed to 30 ppm Pb acetate (n = 10, mean BLL 3.4 mu g/dL at sacrifice), 330 ppm Pb acetate (n = 10, mean BLL 14.1 mu g/dL at sacrifice), or 0 ppm Pb acetate (n = 10, negative controls). In lead exposed animals, microglia mean cell body number was reduced in total hippocampus; total hippocampal volume was reduced. Importantly, effects in low-and high-dose exposure groups did not differ. Contrary to study hypotheses, the distribution of hippocampal microglia in the ventral vs. dorsal hippocampal regions did not differ. Overall, lowest and higher levels of lead exposure during development had strikingly similar disruptive effects in the neuroimmune system. Studies are needed to determine the immune and other mechanisms responsible for these effects. Future studies would benefit from larger samples to determine whether in fact there is a group by sex interaction driving the effects of early lead exposure on microglia.
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C, Vanlaer P, Vannerom D, Yonamine R, Zenoni F, Cornelis T, Dobur D, Fagot A, Gul M, Khvastunov I, Poyraz D, Roskas C, Trocino D, Tytgat M, Verbeke W, Vit M, Zaganidis N, Bakhshiansohi H, Bondu O, Brochet S, Bruno G, Caputo C, Caudron A, David P, De Visscher S, Delaere C, Delcourt M, Francois B, Giammanco A, Krintiras G, Lemaitre V, Magitteri A, Mertens A, Musich M, Piotrzkowski K, Quertenmont L, Saggio A, Marono MV, Wertz S, Zobec J, Alda WL, Alves FL, Alves GA, Brito L, Silva GC, Hensel C, Moraes A, Pol ME, Teles PR, Das Chagas EBB, Carvalho W, Chinellato J, Coelho E, Da Costa EM, Da Silveira GG, Damiao DD, De Souza SF, Guativa LMH, Malbouisson H, De Almeida MM, Herrera CM, Mundim L, Nogima H, Rosas LJS, Santoro A, Sznajder A, Thiel M, Manganote EJT, De Araujo FTD, Pereira AV, Ahuja S, Bernardes CA, Tomei TRFP, Gregores EM, Mercadante PG, Novaes SF, Padula SS, Abad DR, Vargas JCR, Aleksandrov A, Hadjiiska R, Iaydjiev P, Marinov A, Misheva M, Rodozov M, Shopova M, Sultanov G, Dimitrov 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Battilana C, Bonacorsi D, Borgonovi L, Braibant-Giacomelli S, Campanini R, Capiluppi P, Castro A, Cavallo FR, Chhibra SS, Codispoti G, Cuffiani M, Dallavalle GM, Fabbri F, Fanfani A, Fasanella D, Giacomelli P, Grandi C, Guiducci L, Iemmi F, Marcellini S, Masetti G, Montanari A, Navarria FL, Perrotta A, Rossi AM, Rovelli T, Siroli GP, Tosi N, Albergo S, Costa S, Di Mattia A, Giordano F, Potenza R, Tricomi A, Tuve C, Barbagli G, Chatterjee K, Ciulli V, Civinini C, D'Alessandro R, Focardi E, Latino G, Lenzi P, Meschini M, Paoletti S, Russo L, Sguazzoni G, Strom D, Viliani L, Benussi L, Bianco S, Fabbri F, Piccolo D, Primavera F, Calvelli V, Ferro F, Ravera F, Robutti E, Tosi S, Benaglia A, Beschi A, Brianza L, Brivio F, Ciriolo V, Dinardo ME, Fiorendi S, Gennai S, Ghezzi A, Govoni P, Malberti M, Malvezzi S, Manzoni RA, Menasce D, Moroni L, Paganoni M, Pauwels K, Pedrini D, Pigazzini S, Ragazzi S, de Fatis TT, Buontempo S, Cavallo N, Di Guida S, Fabozzi F, Fienga F, Iorio AOM, Khan WA, 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Ruggles T, Savin A, Smith N, Smith WH, Woods N
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Search for a heavy resonance decaying to a top quark and a vector-like top quark in the lepton plus jets final state in pp collisions at root s=13 TeV

EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C 2019 MAR 7; 79(3):? Article 208
A search is presented for a heavy spin- 1 resonance Z decaying to a top quark and a vector- like top quark partner T in the lepton + jets final state. The search is performed using a data set of pp collisions at a centre- of- mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb - 1 as recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in the year 2016. The analysis is optimised for final states arising from the T decay modes to a top quark and a Higgs or Z boson ( T. Ht, Zt). The event selection makes use of resolved and merged top quark decay products, as well as decays of boosted Higgs bosons and Z and W bosons using jet substructure techniques. No significant deviation from the standard model background expectation is observed. Exclusion limits on the product of the cross section and branching fraction for Z . tT, T. Ht, Zt, Wb are presented for various combinations of the Z resonance mass and the vector- like T quark mass. These results represent the most stringent limits to date for the decay mode Z . tT. tHt. In a benchmark model with extra dimensions, invoking a heavy spin- 1 resonance G *, masses of the G * between 1.5 and 2.3 TeV and between 2.0 and 2.4 TeV are excluded for T masses of 1.2 and 1.5 TeV, respectively.
Liberatore RA, Ho DD
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The Miami Monkey: A Sunny Alternative to the Berlin Patient

IMMUNITY 2019 MAR 19; 50(3):537-539
Curing HIV infection has been impossible, with the exception of the "Berlin Patient.'' Martinez-Navio et al. (2019) in Miami herein present a rare monkey whose virus was controlled for >3 years after a single genetic intervention that led to persistent production of HIV-neutralizing antibodies in vivo.
Gonzaga NA, Awata WMC, Tanus-Santos JE, Padovan JC, Tirapelli CR
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Mechanisms underlying vascular hypocontractility induced by ethanol withdrawal: Role of cyclooxygenase 2-derived prostacyclin

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 2019 MAR 15; 847(?):103-112
The effects on the vasculature produced by ethanol withdrawal include both vasodilatation and hypocontractility, although a detailed biochemical understanding of these processes is yet to be accomplished. Here, we sought to investigate some of the mechanisms underlying vascular hypocontractility induced by ethanol withdrawal. Male Wistar rats were treated with increasing doses of 3-9% ethanol (v/v) for 21 days and the impact of ethanol withdrawal on the vascular function was assessed 48 h after immediate ethanol suspension. Endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings showed a reduced contractile response to phenylephrine, angiotensin II, serotonin and KC1 after ethanol withdrawal, but the same phenomenon was not observed in endothelium-intact rings. Indomethacin, but not L-NAME, tiron, PEG-catalase and SC560, restored the contractile response to phenylephrine of endothelium-denuded aortas from abstinent rats. Hyporeactivity to phenylephrine induced by ethanol withdrawal was reversed by SC236, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor. Similarly, Ro1138452, a selective prostacyclin IP receptor antagonist, reversed vascular hypocontractility induced by ethanol withdrawal. Increased concentrations of 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F-1(alpha), a stable product of PGI(2), was detected in endothelium-denuded aortas from abstinent rats, and this response was prevented by indomethacin. However, no changes in aortic PGE(2) levels were detected after ethanol withdrawal. In situ quantification of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) using fluorescent dyes revealed that ethanol withdrawal decreased the levels of these two compounds in the tunica media. Our studies show that the vascular hypocontractility induced by ethanol withdrawal is independent of the endothelium and it is mediated by PGI(2) derived from COX-2.
Lebon P, Crow YJ, Casanova JL, Gresser I
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Pathological consequences of excess of interferon in vivo

M S-MEDECINE SCIENCES 2019 MAR; 35(3):232-235
In this brief review, the authors present a history of the different aspects of the scientific puzzle leading from pioneer animal studies and astute clinical experimental observations to a mature appreciation of the deleterious role of excess of a type I interferon in human pathology.
Hernandez JCC, Bracko O, Kersbergen CJ, Muse V, Haft-Javaherian M, Berg M, Park L, Vinarcsik LK, Ivasyk I, Rivera DA, Kang YM, Cortes-Canteli M, Peyrounette M, Doyeux V, Smith A, Zhou J, Otte G, Beverly JD, Davenport E, Davit Y, Lin CP, Strickland S, Iadecola C, Lorthois S, Nishimura N, Schaffer CB
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Neutrophil adhesion in brain capillaries reduces cortical blood flow and impairs memory function in Alzheimer's disease mouse models

NATURE NEUROSCIENCE 2019 MAR; 22(3):413-420
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) reductions in Alzheimer's disease patients and related mouse models have been recognized for decades, but the underlying mechanisms and resulting consequences for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis remain poorly understood. In APP/PS1 and 5xFAD mice we found that an increased number of cortical capillaries had stalled blood flow as compared to in wild-type animals, largely due to neutrophils that had adhered in capillary segments and blocked blood flow. Administration of antibodies against the neutrophil marker Ly6G reduced the number of stalled capillaries, leading to both an immediate increase in CBF and rapidly improved performance in spatial and working memory tasks. This study identified a previously uncharacterized cellular mechanism that explains the majority of the CBF reduction seen in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and demonstrated that improving CBF rapidly enhanced short-term memory function. Restoring cerebral perfusion by preventing neutrophil adhesion may provide a strategy for improving cognition in Alzheimer's disease patients.