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Found 34304 matches. Displaying 1-10
Waters EM, Mazid S, Dodos M, Puri R, Janssen WG, Morrison JH, McEwen BS, Milner TA
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Effects of estrogen and aging on synaptic morphology and distribution of phosphorylated Tyr1472 NR2B in the female rat hippocampus

NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2019 JAN; 73(?):200-210
Age and estrogens may impact the mobility of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in hippocampal synapses. Here, we used serial section immunogold electron microscopy to examine whether phosphorylated tyrosine 1472 NR2B (pY1472), which is involved in the surface expression of NMDARs, is altered in the dorsal hippocampus of young (3-4 months old) and aged ( similar to 24 months old) ovariectomized rats treated with 17 beta-estradiol or vehicle for 2 days. The number of gold particles labeling pY1472 was higher in presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments of aged rats with low estradiol (vehicle-treated) compared to other groups. In terminals, pY1472 levels were elevated in aged rats but reduced by estradiol treatment to levels seen in young rats. Conversely, the mitochondria number was lower in aged females but was restored to young levels by estradiol. In the postsynaptic density and dendritic spines, estradiol reduced pY1472 in young and aged rats. As phosphorylation at Y1472 blocks NR2B endocytosis, reduction of pY1472 by estradiol suggests another mechanism through which estrogen enhances synaptic plasticity by altering localization of NMDAR subunits within synapses. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nasca C, Rasgon N, McEwen B
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An emerging epigenetic framework of systemic and central mechanisms underlying stress-related disorders

NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2019 JAN; 44(1):235-236
Li X, Li XM, Jiang YX, Liu Z, Cui YW, Fung KY, van der Beelen SHE, Tian GF, Wan LL, Shi XB, Allis CD, Li HT, Li YY, Li XD
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Structure-guided development of YEATS domain inhibitors by targeting pi-pi-pi stacking

NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY 2018 DEC; 14(12):1140-1149
Chemical probes of epigenetic 'readers' of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) have become powerful tools for mechanistic and functional studies of their target proteins in normal physiology and disease pathogenesis. Here we report the development of the first class of chemical probes of YEATS domains, newly identified 'readers' of histone lysine acetylation (Kac) and crotonylation (Kcr). Guided by the structural analysis of a YEATS-Kcr complex, we developed a series of peptide-based inhibitors of YEATS domains by targeting a unique pi-pi-pi stacking interaction at the proteins' Kcr recognition site. Further structure optimization resulted in the selective inhibitors preferentially binding to individual YEATS-containing proteins including AF9 and ENL with submicromolar affinities. We demonstrate that one of the ENL YEATS-selective inhibitors, XL-13m, engages with endogenous ENL, perturbs the recruitment of ENL onto chromatin, and synergizes the BET and DOT1L inhibition-induced downregulation of oncogenes in MLL-rearranged acute leukemia.
Galea S, Vaughan RD
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The Public Conversation and the Public's Health: A Public Health of Consequence, December 2018

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 2018 DEC; 108(12):1590-1591
Desharnais RA, Reuman DC, Costantino RF, Cohen JE
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Temporal scale of environmental correlations affects ecological synchrony

ECOLOGY LETTERS 2018 DEC; 21(12):1800-1811
Population densities of a species measured in different locations are often correlated over time, a phenomenon referred to as synchrony. Synchrony results from dispersal of individuals among locations and spatially correlated environmental variation, among other causes. Synchrony is often measured by a correlation coefficient. However, synchrony can vary with timescale. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the timescale-specificity of environmental correlation affects the overall magnitude and timescale-specificity of synchrony, and that these effects are modified by population dispersal. Our laboratory experiments linked populations of flour beetles by changes in habitat size and dispersal. Linear filter theory, applied to a metapopulation model for the experimental system, predicted the observed timescale-specific effects. The timescales at which environmental covariation occurs can affect the population dynamics of species in fragmented habitats.
Kim J, Lee J, Gonzalez J, Fuentes-Duculan J, Garcet S, Krueger JG
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Proportion of CD4(+)CD49b(+)LAG-3(+) Type 1 Regulatory T Cells in the Blood of Psoriasis Patients Inversely Correlates with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index

JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY 2018 DEC; 138(12):2669-2672
Furey CG, Zeng X, Dong WL, Jin SC, Choi J, Timberlake AT, Dunbar AM, Allocco AA, Guenel M, Lifton RP, Kahle KT
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Human Genetics and Molecular Mechanisms of Congenital Hydrocephalus

WORLD NEUROSURGERY 2018 NOV; 119(?):441-443
McKenzie SK, Kronauer DJC
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The genomic architecture and molecular evolution of ant odorant receptors

GENOME RESEARCH 2018 NOV; 28(11):1757-1765
The massive expansions of odorant receptor (OR) genes in ant genomes are notable examples of rapid genome evolution and adaptive gene duplication. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to gene family expansion remain poorly understood, partly because available ant genomes are fragmentary. Here, we present a highly contiguous, chromosome-level assembly of the clonal raider ant genome, revealing the largest known OR repertoire in an insect. While most ant ORs originate via local tandem duplication, we also observe several cases of dispersed duplication followed by tandem duplication in the most rapidly evolving OR clades. We found that areas of unusually high transposable element density (TE islands) were depauperate in ORs in the clonal raider ant, and found no evidence for retrotransposition of ORs. However, OR loci were enriched for transposons relative to the genome as a whole, potentially facilitating tandem duplication by unequal crossing over. We also found that ant OR genes are highly AT-rich compared to other genes. In contrast, in flies, OR genes are dispersed and largely isolated within the genome, and we find that fly ORs are not AT-rich. The genomic architecture and composition of ant ORs thus show convergence with the unrelated vertebrate ORs rather than the related fly ORs. This might be related to the greater gene numbers and/or potential similarities in gene regulation between ants and vertebrates as compared to flies.
Giddens JP, Lomino JV, DiLillo DJ, Ravetch JV, Wang LX
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Site-selective chemoenzymatic glycoengineering of Fab and Fc glycans of a therapeutic antibody

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2018 NOV 20; 115(47):12023-12027
The N-glycans attached to the Fab and Fc domains play distinct roles in modulating the functions of antibodies. However, post-translational site-selective modifications of glycans in antibodies and other multiply glycosylated proteins remain a challenging task. Here, we report a chemoenzymatic method that permits independent manipulation of the Fab and Fc N-glycans, using cetuximab as a model therapeutic monoclonal antibody. Taking advantage of the substrate specificity of three endoglycosidases (Endo-S, Endo-S2, and Endo-F3) and their glycosynthase mutants, together with an unexpected substrate site-selectivity of a bacterial alpha 1,6-fucosidase from Lactobacillus casei (AlfC), we were able to synthesize an optimal homogeneous glycoform of cetuximab in which the heterogeneous and immunogenic Fab N-glycans were replaced with a single sialylated N-glycan, and the core-fucosylated Fc N-glycans were remodeled with a nonfucosylated and fully galactosylated N-glycan. The glycoengineered cetuximab demonstrated increased affinity for the Fc gamma IIIa receptor and significantly enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity.
Lu JH, Tang LC, Xu YQ, Ge KK, Huang JJ, Gu MG, Zhong J, Huang QS
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Mir-1287 suppresses the proliferation, invasion, and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting PIK3R3

JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY 2018 NOV; 119(11):9229-9238
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules involved in regulation of post-translational gene expression. Although aberrant levels of miRNAs have been found in various tumor tissues, their importance in tumor development and the molecular basis of their regulatory role remain unclear. Our bioinformatic analysis on The Cancer Genome Atlas database and microarray-based comparison of miRNA in different cell lines revealed that the level of mir-1287 is suppressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. When upregulated, mir-1287 can reduce the tumorigenesis phenotypes of HCC cells in several in vitro models. We further found that mir-1287 directly targets messenger RNA encoding PIK3R3, which is a tumor-promoting factor acting in several pathways linked to tumorigenesis. Our study suggests that aberrant suppression of mir-1287 is potentially responsible for the development of HCC, and miRNA-based strategies may be developed for efficient detection and treatment of HCC.