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Found 36604 matches. Displaying 1-10
Caradonna SG, Zhang TY, O'Toole N, Shen MJ, Khalil H, Einhorn NR, Wen XL, Parent C, Lee FS, Akil H, Meaney MJ, McEwen BS, Marrocco J
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Genomic modules and intramodular network concordance in susceptible and resilient male mice across models of stress

The multifactorial etiology of stress-related disorders necessitates a constant interrogation of the molecular convergences in preclinical models of stress that use disparate paradigms as stressors spanning from environmental challenges to genetic predisposition to hormonal signaling. Using RNA-sequencing, we investigated the genomic signatures in the ventral hippocampus common to mouse models of stress. Chronic oral corticosterone (CORT) induced increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior in wild-type male mice and male mice heterozygous for the gene coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met, a variant associated with genetic susceptibility to stress. In a separate set of male mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) led to a susceptible or a resilient population, whose proportion was dependent on housing conditions, namely standard housing or enriched environment. Rank-rank-hypergeometric overlap (RRHO), a threshold-free approach that ranks genes by their p value and effect size direction, was used to identify genes from a continuous gradient of significancy that were concordant across groups. In mice treated with CORT and in standard-housed susceptible mice, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were concordant for gene networks involved in neurotransmission, cytoskeleton function, and vascularization. Weighted gene co-expression analysis generated 54 gene hub modules and revealed two modules in which both CORT and CSDS-induced enrichment in DEGs, whose function was concordant with the RRHO predictions, and correlated with behavioral resilience or susceptibility. These data showed transcriptional concordance across models in which the stress coping depends upon hormonal, environmental, or genetic factors revealing common genomic drivers that embody the multifaceted nature of stress-related disorders.
Gruell H, Gunst JD, Cohen YZ, Pahus MH, Malin JJ, Platten M, Millard KG, Tolstrup M, Jones RB, Alberto WDC, Lorenzi JCC, Oliveira TY, Kummerle T, Suarez I, Unson-O'Brien C, Nogueira L, Olesen R, Ostergaard L, Nielsen H, Lehmann C, Nussenzweig MC, Fatkenheuer G, Klein F, Caskey M, Sogaard OS
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Effect of 3BNC117 and romidepsin on the HIV-1 reservoir in people taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ROADMAP): a randomised, open-label, phase 2A trial

LANCET MICROBE 2022 MAR; 3(3):E203-E214
Background The administration of broadly neutralising anti-HIV-1 antibodies before latency reversal could facilitate elimination of HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells. We tested this concept by combining the broadly neutralising antibody 3BNC117 in combination with the latency-reversing agent romidepsin in people with HIV-1 who were taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods We did a randomised, open-label, phase 2A trial at three university hospital centres in Denmark, Germany, and the USA. Eligible participants were virologically suppressed adults aged 18-65 years who were infected with HIV-1 and on ART for at least 18 months, with plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations of less than 50 copies per mL for at least 12 months, and a CD4 T-cell count of greater than 500 cells per mu L. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 3BNC117 plus romidepsin or romidepsin alone in two cycles. All participants received intravenous infusions of romidepsin (5 mg/m(2) given over 120 min) at weeks 0, 1, and 2 (treatment cycle 1) and weeks 8, 9, and 10 (treatment cycle 2). Those in the 3BNC117 plus romidepsin group received an intravenous infusion of 3BNC117 (30 mg/kg given over 60 min) 2 days before each treatment cycle. An analytic treatment interruption (ATI) of ART was done at week 24 in both groups. Our primary endpoint was time to viral rebound during analytic treatment interruption, which was assessed in all participants who completed both treatment cycles and ATI. We used a log-rank test to compare time to viral rebound during analytic treatment interruption between the two groups. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT02850016. It is closed to new participants, and all follow-up is complete. Findings Between March 20, 2017, and Aug 14, 2018, 22 people were enrolled and randomly assigned, 11 to the 3BNC117 plus romidepsin group and 11 to the romidepsin group. 19 participants completed both treatment cycles and the ATI: 11 in the 3BNC117 plus romidepsin group and 8 in the romidepsin group. The median time to viral rebound during ATI was 18 days (IQR 14-28) in the 3BNC117 plus romidepsin group and 28 days (21-35) in the romidepsin group B (p=0.0016). Although this difference was significant, prolongation of time to viral rebound was not clinically meaningful in either group. All participants in both groups reported adverse events, but overall the combination of 3BNC117 and romidepsin was safe. Two severe adverse events were observed in the romidepsin group during 48 weeks of follow-up, one of which-increased direct bilirubin-was judged to be related to treatment. Interpretation The combination of 3BNC117 and romidepsin was safe but did not delay viral rebound during analytic treatment interruptions in individuals on long-term ART. The results of our trial could serve as a benchmark for further optimisation of HIV-1 curative strategies among people with HIV-1 who are taking suppressive ART. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ryan PA, McGrath D, Euler CW
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Watch your Strep: Streptococcus pyogenes is a preventable cause of maternal death

