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Found 36604 matches. Displaying 71-80
Barrangou R, Marraffini LA
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Turning CRISPR on with antibiotics

CELL HOST & MICROBE 2022 JAN 12; 30(1):12-14
CRISPR-Cas systems have the ability to integrate invasive DNA sequences to build adaptive immunity in bacteria. In this issue Dimitriu et al. show bacteriostatic antibiotics prompt CRISPR acquisition events, illustrating how environmental conditions affect complex dynamics between host and virus and the corresponding biological and genetic arms race.
Tahtouh T, Durieu E, Villiers B, Bruyere C, Nguyen TL, Fant X, Ahn KH, Khurana L, Deau E, Lindberg MF, Severe E, Miege F, Roche D, Limanton E, L'helgoual'ch JM, Burgy G, Guiheneuf S, Herault Y, Kendall DA, Carreaux F, Bazureau JP, Meijer L
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Structure-Activity Relationship in the Leucettine Family of Kinase Inhibitors

The protein kinase DYRK1A is involved in Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, diabetes, viral infections, and leukemia. Leucettines, a family of 2-aminoimidazolin-4-ones derived from the marine sponge alkaloid Leucettamine B, have been developed as pharmacological inhibitors of DYRKs ( dual specificity, tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinases) and CLKs (cdc2-like kinases). We report here on the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 68 Leucettines. Leucettines were tested on 11 purified kinases and in 5 cellular assays: (1) CLK1 pre-mRNA splicing, (2) Threonine-212-Tau phosphorylation, (3) glutamate-induced cell death, (4) autophagy and (5) antagonism of ligand-activated cannabinoid receptor CB1. The Leucettine SAR observed for DYRK1A is essentially identical for CLK1, CLK4, DYRK1B, and DYRK2. DYRK3 and CLK3 are less sensitive to Leucettines. In contrast, the cellular SAR highlights correlations between inhibition of specific kinase targets and some but not all cellular effects. Leucettines deserve further development as potential therapeutics against various diseases on the basis of their molecular targets and cellular effects.
Akey CW, Singh D, Ouch C, Echeverria I, Nudelman I, Varberg JM, Yu ZL, Fang F, Shi Y, Wang JJ, Salzberg D, Song KK, Xu C, Gumbart JC, Suslov S, Unruh J, Jaspersen SL, Chait BT, Sali A, Fernandez-Martinez J, Ludtke SJ, Villa E, Rout MP
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Comprehensive structure and functional adaptations of the yeast nuclear pore complex

CELL 2022 JAN 20; 185(2):361-+
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules. Here we provide a structure of the isolated yeast NPC in which the inner ring is resolved by cryo-EM at sub-nanometer resolution to show how flexible connectors tie together different structural and functional layers. These connectors may be targets for phosphorylation and regulated disassembly in cells with an open mitosis. Moreover, some nucleoporin pairs and transport factors have similar interaction motifs, which suggests an evolutionary and mechanistic link between assembly and transport. We provide evidence for three major NPC variants that may foreshadow functional specializations at the nuclear periphery. Cryo-electron tomography extended these studies, providing a model of the in situ NPC with a radially expanded inner ring. Our comprehensive model reveals features of the nuclear basket and central transporter, suggests a role for the lumenal Pom152 ring in restricting dilation, and highlights structural plasticity that may be required for transport.
Stephan T, Burgess SM, Cheng H, Danko CG, Gill CA, Jarvis ED, Koepfli KP, Koltes JE, Lyons E, Ronald P, Ryder OA, Schriml LM, Soltis P, VandeWoude S, Zhou HJ, Ostrander EA, Karlsson EK
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Darwinian genomics and diversity in the tree of life

