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Found 35038 matches. Displaying 41-50
Wang XM, Lu JP, Xie WG, Lu XY, Liang YJ, Li M, Wang ZC, Huang XD, Tang MX, Pfaff DW, Tang YP, Yao P
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Maternal diabetes induces autism-like behavior by hyperglycemia-mediated persistent oxidative stress and suppression of superoxide dismutase 2

Epidemiological studies show that maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aims to investigate the potential effect of maternal diabetes on autism-like behavior in offspring. The results of in vitro study showed that transient hyperglycemia induces persistent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with suppressed superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression. Additionally, we found that SOD2 suppression is due to oxidative stress-mediated histone methylation and the subsequent dissociation of early growth response 1 (Egr1) on the SOD2 promoter. Furthermore, in vivo rat experiments showed that maternal diabetes induces SOD2 suppression in the amygdala, resulting in autism-like behavior in offspring. SOD2 overexpression restores, while SOD2 knockdown mimics, this effect, indicating that oxidative stress and SOD2 expression play important roles in maternal diabetes-induced autism-like behavior in offspring, while prenatal and postnatal treatment using antioxidants permeable to the blood-brain barrier partly ameliorated this effect. We conclude that maternal diabetes induces autism-like behavior through hyperglycemia-mediated persistent oxidative stress and SOD2 suppression. Here we report a potential mechanism for maternal diabetes-induced ASD.
Jacobo A, Dasgupta A, Erzberger A, Siletti K, Hudspeth AJ
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Notch-Mediated Determination of Hair-Bundle Polarity in Mechanosensory Hair Cells of the Zebrafish Lateral Line

CURRENT BIOLOGY 2019 NOV 4; 29(21):3579-3587.e7
The development of mechanosensory epithelia, such as those of the auditory and vestibular systems, results in the precise orientation of mechanosensory hair cells. After division of a precursor cell in the zebrafish's lateral line, the daughter hair cells differentiate with opposite mechanical sensitivity. Through a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that Notch1a-mediated lateral inhibition produces a bistable switch that reliably gives rise to cell pairs of opposite polarity. Using a mathematical model of the process, we predict the outcome of several genetic and chemical alterations to the system, which we then confirm experimentally. We show that Notch1a downregulates the expression of Emx2, a transcription factor known to be involved in polarity specification, and acts in parallel with the planar-cell-polarity system to determine the orientation of hair bundles. By analyzing the effect of simultaneous genetic perturbations to Notch1a and Emx2, we infer that the gene-regulatory network determining cell polarity includes an undiscovered polarity effector.
Estrela AB, Nakashige TG, Lemetre C, Woodworth ID, Weisman JL, Cohen LJ, Brady SF
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Functional Multigenomic Screening of Human-Associated Bacteria for NF-kappa B-Inducing Bioactive Effectors

MBIO 2019 NOV-DEC; 10(6):? Article e02587-19
The effect of the microbiota on its human host is driven, at least in part, by small-molecule and protein effectors it produces. Here, we report on the use of functional multigenomic screening to identify microbiota-encoded effectors. In this study, genomic DNA from 116 human-associated bacteria was cloned en masse, and the resulting multigenomic library was screened using a nuclear factor-kappa B reporter (NF-kappa B) assay. Functional multigenomics builds on the concept of functional metagenomics but takes advantage of increasing advances in cultivating and sequencing human-associated bacteria. Effector genes found to confer NF-kappa B-inducing activity to Escherichia coli encode proteins in four general categories: cell wall hydrolases, membrane transporters, lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. The compact nature of multigenomic libraries, which results from the ability to normalize input DNA ratios, should simplify screening of libraries using diverse heterologous hosts and reporter assays, increasing the rate of discovery of novel effector genes. IMPORTANCE Human-associated bacteria are thought to encode bioactive small molecules and proteins that play an intimate role in human health and disease. Here, we report on the creation and functional screening of a multigenomic library constructed using genomic DNA from 116 bacteria found at diverse sites across the human body. Individual clones were screened for genes capable of conferring NF kappa B-inducing activity to Escherichia coli. NF-kappa B is a useful reporter for a range of cellular processes related to immunity, pathogenesis, and inflammation. Compared to the screening of metagenomic libraries, the ability to normalize input DNA ratios when constructing a multigenomic library should facilitate the more efficient examination of commensal bacteria for diverse bioactivities. Multigenomic screening takes advantage of the growing available resources in culturing and sequencing the human microbiota and generates starting points for more in-depth studies on the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria interact with their human host.
Stemmann H, Freiwald WA
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Evidence for an attentional priority map in inferotemporal cortex

