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Administration of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies at ART initiation maintains long-term CD8(+) T cell immunity
NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2022 OCT 29; 13(1):? Article 6473
In simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected non-human primates, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against the virus appear to stimulate T cell immunity. To determine whether this phenomenon also occurs in humans we measured HIV-1-specific cellular immunity longitudinally in individuals with HIV-1 starting antiviral therapy (ART) with or without adjunctive bNAb 3BNC117 treatment. Using the activation-induced marker (AIM) assay and interferon-gamma release, we observe that frequencies of Pol- and Gag-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as Gag-induced interferon-gamma responses, are significantly higher among individuals that received adjunctive 3BNC117 compared to ART-alone at 3 and 12 months after starting ART. The observed changes in cellular immunity were directly correlated to pre-treatment 3BNC117-sensitivity. Notably, increased HIV-1-specific immunity is associated with partial or complete ART-free virologic control during treatment interruption for up to 4 years. Our findings suggest that bNAb treatment at the time of ART initiation maintains HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses that are associated with ART-free virologic control. Broadly neutralising anti-HIV-1 antibody (bNAb) administration in nonhuman primates has been shown to stimulate adaptive T cell-specific immunity, with infection prevention observed. In this work, the authors longitudinally analyse HIV-1 specific cellular immunity in HIV-1- infected individuals starting ART with or without adjunctive bNAb treatment.
Generalized pustular psoriasis is a disease distinct from psoriasis vulgaris: evidence and expert opinion
EXPERT REVIEW OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2022 OCT 3; 18(10):1033-1047
Introduction: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare, severe, clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by flares of widespread, noninfectious, macroscopically visible pustules that occur with or without systemic inflammation, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Historically, GPP has been classified as a variant of psoriasis vulgaris (PV, or plaque psoriasis); however, accumulating evidence indicates that these are distinct conditions, requiring different treatment approaches. Areas covered: In this perspective article we review evidence that supports the classification of GPP as distinct from PV. Expert opinion: The histopathologic and clinical appearance of GPP is distinct from that of PV and fundamental differences exist between the two conditions in terms of genetic causes and expression-related mechanisms of disease development. GPP results from dysregulation of the innate immune system, with disruption of the interleukin (IL)-36 inflammatory pathway, induction of inflammatory keratinocyte responses, and recruitment of neutrophils. PV is driven by the adaptive immune system, with a key role played by IL-17. Considering GPP as a separate disease will enable greater focus on its specific pathogenesis and the needs of patients. Many treatments for PV have insufficient efficacy in GPP and a therapeutic approach developed specifically for GPP might lead to better patient outcomes. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare disease. During episodes of worsening disease, the immune system attacks the skin. This causes large areas of skin to become red and painful, pus-filled blisters suddenly form. Some people with GPP have a history of another, more common, skin condition called psoriasis vulgaris (PV). People with PV develop patches of scaly, itchy skin. In the past, GPP was classed as a type of PV and treated with the same medicines. However, these medicines do not work well in GPP. Researchers now understand more about what causes GPP and how it differs from PV. GPP can cause medical problems throughout the body, leading to life-threatening complications. This means that people with GPP often need urgent medical treatment in hospitals. People with PV are mostly treated outside of hospitals. Any other medical problems are not usually due to PV itself. Researchers have found several genes that are altered in people with GPP and PV, and they differ between the two diseases. For example, changes in a gene called IL36RN are common in GPP but are not seen in PV. The skin of people with these two diseases also looks different under a microscope. Knowing more about GPP and how it differs from PV will help people with GPP to be diagnosed more quickly. It will also help researchers to develop new medicines specifically for GPP, so people can receive better treatment in the future.