Genomics encompasses the entire tree of life, both extinct and extant, and the evolutionary processes that shape this diversity. To date, genomic research has focused on humans, a small number of agricultural species, and established laboratory models. Fewer than 18,000 of similar to 2,000,000 eukaryotic species (<1%) have a representative genome sequence in GenBank, and only a fraction of these have ancillary information on genome structure, genetic variation, gene expression, epigenetic modifications, and population diversity. This imbalance reflects a perception that human studies are paramount in disease research. Yet understanding how genomes work, and how genetic variation shapes phenotypes, requires a broad view that embraces the vast diversity of life. We have the technology to collect massive and exquisitely detailed datasets about the world, but expertise is siloed into distinct fields. A new approach, integrating comparative genomics with cell and evolutionary biology, ecology, archaeology, anthropology, and conservation biology, is essential for understanding and protecting ourselves and our world. Here, we describe potential for scientific discovery when comparative genomics works in close collaboration with a broad range of fields as well as the technical, scientific, and social constraints that must be addressed.
Carlson AL, Floyd RJ, Arbona RJR, Henderson KS, Perkins C, Lipman NS
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Assessing Elimination of Mouse Kidney Parvovirus from Cages by Mechanical Washing

Mouse kidney parvovirus (MKPV), a newly identified parvovirus of the genus Chaphamaparvovirus, causes inclusion body nephropathy in severely immunocompromised mice and is prevalent in research mouse colonies. As nonenveloped viruses, mammalian parvoviruses are stable and generally resist thermal inactivation; however, as a novel and highly divergent parvovirus, the thermal stability of MKPV is undefined. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of cage sanitization in a mechanical washer to eliminate MKPV. Cages contaminated by MKPV-infected mice were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 1) control (bedding change only); 2) sanitization in a tunnel washer (88 degrees C final rinse for 20 s); or 3) sanitization in a tunnel washer followed by autoclave sterilization (121 degrees C for 20 min). The presence of MKPV on the cage's interior surface was assessed by PCR of cage swab extracts collected before and after cage treatment. After treatment and swabbing, each cage housed 4 MKPV-negative CD1 mice. Each group of naive CD1 mice was assigned to one of the treatment groups and was housed in a cage from this group for two, 1 wk periods. At 12, 17, and 20 wk after the first exposure, renal tissue was collected from 1 test mouse per cage and assessed for MKPV by PCR. MKPV was detected by PCR on the surface of 63% of the pretreatment cages. All cages sanitized in a tunnel washer with or without sterilization were PCR negative after treatment. Seven of 10 mice housed in untreated cages contained a mouse positive for MKPV by 20 wk after exposure. None of the mice housed in cages sanitized in a tunnel washer with or without sterilization tested positive for MKPV at any time point. This study indicates that MKPV contaminated caging can result in MKPV infection of mice, and the use of a tunnel washer at the temperature and duration evaluated was sufficient to remove MKPV nucleic acid and prevent MKPV transmission.
Kolbinger F, Di Padova F, Deodhar A, Hawkes JE, Huppertz C, Kuiper T, McInnes IB, Ritchlin CT, Rosmarin D, Schett G, Carballido JM, Hausermann P, Calonder C, Vogel B, Rondeau JM, Bruin G
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Secukinumab for the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and axial spondyloarthritis: Physical and pharmacological properties underlie the observed clinical efficacy and safety

PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS 2022 JAN; 229(?):? Article 107925
Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and axial spondyloarthritis are systemic inflammatory diseases, each commonly manifesting as a spectrum of symptoms, complications, and comorbidities that arise differently in individual patients. Drugs targeting inflammatory cytokines common to the pathogenesis of each of these conditions have been developed, although their specific actions in the different tissues involved are variable. For a drug to be effective, it must be efficiently delivered to and locally bioactive in disease-relevant tissues. Detailed clinical data shed light on the therapeutic effects of individual biologics on specific domains or clinical manifestations of disease and assist in guiding treatment decisions. Pharmacologic, molecular, and functional properties of drugs strongly impact their observed safety and efficacy, and an understanding of these properties provides complementary insight. Secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal IgG1/kappa antibody selectively targeting interleukin (IL)-17A, has been in clinical use for >6 years in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and both radiographic (also known as ankylosing spondylitis) and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. In this review, we discuss pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data for secukinumab to introduce clinicians to the pharmacological properties of this widely used drug. Understanding how these properties affect the observed clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this drug in the treatment of IL-17A-mediated systemic inflammatory diseases is important for all physicians treating these conditions. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
Carapito R, Li R, Helms J, Carapito C, Gujja S, Rolli V, Guimaraes R, Malagon-Lopez J, Spinnhirny P, Lederle A, Mohseninia R, Hirschler A, Muller L, Bastard P, Gervais A, Zhang Q, Danion F, Ruch Y, Schenck M, Collange O, Chamaraux-Tran TN, Molitor A, Pichot A, Bernard A, Tahar O, Bibi-Triki S, Wu HG, Paul N, Mayeur S, Larnicol A, Laumond G, Frappier J, Schmidt S, Hanauer A, Macquin C, Stemmelen T, Simons M, Mariette X, Hermine O, Fafi-Kremer S, Goichot B, Drenou B, Kuteifan K, Pottecher J, Mertes PM, Kailasan S, Aman MJ, Pin E, Nilsson P, Thomas A, Viari A, Sanlaville D, Schneider F, Sibilia J, Tharaux PL, Casanova JL, Hansmann Y, Lidar D, Radosavljevic M, Gulcher JR, Meziani F, Moog C, Chittenden TW, Bahram S
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Identification of driver genes for critical forms of COVID-19 in a deeply phenotyped young patient cohort

SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2022 JAN 19; 14(628):? Article eabj7521
The drivers of critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unknown. Given major confounding factors such as age and comorbidities, true mediators of this condition have remained elusive. We used a multi-omics analysis combined with artificial intelligence in a young patient cohort where major comorbidities were excluded at the onset. The cohort included 47 "critical" (in the intensive care unit under mechanical ventilation) and 25 "non-critical" (in a non-critical care ward) patients with COVID-19 and 22 healthy individuals. The analyses included whole-genome sequencing, whole-blood RNA sequencing, plasma and blood mononuclear cell proteomics, cytokine profiling, and high-throughput immunophenotyping. An ensemble of machine learning, deep learning, quantum annealing, and structural causal modeling were used. Patients with critical COVID-19 were characterized by exacerbated inflammation, perturbed lymphoid and myeloid compartments, increased coagulation, and viral cell biology. Among differentially expressed genes, we observed up-regulation of the metalloprotease ADAM9. This gene signature was validated in a second independent cohort of 81 critical and 73 recovered patients with COVID-19 and was further confirmed at the transcriptional and protein level and by proteolytic activity. Ex vivo ADAM9 inhibition decreased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uptake and replication in human lung epithelial cells. In conclusion, within a young, otherwise healthy, cohort of individuals with COVID-19, we provide the landscape of biological perturbations in vivo where a unique gene signature differentiated critical from non-critical patients. We further identified ADAM9 as a driver of disease severity and a candidate therapeutic target.
Blaxter M, Archibald JM, Childers AK, Coddington JA, Crandall KA, Di Palma F, Durbin R, Edwards SV, Graves JAM, Hackett KJ, Hall N, Jarvis ED, Johnson RN, Karlsson EK, Kress WJ, Kuraku S, Lawniczak MKN, Lindblad-Toh K, Lopez JV, Moran NA, Robinson GE, Ryder OA, Shapiro B, Soltis PS, Warnow T, Zhang GJ, Lewin HA
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Why sequence all eukaryotes?

