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Found 35934 matches. Displaying 71-80
van Straalen KR, Frew JW
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The Importance of Methodological Rigor in Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trials: A Lesson from Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Schureck MA, Darling JE, Merk A, Shao JF, Daggupati G, Srinivasan P, Olinares PDB, Rout MP, Chait BT, Wollenberg K, Subramaniam S, Desai SA
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Malaria parasites use a soluble RhopH complex for erythrocyte invasion and an integral form for nutrient uptake

ELIFE 2021 JAN 4; 10(?):? Article e65282
Malaria parasites use the RhopH complex for erythrocyte invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake. As the member proteins are unique to Plasmodium spp., how they interact and traffic through subcellular sites to serve these essential functions is unknown. We show that RhopH is synthesized as a soluble complex of CLAG3, RhopH2, and RhopH3 with 1:1:1 stoichiometry. After transfer to a new host cell, the complex crosses a vacuolar membrane surrounding the intracellular parasite and becomes integral to the erythrocyte membrane through a PTEX translocon-dependent process. We present a 2.9 angstrom single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structure of the trafficking complex, revealing that CLAG3 interacts with the other subunits over large surface areas. This soluble complex is tightly assembled with extensive disulfide bonding and predicted transmembrane helices shielded. We propose a large protein complex stabilized for trafficking but poised for host membrane insertion through large-scale rearrangements, paralleling smaller two-state pore-forming proteins in other organisms.
Divangahi M, Aaby P, Khader SA, Barreiro LB, Bekkering S, Chavakis T, van Crevel R, Curtis N, DiNardo AR, Dominguez-Andres J, Duivenwoorden R, Fanucchi S, Fayad Z, Fuchs E, Hamon M, Jeffrey KL, Khan N, Joosten LAB, Kaufmann E, Latz E, Matarese G, van der Meer JWM, Mhlanga M, Moorlag SJCFM, Mulder WJM, Naik S, Novakovic B, O'Neill L, Ochando J, Ozato K, Riksen NP, Sauerwein R, Sherwood ER, Schlitzer A, Schultze JL, Sieweke MH, Benn CS, Stunnenberg H, Sun J, van de Veerdonk FL, Weis S, Williams DL, Xavier R, Netea MG
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Trained immunity, tolerance, priming and differentiation: distinct immunological processes

The similarities and differences between trained immunity and other immune processes are the subject of intense interrogation. Therefore, a consensus on the definition of trained immunity in both in vitro and in vivo settings, as well as in experimental models and human subjects, is necessary for advancing this field of research. Here we aim to establish a common framework that describes the experimental standards for defining trained immunity.
Abdalla T, Lowes MA, Kaur N, Micheletti RG, Steinhart AH, Alavi A
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Is There a Role for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa on Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Inhibitors?

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors, adalimumab and infliximab, are at the forefront of biologic therapy for the management of moderate-to-severe hidradenitis suppurativa, with adalimumab as currently the only approved medication for this condition. In treating patients, primary or secondary lack of response (also termed suboptimal response) is a major burden for both patients and healthcare systems and is a challenge with biologics in part owing to the development of anti-drug antibodies following treatment. To overcome this, therapeutic drug monitoring may be conducted proactively or reactively to a patient's suboptimal response guided by measurements of trough serum drug concentrations and levels of anti-drug antibodies. While strong evidence to support the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring exists in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, current information is limited in the context of hidradenitis suppurativa. We sought to summarize the available evidence and to present the role of therapeutic drug monitoring and other dose optimization strategies in improving clinical response in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors.
Nishimura Y, Donau OK, Dias J, Ferrando-Martinez S, Jesteadt E, Sadjadpour R, Gautam R, Buckler-White A, Geleziunas R, Koup RA, Nussenzweig MC, Martin MA
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Immunotherapy during the acute SHIV infection of macaques confers long-term suppression of viremia

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2021 JAN 4; 218(1):? Article e20201214
We report that combination bNAb immunotherapy initiated on day 3 post-infection (PI) maintained durable CD8(+) T cell-mediated suppression of SHIVAD8 viremia and preinoculation levels of CD4(+) T cells in 9 of 13 treated monkeys during nearly 6 yr of observation, as assessed by successive CD8(+) T cell-depletion experiments. In an extension of that study, two treatment interventions (bNAbs alone or cART plus bNAbs) beginning on week 2 PI were conducted and conferred controller status to 7 of 12 monkeys that was also dependent on control mediated by CD8(+) cells. However, the median time to suppression of plasma viremia following intervention on week 2 was markedly delayed (85 wk) compared with combination bNAb immunotherapy initiated on day 3 (39 wk). In both cases, the principal correlate of virus control was the induction of CD8(+) T cellular immunity.
Jedrzejczak MJ, Ingram JR, Lowes MA, Naik HB, McKenzie-Brown AM, Chen SC, Orenstein LAV
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Expert Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Management of Hidradenitis Suppurativa Pain

This cross-sectional survey characterizes the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of international experts in the management of pain in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.
Umschweif G, Medrihan L, McCabe KA, Sagi Y, Greengard P
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Activation of the p11/SMARCA3/Neurensin-2 pathway in parvalbumin interneurons mediates the response to chronic antidepressants