Reprogrammed Schwann Cells Organize into Dynamic Tracks that Promote Pancreatic Cancer Invasion
CANCER DISCOVERY 2022 OCT; 12(10):2454-2473
Nerves are a component of the tumor microenvironment contributing to cancer pro-gression, but the role of cells from nerves in facilitating cancer invasion remains poorly understood. Here we show that Schwann cells (SC) activated by cancer cells collectively function as tumor-activated Schwann cell tracks (TAST) that promote cancer cell migration and invasion. Nonmyeli-nating SCs form TASTs and have cell gene expression signatures that correlate with diminished survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In TASTs, dynamic SCs form tracks that serve as cancer pathways and apply forces on cancer cells to enhance cancer motility. These SCs are activated by c-Jun, analogous to their reprogramming during nerve repair. This study reveals a mechanism of cancer cell inva-sion that co-opts a wound repair process and exploits the ability of SCs to collectively organize into tracks. These findings establish a novel paradigm of how cancer cells spread and reveal therapeutic opportunities. SIGNIFICANCE: How the tumor microenvironment participates in pancreatic cancer progression is not fully understood. Here, we show that SCs are activated by cancer cells and collectively organize into tracks that dynamically enable cancer invasion in a c-Jun-dependent manner.
Dynamic HIV-1 spike motion creates vulnerability for its membrane-bound tripod to antibody attack
NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2022 OCT 27; 13(1):? Article 6393
Vaccines targeting HIV-1's gp160 spike protein are stymied by high viral mutation rates and structural chicanery. gp160's membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is the target of naturally arising broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), yet MPER-based vaccines fail to generate bnAbs. Here, nanodisc-embedded spike protein was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy and molecular-dynamics simulations, revealing spontaneous ectodomain tilting that creates vulnerability for HIV-1. While each MPER protomer radiates centrally towards the three-fold axis contributing to a membrane-associated tripod structure that is occluded in the upright spike, tilting provides access to the opposing MPER. Structures of spike proteins with bound 4E10 bnAb Fabs reveal that the antibody binds exposed MPER, thereby altering MPER dynamics, modifying average ectodomain tilt, and imposing strain on the viral membrane and the spike's transmembrane segments, resulting in the abrogation of membrane fusion and informing future vaccine development. The membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 spike protein is a broadly neutralizing antibody target. Here, cryo-electron microscopy and molecular dynamics reveal spontaneous ectodomain tilting, a vulnerability exploitable for vaccine design.
IMPORTANCE Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity; yet it is unclear whether the long-term safety and comparative effectiveness of these operations differ across racial and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) across racial and ethnic groups in the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) Bariatric Study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Thiswas a retrospective, observational, comparative effectiveness cohort study that comprised 25 health care systems in the PCORnet Bariatric Study. Patients were adults and adolescents aged 12 to 79 years who underwent a primary (first nonrevisional) RYGB or SG operation between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2015, at participating health systems. Patient race and ethnicity included Black, Hispanic, White, other, and unrecorded. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2021, to January 17, 2022. EXPOSURE RYGB or SG. OUTCOMES Percentage total weight loss (%TWL); type 2 diabetes remission, relapse, and change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level; and postsurgical safety and utilization outcomes (operations, interventions, revisions/conversions, endoscopy, hospitalizations, mortality, 30-day major adverse events) at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery. RESULTS A total of 36 871 patients (mean [SE] age, 45.0 [11.7] years; 29 746 female patients [81%]) were included in the weight analysis. Patients identified with the following race and ethnic categories: 6891 Black (19%), 8756 Hispanic (24%), 19 645 White (53%), 826 other (2%), and 783 unrecorded (2%). Weight loss and mean reductions in HbA(1c) level were larger for RYGB than SG in all years for Black, Hispanic, and White patients (difference in 5-year weight loss: Black, -7.6%; 95% CI, -8.0 to -7.1; P <.001; Hispanic, -6.2%; 95% CI, -6.6 to -5.9; P <.001; White, -5.9%; 95% CI, -6.3 to -5.7; P <.001; difference in change in year 5 HbA1c level: Black, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.51 to -0.08; P =.009; Hispanic, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.29; P <.001; and White, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.11; P =.001.) The magnitude of these differences was small among racial and ethnic groups (1%-3% of %TWL). Black and Hispanic patients had higher risk of hospitalization when they had RYGB compared with SG (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% CI, 1.17-1.79; P =.001 and 1.48; 95% CI, 1.22-1.79; P <.001, respectively). Hispanic patients had greater risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.24-4.70; P =.01) and higher odds of a 30-day major adverse event (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.38-2.68; P <.001) for RYGB compared with SG. There was no interaction between race and ethnicity and operation type for diabetes remission and relapse. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Variability of the comparative effectiveness of operations for %TWL and HbA(1c) level across race and ethnicity was clinically small; however, differences in safety and utilization outcomes were clinically and statistically significant for Black and Hispanic patients who had RYGB compared with SG. These findings can inform shared decision-making regarding bariatric operation choice for different racial and ethnic groups of patients.