Life on Earth has evolved from initial simplicity to the astounding complexity we experience today. Bacteria and archaea have largely excelled in metabolic diversification, but eukaryotes additionally display abundant morphological innovation. How have these innovations come about and what constraints are there on the origins of novelty and the continuing maintenance of biodiversity on Earth? The history of life and the code for the working parts of cells and systems are written in the genome. The Earth BioGenome Project has proposed that the genomes of all extant, named eukaryotes-about 2 million species-should be sequenced to high quality to produce a digital library of life on Earth, beginning with strategic phylogenetic, ecological, and high-impact priorities. Here we discuss why we should sequence all eukaryotic species, not just a representative few scattered across the many branches of the tree of life. We suggest that many questions of evolutionary and ecological significance will only be addressable when whole-genome data representing divergences at all of the branchings in the tree of life or all species in natural ecosystems are available. We envisage that a genomic tree of life will foster understanding of the ongoing processes of speciation, adaptation, and organismal dependencies within entire ecosystems. These explorations will resolve long-standing problems in phylogenetics, evolution, ecology, conservation, agriculture, bioindustry, and medicine.
Navrazhina K, Garcet S, Zheng XZ, Hur HB, Frew JW, Krueger JG
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High inflammation in hidradenitis suppurativa extends to perilesional skin and can be subdivided by lipocalin-2 expression

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease presenting with diverse manifestations ranging from nodules and abscesses to draining tunnels. Whether the underlying inflammation from lesions extends to relatively healthy-appearing adjacent perilesional and distant nonlesional skin has not been systematically evaluated. Objective: We sought to characterize lesional, perilesional, and nonlesional skin in patients with HS. Methods: Skin biopsy samples were collected under ultrasound guidance from patients with active, untreated moderate-tosevere HS. Site-matched control biopsy samples from healthy volunteers were used for comparison. Results: RNA sequencing demonstrated that HS skin clustered separately from healthy control skin, with perilesional and lesion skin clustering together and away from nonlesional skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis identified psoriasiform hyperplasia with keratin 16 positivity in both perilesional and lesional skin, with comparable levels of CD3(+), CD11c(+), and neutrophil elastase-positive cellular infiltration. There was a marked upregulation of IL-17 signaling in perilesional and lesional skin. HS samples clustered on the basis of expression of lipocalin-2 (LCN2), with samples characterized by high LCN2 expression in the skin exhibiting a differing transcriptomic profile with significantly higher overall inflammation than that of skin characterized by low LCN2 levels. Conclusions: Perilesional HS skin has a transcriptomic and molecular profile comparable to that of lesional skin. HS can be grouped into 2 distinct subtypes based on molecular levels of LCN2 in the skin, with the LCN2-high subtype exhibiting an overall higher inflammatory burden and an upregulation of targetable cytokines. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize a unique HS subtype (and a potential endotype) that may guide future therapeutic targets.
Lawniczak MKN, Durbin R, Flicek P, Lindblad-Toh K, Wei XF, Archibald JM, Baker WJ, Belov K, Blaxter ML, Bonet TM, Childers AK, Coddington JA, Crandall KA, Crawford AJ, Davey RP, Di Palma F, Fang Q, Haerty W, Hall N, Hoff KJ, Howe K, Jarvis ED, Johnson WE, Johnson RN, Kersey PJ, Liu X, Lopez JV, Myers EW, Pettersson OV, Phillippy AM, Poelchau MF, Pruitt KD, Rhie A, Castilla-Rubio JC, Sahu SK, Salmon NA, Soltis PS, Swarbreck D, Thibaud-Nissen F, Wang SB, Wegrzyn JL, Zhang GJ, Zhang H, Lewin HA, Richards S
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Standards recommendations for the Earth BioGenome Project

A global international initiative, such as the Earth BioGenome Project (EBP), requires both agreement and coordination on standards to ensure that the collective effort generates rapid progress toward its goals. To this end, the EBP initiated five technical standards committees comprising volunteer members from the global genomics scientific community: Sample Collection and Processing, Sequencing and Assembly, Annotation, Analysis, and IT and Informatics. The current versions of the resulting standards documents are available on the EBP website, with the recognition that opportunities, technologies, and challenges may improve or change in the future, requiring flexibility for the EBP to meet its goals. Here, we describe some highlights from the proposed standards, and areas where additional challenges will need to be met.