The delayed behavioral response to chronic antidepressants depends on dynamic changes in the hippocampus. It was suggested that the antidepressant protein p11 and the chromatin remodeling factor SMARCA3 mediate this delayed response by inducing transcriptional changes in hippocampal neurons. However, what target genes are regulated by the p11/SMARCA3 complex to mediate the behavioral response to antidepressants, and what cell type mediates these molecular changes remain unknown. Here we report that the p11/SMARCA3 complex represses Neurensin-2 transcription in hippocampal parvalbumin-expressing interneurons after chronic treatment with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). The behavioral response to antidepressants requires upregulation of p11, accumulation of SMARCA3 in the cell nucleus, and a consequent repression of Neurensin-2 transcription in these interneurons. We elucidate a functional role for p11/SMARCA3/Neurensin-2 pathway in regulating AMPA-receptor signaling in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, a function that is enhanced by chronic treatment with SSRIs. These results link SSRIs to dynamic glutamatergic changes and implicate p11/SMARCA3/Neurensin-2 pathway in the development of more specific and efficient therapeutic strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders.
Contoreggi NH, Mazid S, Goldstein LB, Park J, Ovalles AC, Waters EM, Glass MJ, Milner TA
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Sex and age influence gonadal steroid hormone receptor distributions relative to estrogen receptor beta-containing neurons in the mouse hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

Within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), estrogen receptor (ER) beta and other gonadal hormone receptors play a role in central cardiovascular processes. However, the influence of sex and age on the cellular and subcellular relationships of ER beta with ER alpha, G-protein ER (GPER1), as well as progestin and androgen receptors (PR and AR) in the PVN is uncertain. In young (2- to 3-month-old) females and males, ER beta-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) containing neurons were approximately four times greater than ER alpha-labeled and PR-labeled nuclei in the PVN. In subdivisions of the PVN, young females, compared to males, had: (1) more ER beta-EGFP neurons in neuroendocrine rostral regions; (2) fewer ER alpha-labeled nuclei in neuroendocrine and autonomic projecting medial subregions; and (3) more ER alpha-labeled nuclei in an autonomic projecting caudal region. In contrast, young males, compared to females, had approximately 20 times more AR-labeled nuclei, which often colocalized with ER beta-EGFP in neuroendocrine (approximately 70%) and autonomic (approximately 50%) projecting subregions. Ultrastructurally, in soma and dendrites, PVN ER beta-EGFP colocalized primarily with extranuclear AR (approximately 85% soma) and GPER1 (approximately 70% soma). Aged (12- to 24-month-old) males had more ER beta-EGFP neurons in a rostral neuroendocrine subregion compared to aged females and females with accelerated ovarian failure (AOF) and in a caudal autonomic subregion compared to post-AOF females. Late-aged (18- to 24-month-old) females compared to early-aged (12- to 14-month-old) females and AOF females had fewer AR-labeled nuclei in neuroendrocrine and autonomic projecting subregions. These findings indicate that gonadal steroids may directly and indirectly influence PVN neurons via nuclear and extranuclear gonadal hormone receptors in a sex-specific manner.
Park CY, Zhou J, Wong AK, Chen KM, Theesfeld CL, Darnell RB, Troyanskaya OG
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Genome-wide landscape of RNA-binding protein target site dysregulation reveals a major impact on psychiatric disorder risk

NATURE GENETICS 2021; 53(2):166-173
Despite the strong genetic basis of psychiatric disorders, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unmapped. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are responsible for most post-transcriptional regulation, from splicing to translation to localization. RBPs thus act as key gatekeepers of cellular homeostasis, especially in the brain. However, quantifying the pathogenic contribution of noncoding variants impacting RBP target sites is challenging. Here, we leverage a deep learning approach that can accurately predict the RBP target site dysregulation effects of mutations and discover that RBP dysregulation is a principal contributor to psychiatric disorder risk. RBP dysregulation explains a substantial amount of heritability not captured by large-scale molecular quantitative trait loci studies and has a stronger impact than common coding region variants. We share the genome-wide profiles of RBP dysregulation, which we use to identify DDHD2 as a candidate schizophrenia risk gene. This resource provides a new analytical framework to connect the full range of RNA regulation to complex disease.
Johnson MA, Contoreggi NH, Kogan JF, Bryson M, Rubin BR, Gray JD, Kreek MJ, McEwen BS, Milner TA
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Chronic stress differentially alters mRNA expression of opioid peptides and receptors in the dorsal hippocampus of female and male rats

Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in sex-dependent changes in opioid peptide levels and receptor subcellular distributions within the rat dorsal hippocampus, which are paralleled with an inability for males to acquire conditioned place preference (CPP) to oxycodone. Here, RNAScope in situ hybridization was used to determine the expression of hippocampal opioid peptides and receptors in unstressed (US) and CIS estrus female and male adult (similar to 2.5 months old ) Sprague Dawley rats. In all groups, dentate granule cells expressed PENK and PDYN; additionally, numerous interneurons expressed PENK. OPRD1 and OPRM1 were primarily expressed in interneurons, and to a lesser extent, in pyramidal and granule cells. OPRK1-was expressed in sparsely distributed interneurons. There were few baseline sex differences: US females compared to US males had more PENK-expressing and fewer OPRD1-expressing granule cells and more OPRM1-expressing CA3b interneurons. Several expression differences emerged after CIS. Both CIS females and males compared to their US counterparts had elevated: (1) PENK-expressing dentate granule cells and interneurons in CA1 and CA2/3a; (2) OPRD1 probe number and cell expression in CA1, CA2/3a and CA3b and the dentate gyrus; and (3) OPRK1-expressing interneurons in the dentate hilus. Also, CIS males compared to US males had elevated: (1) PDYN expression in granule cells; (2) OPRD1 probe and interneuron expression in CA2/3a; (3) OPRM1 in granule cells; and (4) OPRK1 interneuron expression in CA2/3a. The sex-specific changes in hippocampal opioid gene expression may impact network properties and synaptic plasticity processes that may contribute to the attenuation of oxycodone CPP in CIS males.