Impaired Proteolysis of Noncanonical RAS Proteins Drives Clonal Hematopoietic Transformation
CANCER DISCOVERY 2022 OCT; 12(10):2434-2453
Recently, screens for mediators of resistance to FLT3 and ABL kinase inhibitors in leukemia resulted in the discovery of LZTR1 as an adapter of a Cullin-3 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for the degradation of RAS GTPases. In parallel, dysregulated LZTR1 expression via aberrant splicing and mutations was identifi ed in clonal hematopoietic condi-tions. Here we identify that loss of LZTR1, or leukemia-associated mutants in the LZTR1 substrate and RAS GTPase RIT1 that escape degradation, drives hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion and leuke-mia in vivo . Although RIT1 stabilization was suffi cient to drive hematopoietic transformation, transfor-mation mediated by LZTR1 loss required MRAS. Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTAC) against RAS or reduction of GTP-loaded RAS overcomes LZTR1 loss-mediated resistance to FLT3 inhibitors. These data reveal proteolysis of noncanonical RAS proteins as novel regulators of HSC self-renewal, defi ne the function of RIT1 and LZTR1 mutations in leukemia, and identify means to overcome drug resistance due to LZTR1 downregulation.SIGNIFICANCE: Here we identify that impairing proteolysis of the noncanonical RAS GTPases RIT1 and MRAS via LZTR1 downregulation or leukemia-associated mutations stabilizing RIT1 enhances MAP kinase activation and drives leukemogenesis. Reducing the abundance of GTP-bound KRAS and NRAS overcomes the resistance to FLT3 kinase inhibitors associated with LZTR1 downregulation in leukemia.
Differential mosquito attraction to humans is associated with skin-derived carboxylic acid levels
CELL 2022 OCT 27; 185(22):4099-+
Some people are more attractive to mosquitoes than others, but the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. We tested mosquito attraction to human skin odor and identified people who are excep-tionally attractive or unattractive to mosquitoes. These differences were stable over several years. Chemical analysis revealed that highly attractive people produce significantly more carboxylic acids in their skin em-anations. Mutant mosquitoes lacking the chemosensory co-receptors Ir8a , Ir25a , or Ir76b were severely impaired in attraction to human scent, but retained the ability to differentiate highly and weakly attractive people. The link between elevated carboxylic acids in "mosquito-magnet"human skin odor and phenotypes of genetic mutations in carboxylic acid receptors suggests that such compounds contribute to differential mosquito attraction. Understanding why some humans are more attractive than others provides insights into what skin odorants are most important to the mosquito and could inform the development of more effec-tive repellents.
