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Gedman G, Haase B, Durieux G, Biegler MT, Fedrigo O, Jarvis ED
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As above, so below: Whole transcriptome profiling demonstrates strong molecular similarities between avian dorsal and ventral pallial subdivisions

Over the last two decades, beginning with the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum in 2000, major revisions have been made to our understanding of the organization and nomenclature of the avian brain. However, there are still unresolved questions on avian pallial organization, particularly whether the cells above the vestigial ventricle represent distinct populations to those below it or similar populations. To test these two hypotheses, we profiled the transcriptomes of the major avian pallial subdivisions dorsal and ventral to the vestigial ventricle boundary using RNA sequencing and a new zebra finch genome assembly containing about 22,000 annotated, complete genes. We found that the transcriptomes of neural populations above and below the ventricle were remarkably similar. Each subdivision in dorsal pallium (Wulst) had a corresponding molecular counterpart in the ventral pallium (dorsal ventricular ridge). In turn, each corresponding subdivision exhibited shared gene co-expression modules that contained gene sets enriched in functional specializations, such as anatomical structure development, synaptic transmission, signaling, and neurogenesis. These findings are more in line with the continuum hypothesis of avian brain subdivision organization above and below the vestigial ventricle space, with the pallium as a whole consisting of four major cell populations (intercalated pallium, mesopallium, hyper-nidopallium, and arcopallium) instead of seven (hyperpallium apicale, interstitial hyperpallium apicale, intercalated hyperpallium, hyperpallium densocellare, mesopallium, nidopallium, and arcopallium). We suggest adopting a more streamlined hierarchical naming system that reflects the robust similarities in gene expression, neural connectivity motifs, and function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of overall vertebrate brain evolution.
Chen CC, Chen BR, Wang YN, Curman P, Beilinson HA, Brecht RM, Liu CC, Farrell RJ, de Juan-Sanz J, Charbonnier LM, Kajimura S, Ryan TA, Schatz DG, Chatila TA, Wikstrom JD, Tyler JK, Sleckman BP
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Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) activity is required for V(D)J recombination

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2021 AUG 2; 218(8):? Article e20201708
A whole-genome CRISPR/Cas9 screen identified ATP2A2, the gene encoding the Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) 2 protein, as being important for V(D)J recombination. SERCAs are ER transmembrane proteins that pump Ca2+ from the cytosol into the ER lumen to maintain the ER Ca2+ reservoir and regulate cytosolic Ca2+-dependent processes. In preB cells, loss of SERCA2 leads to reduced V(D)J recombination kinetics due to diminished RAG-mediated DNA cleavage. SERCA2 deficiency in B cells leads to increased expression of SERCA3, and combined loss of SERCA2 and SERCA3 results in decreased ER Ca2+ levels, increased cytosolic Ca2+ levels, reduction in RAG1 and RAG2 gene expression, and a profound block in V(D)J recombination. Mice with B cells deficient in SERCA2 and humans with Darier disease, caused by heterozygous ATP2A2 mutations, have reduced numbers of mature B cells. We conclude that SERCA proteins modulate intracellular Ca2+ levels to regulate RAG1 and RAG2 gene expression and V(D)J recombination and that defects in SERCA functions cause lymphopenia.
Biegler MT, Cantin LJ, Scarano DL, Jarvis ED
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Controlling for activity-dependent genes and behavioral states is critical for determining brain relationships within and across species

The genetic profile of vertebrate pallia has long driven debate on homology across distantly related clades. Based on an expression profile of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 in mouse and chicken brains, Puelles et al. (The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2016, 524, 665-703) concluded that the avian lateral mesopallium is homologous to the mammalian claustrum, and the medial mesopallium homologous to the insula cortex. They argued that their findings contradict conclusions by Jarvis et al. (The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2013, 521, 3614-3665) and Chen et al. (The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2013, 521, 3666-3701) that the hyperpallium densocellare is instead a mesopallium cell population, and by Suzuki and Hirata (Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 2014, 8, 783) that the avian mesopallium is homologous to mammalian cortical layers 2/3. Here, we find that NR4A2 is an activity-dependent gene and cannot be used to determine brain organization or species relationships without considering behavioral state. Activity-dependent NR4A2 expression has been previously demonstrated in the rodent brain, with the highest induction occurring within the claustrum, amygdala, deep and superficial cortical layers, and hippocampus. In the zebra finch, we find that NR4A2 is constitutively expressed in the arcopallium, but induced in parts of the mesopallium, and in sparse cells within the hyperpallium, depending on animal stimulus or behavioral state. Basal and induced NR4A2 expression patterns do not discount the previously named avian hyperpallium densocellare as dorsal mesopallium and conflict with proposed homology between the avian mesopallium and mammalian claustrum/insula at the exclusion of other brain regions. Broadly, these findings highlight the importance of controlling for behavioral state and neural activity to genetically define brain cell population relationships within and across species.
Lenne PF, Munro E, Heemskerk I, Warmflash A, Bocanegra-Moreno L, Kishi K, Kicheva A, Long YC, Fruleux A, Boudaoud A, Saunders TE, Caldarelli P, Michaut A, Gros J, Maroudas-Sacks Y, Keren K, Hannezo E, Gartner ZJ, Stormo B, Gladfelter A, Rodrigues A, Shyer A, Minc N, Maitre JL, Di Talia S, Khamaisi B, Sprinzak D, Tlili S
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Roadmap for the multiscale coupling of biochemical and mechanical signals during development