From incoming sensory information, our brains make selections according to current behavioral goals. This process, selective attention, is controlled by parietal and frontal areas. Here, we show that another brain area, posterior inferotemporal cortex (PITd), also exhibits the defining properties of attentional control. We discovered this area with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an attentive motion discrimination task. Single-cell recordings from PITd revealed strong attentional modulation across 3 attention tasks yet no tuning to task-relevant stimulus features, like motion direction or color. Instead, PITd neurons closely tracked the subject's attention state and predicted upcoming errors of attentional selection. Furthermore, artificial electrical PITd stimulation controlled the location of attentional selection without altering feature discrimination. These are the defining properties of a feature-blind priority map encoding the locus of attention. Together, these results suggest area PITd, located strategically to gather information about object properties, as an attentional priority map.
Zammataro L, Lopez S, Bellone S, Pettinella F, Bonazzoli E, Perrone E, Zhao SM, Menderes G, Altwerger G, Han C, Zeybek B, Bianchi A, Manzano A, Manara P, Cocco E, Buza N, Hui P, Wong S, Ravaggi A, Bignotti E, Romani C, Todeschini P, Zanotti L, Odicino F, Pecorelli S, Donzelli C, Ardighieri L, Angioli R, Raspagliesi F, Scambia G, Choi JM, Dong WL, Bilguvar K, Alexandrov LB, Silasi DA, Huang GS, Ratner E, Azodi M, Schwartz PE, Pirazzoli V, Stiegler AL, Boggon TJ, Lifton RP, Schlessinger J, Santin AD
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Whole-exome sequencing of cervical carcinomas identifies activating ERBB2 and PIK3CA mutations as targets for combination therapy

The prognosis of advanced/recurrent cervical cancer patients remains poor. We analyzed 54 fresh-frozen and 15 primary cervical cancer cell lines, along with matched-normal DNA, by whole-exome sequencing (WES), most of which harboring Human-Papillomavirustype-16/18. We found recurrent somatic missense mutations in 22 genes (including PIK3CA, ERBB2, and GNAS) and a widespread APOBEC cytidine deaminase mutagenesis pattern (TON motif) in both adenocarcinoma (ACC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Somatic copy number variants (CNVs) identified 12 copy number gains and 40 losses, occurring more often than expected by chance, with the most frequent events in pathways similar to those found from analysis of single nucleotide variants (SNV5), including the ERBB2/PI3K/AKT/mTOR, apoptosis, chromatin remodeling, and cell cycle. To validate specific SNV5 as targets, we took advantage of primary cervical tumor cell lines and xenografts to preclinically evaluate the activity of pan-HER (afatinib and neratinib) and PIK3CA (copanlisib) inhibitors, alone and in combination, against tumors harboring alterations in the ERBB2/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (71%). Tumors harboring ERBB2 (5.8%) domain mutations were significantly more sensitive to single agents afatinib or neratinib when compared to wild-type tumors in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models (P = 0.001). In contrast, pan-HER and PIK3CA inhibitors demonstrated limited in vitro activity and were only transiently effective in controlling in vivo growth of PIK3CA-mutated cervical cancer xenografts. Importantly, combinations of copanlisib and neratinib were highly synergistic, inducing long-lasting regression of tumors harboring alterations in the ERBB2/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. These findings define the genetic landscape of cervical cancer, suggesting that a large subset of cervical tumors might benefit from existing ERBB2/PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR-targeted drugs.
Chen ZL, Singh P, Wong J, Horn K, Strickland S, Norris EH
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An antibody against HK blocks Alzheimer's disease peptide beta-amyloid-induced bradykinin release in human plasma

