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Wu HW, Deng SL, Xu HY, Mao HZ, Liu J, Niu QW, Wang H, Chua NH
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A noncoding RNA transcribed from the AGAMOUS (AG) second intron binds to CURLY LEAF and represses AG expression in leaves

NEW PHYTOLOGIST 2018 SEP; 219(4):1480-1491
Dispersed H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) of the AGAMOUS (AG) genomic locus is mediated by CURLY LEAF (CLF), a component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 2. Previous reports have shown that the AG second intron, which confers AG tissue-specific expression, harbors sequences targeted by several positive and negative regulators. Using RACE reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we found that the AG intron 2 encodes several noncoding RNAs. RNAi experiment showed that incRNA4 is needed for CLF repressive activity. AG-incRNA4RNAi lines showed increased leaf AGmRNA levels associated with a decrease of H3K27me3 levels; these plants displayed AG overexpression phenotypes. Genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the AG-incRNA4 can associate with CLF to repress AG expression in leaf tissues through H3K27me3-mediated repression and to autoregulate its own expression level. The mechanism of AG-incRNA4-mediated repression may be relevant to investigations on tissue-specific expression of Arabidopsis MADS-box genes.
Gleicher N, Kushnir VA, Barad DH
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How PGS/PGT-A laboratories succeeded in losing all credibility

REPRODUCTIVE BIOMEDICINE ONLINE 2018 AUG; 37(2):242-245
Ule J, Hwang HW, Darnell RB
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The Future of Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (CLIP)

COLD SPRING HARBOR PERSPECTIVES IN BIOLOGY 2018 AUG; 10(8):? Article a032243
To understand the assembly and functional outcomes of protein-RNA regulation, it is crucial to precisely identify the positions of such interactions. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) serves this purpose by exploiting covalent protein-RNA cross-linking and RNA fragmentation, along with a series of stringent purification and quality control steps to prepare complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries for sequencing. Here we describe the core steps of CLIP, its primary variations, and the approaches to data analysis. We present the application of CLIP to studies of specific cell types in genetically engineered mice and discuss the mechanistic and physiologic insights that have already been gained from studies using CLIP. We conclude by discussing the future opportunities for CLIP, including studies of human postmortem tissues from disease patients and controls, RNA epigenetic modifications, and RNA structure. These and other applications of CLIP will continue to unravel fundamental gene regulatory mechanisms while providing important biologic and clinically relevant insights.
Hawks RM, McGinn AP, Bernstein PS, Tobin JN
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Exploring Preconception Care: Insurance Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Health in the Pre-pregnancy Period

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL 2018 AUG; 22(8):1103-1110
Objective To measure the association of preconception health insurance status with preconception health among women in New York City, and examine whether this association is modified by race/ethnicity. Methods Using data from the New York City Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2011 (n = 3929), we created a "Preconception Health Score" (PHS) capturing modifiable behaviors, healthcare services utilization, pregnancy intention, and timely entry into prenatal care. We then built multivariable logistic regression models to measure the association of PHS with health insurance status and race/ethnicity. Results We found PHS to be higher among women with private insurance (7.3 +/- 0.07) or public insurance (6.3 +/- 0.08) before pregnancy than no insurance (5.9 +/- 0.09) (p < .001). However, when stratified by race/ethnicity, the positive association of PHS with insurance was absent in the non-white population. Conclusions for Practice Having health insurance during the pre-pregnancy period is associated with greater health among white women, but not among black or Hispanic women in NYC.
Baden LR, Walsh SR, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Johnson JA, Licona JH, Filter RD, Kleinjan JA, Gothing JA, Jennings J, Peter L, Nkolola J, Abbink P, Borducchi EN, Kirilova M, Stephenson KE, Pegu P, Eller MA, Trinh HV, Rao M, Ake JA, Sarnecki M, Nijs S, Callewaert K, Schuitemaker H, Hendriks J, Pau MG, Tomaka F, Korber BT, Alter G, Dolin R, Earl PL, Moss B, Michael NL, Robb ML, Barouch DH
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First-in-Human Randomized, Controlled Trial of Mosaic HIV-1 Immunogens Delivered via a Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vector

JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018 AUG 15; 218(4):633-644
Background. Mosaic immunogens are bioinformatically engineered human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences designed to elicit clade-independent coverage against globally circulating HIV-1 strains. Methods. This phase 1, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy HIV-uninfected adults who received 2 doses of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-vectored HIV-1 bivalent mosaic immunogen vaccine or placebo on days 0 and 84. Two groups were enrolled: those who were HIV-1 vaccine naive (n = 15) and those who had received an HIV-1 vaccine (Ad26.ENVA.01) 4-6 years earlier (n = 10). We performed prespecified blinded cellular and humoral immunogenicity analyses at days 0, 14, 28, 84, 98, 112, 168, 270, and 365. Results. All 50 planned vaccinations were administered. Vaccination was safe and generally well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Both cellular and humoral cross-clade immune responses were elicited after 1 or 2 vaccinations in all participants in the HIV-1 vaccine-naive group. Env-specific responses were induced after a single immunization in nearly all subjects who had previously received the prototype Ad26.ENVA.01 vaccine. Conclusions. No safety concerns were identified, and multiclade HIV-1-specific immune responses were elicited.
Sonobe Y, Ghadge G, Masaki K, Sendoel A, Fuchs E, Roos RP
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Translation of dipeptide repeat proteins from the C9ORF72 expanded repeat is associated with cellular stress

NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2018 AUG; 116(?):155-165
Expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat (HRE), GGGGCC, in the C9ORF72 gene is recognized as the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and ALS-FTD, as well as 5-10% of sporadic ALS. Despite the location of the HRE in the non-coding region (with respect to the main C9ORF72 gene product), dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) that are thought to be toxic are translated from the HRE in all three reading frames from both the sense and antisense transcript. Here, we identified a CUG that has a good Kozak consensus sequence as the translation initiation codon. Mutation of this CTG significantly suppressed polyglycine-alanine (GA) translation. GA was translated when the G(4)C(2) construct was placed as the second cistron in a bicistronic construct. CRISPR/Cas9-induced knockout of a non-canonical translation initiation factor, eIF2A, impaired GA translation. Transfection of G(4)C(2) constructs induced an integrated stress response (ISR), while triggering the ISR led to a continuation of translation of GA with a decline in conventional cap-dependent translation. These in vitro observations were confirmed in chick embryo neural cells. The findings suggest that DPRs translated from an HRE in C9ORF72 aggregate and lead to an ISR that then leads to continuing DPR production and aggregation, thereby creating a continuing pathogenic cycle.
Lopes E, Picarra S, Almeida PL, de Lencastre H, Aires-de-Sousa M
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Bactericidal efficacy of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles against antimicrobial-resistant pathogens

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY 2018 AUG; 67(8):1042-1046
Multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a major threat to effective antibiotics and alternatives to fight multidrug-resistant pathogens are needed. We synthetized molybdenum oxide (MoO3) nanoparticles (NP) and determined their antibacterial activity against 39 isolates: (i) eight Staphylococcus aureus, including representatives of methicillin-resistant S. aureus epidemic clones; (ii) six enterococci, including vancomycin-resistant isolates; and (iii) 25 Gram-negative isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae), including extended spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases producers. All isolates showed a MoO3 NP MIC of 700-800 mg l(-1). MoO3 NP produced a clear inhibition zone for S. aureus and all Gram-negative isolates at concentrations >= 25 mg ml(-1) and >= 50 mg ml(-1) for enterococci. When the NP solutions were adjusted to pH similar to 7, the biocidal activity was completely abolished. MoO3 NP create an acidic pH and show a universal antimicrobial activity against susceptible and resistant isolates belonging to the most relevant bacterial species responsible for hospital-acquired infections.
Allen BB, Forgacs PB, Fakhar MA, Wu X, Gerber LM, Boddu S, Murthy SB, Stieg PE, Mangat HS
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Association of Seizure Occurrence with Aneurysm Treatment Modality in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients

NEUROCRITICAL CARE 2018 AUG; 29(1):62-68
Data on new-onset seizures after treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients are limited and variable. We examined the association between new-onset seizures after aSAH and aneurysm treatment modality, as well their relationship with initial clinical severity of aSAH and outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of all aSAH patients admitted to our institution over a 6-year period. 'Seizures' were defined as any observed clinical seizure or electrographic seizure on continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG) recordings, as determined by the reviewing neurophysiologist. Subgroup analyses were performed in low-grade (Hunt-Hess 1-3) and high-grade (Hunt-Hess 4-5) patients. Outcomes measures were Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at outpatient follow-up. There were 282 patients with aSAH; 203 (72.0%) suffered low-grade and 79 (28%) high-grade aSAH. Patients were treated with endovascular coiling (N = 194, 68.8%) or surgical clipping (N = 66, 23.4%). Eighteen (6.4%) patients had seizures, of whom 10 (5.5%) had aneurysm coiling and 7 (10.6%) underwent clipping (p = 0.15). In low-grade patients, seizures occurred less frequently (p = 0.016) and were more common after surgical clipping (p = 0.0089). Seizures correlated with lower GCS upon ICU discharge (p < 0.001), in clipped (p = 0.011) and coiled (p < 0.001) patients and in low-grade aSAH (p < 0.001). Seizures correlated with higher mRS on follow-up (p < 0.001), in clipped (p = 0.032) and coiled (p = 0.004) patients and in low-grade aSAH (p = 0.003). New-onset seizures after aSAH occurred infrequently, and their incidence after aneurysm clipping versus coiling was not significantly different. However, in low-grade patients, new seizures were more frequently associated with clipping than coiling. Additionally, non-convulsive seizures did not occur in low-grade patients treated with coiling. These findings may explain, in part, previous work suggesting better outcomes in coiled patients and encourage physicians to have a lower threshold for cEEG utilization in low-grade patients suspected to have acute seizures after surgical clipping.
Galea S, Vaughan RD
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Making the Invisible Causes of Population Health Visible: A Public Health of Consequence, August 2018

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 2018 AUG; 108(8):985-986
Li J, Guo A, Wang QY, Li YY, Zhao J, Lu J, Pei G
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NF-kappa B directly regulates -arrestin-1 expression and forms a negative feedback circuit in TNF-alpha-induced cell death

FASEB JOURNAL 2018 AUG; 32(8):4096-4106
beta-Arrestins (beta-arrestin-1 and -2) are multifunctional proteins that play important roles in the regulation of inflammation and cell survival that need to be tightly controlled; however, the mechanism that underlies their gene expression is largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that -arrestin-1 is a transcriptional target of NF-B. mRNA and protein levels of -arrestin-1 were up-regulated by NF-B inducers. Inhibition of NF-B prevented the up-regulation of -arrestin-1 mRNA, whereas activation of NF-B led to increased -arrestin-1 expression. -Arrestin-1 promoter activity was consistently enhanced upon NF-B activation as a result of the presence of a highly conserved B site. -Arrestin-1, in turn, suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-B by interfering with the interaction between p65 and p50. -Arrestin-1-deficient mice displayed reduced TNF--induced cell death and increased expression of antiapoptotic genes. Reintroduction of -arrestin-1, but not its mutant, which is unable to interfere with the p65-p50 interaction, into -arrestin-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts partially restored sensitivity to TNF--induced cell death. These findings reveal NF-B and -arrestin-1 to be key components of a negative feedback circuit that is necessary to regulate cell death.Li, J., Guo, A., Wang, Q., Li, Y., Zhao, J., Lu, J., Pei, G. NF-B directly regulates beta-arrestin-1 expression and forms a negative feedback circuit in TNF-alpha-induced cell death.