PHYSICAL BIOLOGY 2021 JUL; 18(4):? Article 041501
The way in which interactions between mechanics and biochemistry lead to the emergence of complex cell and tissue organization is an old question that has recently attracted renewed interest from biologists, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists. Rapid advances in optical physics, microscopy and computational image analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to observe and quantify spatiotemporal patterns of signalling, force generation, deformation, and flow in living cells and tissues. Powerful new tools for genetic, biophysical and optogenetic manipulation are allowing us to perturb the underlying machinery that generates these patterns in increasingly sophisticated ways. Rapid advances in theory and computing have made it possible to construct predictive models that describe how cell and tissue organization and dynamics emerge from the local coupling of biochemistry and mechanics. Together, these advances have opened up a wealth of new opportunities to explore how mechanochemical patterning shapes organismal development. In this roadmap, we present a series of forward-looking case studies on mechanochemical patterning in development, written by scientists working at the interface between the physical and biological sciences, and covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, organisms, and modes of development. Together, these contributions highlight the many ways in which the dynamic coupling of mechanics and biochemistry shapes biological dynamics: from mechanoenzymes that sense force to tune their activity and motor output, to collectives of cells in tissues that flow and redistribute biochemical signals during development.
The mu opioid receptor antagonist/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) partial agonist nalmefene (NMF), a close structural analog of naltrexone (NTX), has been shown to reduce cocaine reward in preclinical models. Given the greater KOR potency and improved bioavailability compared to NTX, NMF may be a promising pharmacotherapeutic for cocaine use disorder (CUD). Here we examine the effects of NMF pretreatment on chronic daily extended access (4h) cocaine intravenous self-administration (IVSA) in adult male C57Bl/6J mice. Methods: separate groups of mice had daily 4h cocaine IVSA sessions (0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/inf, FR1) for 14 days. Starting on day 8, mice were pretreated with NMF (0, 1, or 10 mg/kg) 30m before each session. A separate group of mice acquired cocaine IVSA [seven days FR1 then four FR3 of 4h daily sessions (0.5 mg/kg/inf)] prior to a single progressive ratio 3 session to examine the effect of 1 mg/kg NMF on cocaine motivation. Results: No significant effect of NMF pretreatment on cocaine intake was observed. Acute pretreatment of 1 mg/kg NMF significantly potentiated cocaine motivation as measured by progressive ratio breakpoint. Conclusions: NMF did not significantly attenuate cocaine intake and increased motivation for cocaine suggesting that NMF may not be suitable for non-abstinent CUD patients. Further research is needed with KOR selective partial or full agonists to determine their effect on cocaine reinforcement.
Drzewiecki K, Choi J, Brancale J, Leney-Greene MA, Sari S, Dalgic B, Aksu AU, Sahin GL, Ozen A, Baris S, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Jain D, Kleiner D, Schmalz M, Radhakrishnan K, Zhang JH, Hoebe K, Su HC, Pereira JP, Lenardo MJ, Lifton RP, Vilarinho S
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GIMAP5 maintains liver endothelial cell homeostasis and

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2021 JUL 5; 218(7):? Article e20201745
Portal hypertension is a major contributor to decompensation and death from liver disease, a global health problem. Here, we demonstrate homozygous damaging mutations in GIMAP5, a small organellar GTPase, in four families with unexplained portal hypertension. We show that GIMAP5 is expressed in hepatic endothelial cells and that its loss in both humans and mice results in capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs); this effect is also seen when GIMAP5 is selectively deleted in endothelial cells. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis in a GIMAP5-deficient mouse model reveals replacement of LSECs with capillarized endothelial cells, a reduction of macrovascular hepatic endothelial cells, and places GIMAP5 upstream of GATA4, a transcription factor required for LSEC specification. Thus, GIMAP5 is a critical regulator of liver endothelial cell homeostasis and, when absent, produces portal hypertension. These findings provide new insight into the pathogenesis of portal hypertension, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality from liver disease. Despite major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral causes of hepatitis (Vilarinho and Lifton, 2016), the incidence of chronic liver disease continues to rise worldwide, affecting up to 1.5 billion people globally (GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators, 2018) and leading to similar to 2 million deaths annually (Moon et al., 2020). Because the demand for liver transplantation far exceeds the supply of available donor organs, understanding the pathogenesis of advanced liver disease and its complications will be required to develop new therapies to reduce adverse disease outcomes. Portal hypertension-increased hepatic resistance to blood flow entering the liver-is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of liver disease owing to development of
Yamashita M, Kuehn HS, Okuyama K, Okada S, Inoue Y, Mitsuiki N, Imai K, Takagi M, Kanegane H, Takeuchi M, Shimojo N, Tsumura M, Padhi AK, Zhang KYJ, Boisson B, Casanova JL, Ohara O, Rosenzweig SD, Taniuchi I, Morio T
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A variant in human AIOLOS impairs adaptive immunity by interfering with IKAROS