Multi-trait genome-wide association study of opioid addiction: OPRM1 and beyond
SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2022 OCT 7; 12(1):? Article 16873
Opioid addiction (OA) is moderately heritable, yet only rs1799971, the A118G variant in OPRM1, has been identified as a genome-wide significant association with OA and independently replicated. We applied genomic structural equation modeling to conduct a GWAS of the new Genetics of Opioid Addiction Consortium (GENOA) data together with published studies (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Million Veteran Program, and Partners Health), comprising 23,367 cases and effective sample size of 88,114 individuals of European ancestry. Genetic correlations among the various OA phenotypes were uniformly high (r(g) > 0.9). We observed the strongest evidence to date for OPRM1: lead SNP rs9478500 (p = 2.56 x 10(-9)). Gene-based analyses identified novel genome-wide significant associations with PPP6C and FURIN. Variants within these loci appear to be pleiotropic for addiction and related traits.
Single-cell multi-omics of human clonal hematopoiesis reveals that DNMT3A R882 mutations perturb early progenitor states through selective hypomethylation
NATURE GENETICS 2022 OCT; 54(10):1514-+
Somatic mutations in cancer genes have been detected in clonal expansions across healthy human tissue, including in clonal hematopoiesis. However, because mutated and wild-type cells are admixed, we have limited ability to link genotypes with phenotypes. To overcome this limitation, we leveraged multi-modality single-cell sequencing, capturing genotype, transcriptomes and methylomes in progenitors from individuals with DNMT3A R882 mutated clonal hematopoiesis. DNMT3A mutations result in myeloid over lymphoid bias, and an expansion of immature myeloid progenitors primed toward megakaryocytic-erythroid fate, with dysregulated expression of lineage and leukemia stem cell markers. Mutated DNMT3A leads to preferential hypomethylation of polycomb repressive complex 2 targets and a specific CpG flanking motif. Notably, the hypomethylation motif is enriched in binding motifs of key hematopoietic transcription factors, serving as a potential mechanistic link between DNMT3A mutations and aberrant transcriptional phenotypes. Thus, single-cell multi-omics paves the road to defining the downstream consequences of mutations that drive clonal mosaicism. Multi-modality single-cell sequencing determines genotype, transcriptome and methylome information in cells from individuals with DNMT3A R882 mutated clonal hematopoiesis, allowing for the comparison of mutant and wild-type cells from the same individuals.
Detection of Zoonotic Bacteria and Paragonimus kellicotti in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and the Assessment of Traditional Crayfish Boils
JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION 2022 OCT; 85(10):1388-1396
Studies of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) outside of the United States confirm the presence of a variety of zoonotic pathogens, but it is unknown whether these same pathogens occur in P. clarkii in the United States. The U.S. commercial crayfish industry generates $200 million yearly, underscoring the need to evaluate this consumer commodity. The study objectives were to evaluate specific zoonotic pathogens present on P. clarkii from Alabama and Louisiana, states in the southeastern United States, and to determine the effectiveness of traditional food preparation methods to reduce pathogens. Experiment A evaluated the presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio spp. in crayfish and environmental samples over a 2-month collection period (May to June 2021). Crayfish sampling consisted of swabbing the cephalothorax region; 15 samples were tested for E. coli, Salmonella, and S. aureus, and an additional 15 samples for Vibrio spp. Additionally, crayfish shipping materials were sampled. In experiment B, 92 crayfish were evaluated for Paragonimus kellicotti. Experiment C compared live and boiled crayfish for the presence of Vibrio spp. In experiments A and B, all 60 (100%) crayfish samples and 13 (81.25%) of 16 environmental samples showed growth characteristic of Vibrio spp. Three (5%) of 60 samples showed E. coli growth, with no statistical difference (P = 0.5536) between farms. P. kellicotti, Salmonella, and S. aureus were not recovered from any samples. In experiment C, all 10 (100%) of the live preboiled crayfish samples showed characteristic growth, whereas 1 (10%) of 10 samples of crayfish boiled in unseasoned water showed Vibrio growth (P , 0.0001). These results confirm that Vibrio spp. and E. coli may be present on U.S. commercial crayfish and that care should be taken when handling any materials that come into contact with live crayfish because they can potentially be contaminated.