Bradykinin is a proinflammatory factor that mediates angioedema and inflammation in many diseases. It is a key player in some types of hereditary angioedema and is involved in septic shock, traumatic injury, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and stroke, among others. Activation of the plasma contact system leads to elevated levels of plasma kallikrein, which cleaves high molecular weight kininogen (HK) to release bradykinin. Drug development for bradykinin-meditated pathologies has focused on designing inhibitors to the enzymes that cleave HK (to prevent bradykinin release) or antagonists of endothelial bradykinin receptors (to prevent down-stream bradykinin action). Here we show a strategy to block bradykinin generation by using an HK antibody that binds to HK, preventing its cleavage and subsequent bradykinin release. We show that this antibody blocks dextran sodium sulfate-induced HK cleavage and bradykinin production. Moreover, while the pathogenic AD peptide beta-amyloid (A beta)42 cleaves HK and induces a dramatic increase in bradykinin production, our HK antibody blocked these events from occurring. These results may provide strategies for developing treatments for bradykinin-driven pathologies.
Raineki C, Opendak M, Sarro E, Showler A, Bui K, McEwen BS, Wilson DA, Sullivan RM
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During infant maltreatment, stress targets hippocampus, but stress with mother present targets amygdala and social behavior

Infant maltreatment increases vulnerability to physical and mental disorders, yet specific mechanisms embedded within this complex infant experience that induce this vulnerability remain elusive. To define critical features of maltreatment-induced vulnerability, rat pups were reared from postnatal day 8 (PN8) with a maltreating mother, which produced amygdala and hippocampal deficits and decreased social behavior at PN13. Next, we deconstructed the maltreatment experience to reveal sufficient and necessary conditions to induce this phenotype. Social behavior and amygdala deficits (volume, neurogenesis, c-Fos, local field potential) required combined chronic high corticosterone and maternal presence (not maternal behavior). Hippocampal deficits were induced by chronic high corticosterone regardless of social context. Causation was shown by blocking corticosterone during maltreatment and suppressing amygdala activity during social behavior testing. These results highlight (1) that early life maltreatment initiates multiple pathways to pathology, each with distinct causal mechanisms and outcomes, and (2) the importance of social presence on brain development.
Galea S, Vaughan RD
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Tendrils of Hope in the Gun Epidemic: A Public Health of Consequence, November 2019

Brohawn SG, Wang WW, Handler A, Campbell EB, Schwarz JR, MacKinnon R
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The mechanosensitive ion channel TRAAK is localized to the mammalian node of Ranvier

ELIFE 2019 NOV 1; 8(?):? Article e50403
TRAAK is a membrane tension-activated K+ channel that has been associated through behavioral studies to mechanical nociception. We used specific monoclonal antibodies in mice to show that TRAAK is localized exclusively to nodes of Ranvier, the action potential propagating elements of myelinated nerve fibers. Approximately 80 percent of myelinated nerve fibers throughout the central and peripheral nervous system contain TRAAK in what is likely an all-nodes or no-nodes per axon fashion. TRAAK is not observed at the axon initial segment where action potentials are first generated. We used polyclonal antibodies, the TRAAK inhibitor RU2 and node clamp amplifiers to demonstrate the presence and functional properties of TRAAK in rat nerve fibers. TRAAK contributes to the 'leak' K+ current in mammalian nerve fiber conduction by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential, thereby increasing Na+ channel availability for action potential propagation. We speculate on why nodes of Ranvier contain a mechanosensitive K+ channel.
Wasserman MR, Liu SX
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A Tour de Force on the Double Helix: Exploiting DNA Mechanics To Study DNA-Based Molecular Machines

BIOCHEMISTRY 2019 NOV 26; 58(47):4667-4676
DNA is both a fundamental building block of life and a fascinating natural polymer. The advent of single-molecule manipulation tools made it possible to exert controlled force on individual DNA molecules and measure their mechanical response. Such investigations elucidated the elastic properties of DNA and revealed its distinctive structural configurations across force regimes. In the meantime, a detailed understanding of DNA mechanics laid the groundwork for single-molecule studies of DNA-binding proteins and DNA-processing enzymes that bend, stretch, and twist DNA. These studies shed new light on the metabolism and transactions of nucleic acids, which constitute a major part of the cell's operating system. Furthermore, the marriage of single-molecule fluorescence visualization and force manipulation has enabled researchers to directly correlate the applied tension to changes in the DNA structure and the behavior of DNA-templated complexes. Overall, experimental exploitation of DNA mechanics has been and will continue to be a unique and powerful strategy for understanding how molecular machineries recognize and modify the physical state of DNA to accomplish their biological functions.