NATURE IMMUNOLOGY 2021 JUL; 22(7):893-903
The zinc-finger transcription factor IKAROS is essential for B cell development. Taniuchi, Morio and colleagues identify a human kindred presenting with B cell immunodeficiency that was caused by a heterozygous missense mutation in IKZF3 encoding the related AIOLOS protein. AIOLOS(G159R) is a mutant protein that interferes with both wild-type AIOLOS and IKAROS by forming heterodimers that bind to aberrant DNA-binding sites and prevent normal expression of IKAROS-dependent genes. In the present study, we report a human-inherited, impaired, adaptive immunity disorder, which predominantly manifested as a B cell differentiation defect, caused by a heterozygous IKZF3 missense variant, resulting in a glycine-to-arginine replacement within the DNA-binding domain of the encoded AIOLOS protein. Using mice that bear the corresponding variant and recapitulate the B and T cell phenotypes, we show that the mutant AIOLOS homodimers and AIOLOS-IKAROS heterodimers did not bind the canonical AIOLOS-IKAROS DNA sequence. In addition, homodimers and heterodimers containing one mutant AIOLOS bound to genomic regions lacking both canonical motifs. However, the removal of the dimerization capacity from mutant AIOLOS restored B cell development. Hence, the adaptive immunity defect is caused by the AIOLOS variant hijacking IKAROS function. Heterodimeric interference is a new mechanism of autosomal dominance that causes inborn errors of immunity by impairing protein function via the mutation of its heterodimeric partner.
Dong XX, Chao YJ, Zhou Y, Zhou R, Zhang W, Fischetti VA, Wang XH, Feng Y, Li JQ
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The global emergence of a novel Streptococcus suis clade associated with human infections

EMBO MOLECULAR MEDICINE 2021 JUL 7; 13(7):? Article e13810
Streptococcus suis, a ubiquitous bacterial colonizer in pigs, has recently extended host range to humans, leading to a global surge of deadly human infections and three large outbreaks since 1998. To better understand the mechanisms for the emergence of cross-species transmission and virulence in human, we have sequenced 366 S. suis human and pig isolates from 2005 to 2016 and performed a large-scale phylogenomic analysis on 1,634 isolates from 14 countries over 36 years. We show the formation of a novel human-associated clade (HAC) diversified from swine S. suis isolates. Phylogeographic analysis identified Europe as the origin of HAC, coinciding with the exportation of European swine breeds between 1960s and 1970s. HAC is composed of three sub-lineages and contains several healthy-pig isolates that display high virulence in experimental infections, suggesting healthy-pig carriers as a potential source for human infection. New HAC-specific genes are identified as promising markers for pathogen detection and surveillance. Our discovery of a human-associated S. suis clade provides insights into the evolution of this emerging human pathogen and extend our understanding of S. suis epidemics worldwide.
Fernandez-Martinez J, Rout MP
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One Ring to Rule them All? Structural and Functional Diversity in the Nuclear Pore Complex

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the massive protein assembly that regulates the transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Recent breakthroughs have provided major insights into the structure of the NPC in different eukaryotes, revealing a previously unsuspected diversity of NPC architectures. In parallel, the NPC has been shown to be a key player in regulating essential nuclear processes such as chromatin organization, gene expression, and DNA repair. However, our knowledge of the NPC structure has not been able to address the molecular mechanisms underlying its regulatory roles. We discuss potential explanations, including the coexistence of alternative NPC architectures with specific functional roles.
Savage KT, Singh V, Patel ZS, Yannuzzi CA, McKenzie-Brown AM, Lowes MA, Orenstein LAV
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Pain management in hidradenitis suppurativa and a proposed treatment algorithm

Pain contributes substantially to reduced quality of life in individuals living with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Although improved understanding of HS pathogenesis and treatment has resulted in improved evidence-based HS management guidelines, comprehensive pain management guidelines have yet to be developed. Few HS-specific data exist to guide pharmacologic analgesia; however, recognizing HS pain as either acute or chronic and predominantly nociceptive (aching and gnawing pain due to tissue damage) versus neuropathic (burning-type pain due to somatosensory nervous system dysfunction) provides a conceptual framework for applying outside pain management practices to HS management. This article incorporates the best available evidence from the HS and pain literature to propose an HS pain algorithm that integrates psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary and alternative treatment modalities.