FUTURE MICROBIOLOGY 2022 MAR; 17(5):319-323
Formenti G, Theissinger K, Fernandes C, Bista I, Bombarely A, Bleidorn C, Ciofi C, Crottini A, Godoy JA, Hoglund J, Malukiewicz J, Mouton A, Oomen RA, Paez S, Palsboll PJ, Pampoulie C, Ruiz-Lopez MJ, Svardal H, Theofanopoulou C, de Vries J, Waldvogel AM, Zhang GJ, Mazzoni CJ, Jarvis ED, Balint M
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The era of reference genomes in conservation genomics

Progress in genome sequencing now enables the large-scale generation of reference genomes. Various international initiatives aim to generate reference genomes representing global biodiversity. These genomes provide unique insights into genomic diversity and architecture, thereby enabling comprehensive analyses of population and functional genomics, and are expected to revolutionize conservation genomics.
Passarelli MC, Pinzaru AM, Asgharian H, Liberti MV, Heissel S, Molina H, Goodarzi H, Tavazoie SF
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Leucyl-tRNA synthetase is a tumour suppressor in breast cancer and regulates codon-dependent translation dynamics

NATURE CELL BIOLOGY 2022 MAR; 24(3):307-+
Tumourigenesis and cancer progression require enhanced global protein translation(1-3). Such enhanced translation is caused by oncogenic and tumour-suppressive events that drive the synthesis and activity of translational machinery(4,5). Here we report the surprising observation that leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LARS) becomes repressed during mammary cell transformation and in human breast cancer. Monoallelic genetic deletion of LARS in mouse mammary glands enhanced breast cancer tumour formation and proliferation. LARS repression reduced the abundance of select leucine tRNA isoacceptors, leading to impaired leucine codon-dependent translation of growth suppressive genes, including epithelial membrane protein 3 (EMP3) and gamma-glutamyltransferase 5 (GGT5). Our findings uncover a tumour-suppressive tRNA synthetase and reveal that dynamic repression of a specific tRNA synthetase-along with its downstream cognate tRNAs-elicits a downstream codon-biased translational gene network response that enhances breast tumour formation and growth.
Sharma SK, Mack KN, Piersigilli A, Pourat J, Edwards KJ, Keinanen O, Jiao MS, Zhao HY, White B, Brooks CL, de Stanchina E, Madiyalakan MR, Hollingsworth MA, Radhakrishnan P, Lewis JS, Zeglis BM
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ImmunoPET of Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancer with AR9.6, a Novel MUC16-Targeted Therapeutic Antibody

CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH 2022 MAR 1; 28(5):948-959
Purpose: Advances in our understanding of the contribution of aberrant glycosylation to the pro-oncogenic signaling and metastasis of tumor cells have reinvigorated the development of mucin-targeted therapies. Here, we validate the tumor-targeting ability of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), AR9.6, that binds MUC16 and abrogates downstream oncogenic signaling to confer a therapeutic response. Experimental Design: The in vitro and ex vivo validation of the binding of AR9.6 to MUC16 was achieved via flow cytometry, radioligand binding assay (RBA), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The in vivo MUC16 targeting of AR9.6 was validated by creating a Zr-89-labeled radioimmunoconjugate of the mAb and utilizing immunoPET and ex vivo biodistribution studies in xenograft models of human ovarian and pancreatic cancer. Results: Flow cytometry, RBA, and IHC revealed that AR9.6 binds to ovarian and pancreatic cancer cells in an MUC16-dependent manner. The in vivo radiopharmacologic profile of Zr-89-labeled AR9.6 in mice bearing ovarian and pancreatic cancer xenografts confirmed the MUC16-dependent tumor targeting by the radioimmunoconjugate. Radioactivity uptake was also observed in the distant lymph nodes (LNs) of mice bearing xenografts with high levels of MUC16 expression (i.e., OVCAR3 and Capan-2). IHC analyses of these PET-positive LNs highlighted the presence of shed antigen as well as necrotic, phagocytized, and actively infiltrating neoplastic cells. The humanization of AR9.6 did not compromise its ability to target MUC16-expressing tumors. Conclusions: The unique therapeutic mechanism of AR9.6 combined with its excellent in vivo tumor targeting makes it a highly promising theranostic agent. huAR9.6 is poised for clinical translation to impact the management of metastatic ovarian and pancreatic cancers.
Zhang Q, Bastard P, Cobat A, Casanova JL
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Human genetic and immunological determinants of critical COVID-19 pneumonia

NATURE 2022 MAR 24; 603(7902):587-598
SARS-CoV-2 infection is benign in most individuals but, in around 10% of cases, it triggers hypoxaemic COVID-19 pneumonia, which leads to critical illness in around 3% of cases. The ensuing risk of death (approximately 1% across age and gender) doubles every five years from childhood onwards and is around 1.5 times greater in men than in women. Here we review the molecular and cellular determinants of critical COVID-19 pneumonia. Inborn errors of type I interferons (IFNs), including autosomal TLR3 and X-chromosome-linked TLR7 deficiencies, are found in around 1-5% of patients with critical pneumonia under 60 years old, and a lower proportion in older patients. Pre-existing auto-antibodies neutralizing IFN alpha, IFN beta and/or IFN omega, which are more common in men than in women, are found in approximately 15-20% of patients with critical pneumonia over 70 years old, and a lower proportion in younger patients. Thus, at least 15% of cases of critical COVID-19 pneumonia can be explained. The TLR3- and TLR7-dependent production of type I IFNs by respiratory epithelial cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, respectively, is essential for host defence against SARS-CoV-2. In ways that can depend on age and sex, insufficient type I IFN immunity in the respiratory tract during the first few days of infection may account for the spread of the virus, leading to pulmonary and systemic inflammation.
Bellone S, Roque DM, Siegel ER, Buza N, Hui P, Bonazzoli E, Guglielmi A, Zammataro L, Nagarkatti N, Zaidi S, Lee J, Silasi DA, Huang GS, Andikyan V, Damast S, Clark M, Azodi M, Schwartz PE, Tymon-Rosario JR, Harold JA, Mauricio D, Zeybek B, Menderes G, Altwerger G, Ratner E, Alexandrov LB, Iwasaki A, Kong Y, Song E, Dong WL, Elvin JA, Choi J, Santin AD
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A phase 2 evaluation of pembrolizumab for recurrent Lynch-like versus sporadic endometrial cancers with microsatellite instability

CANCER 2022 MAR 15; 128(6):1206-1218
Background Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H)/mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) is a biomarker for responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Whether mechanisms underlying microsatellite instability alter responses to ICIs is unclear. This article reports data from a prospective phase 2 pilot study of pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent MSI-H endometrial cancer (EC) analyzed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and potential mechanisms of primary/secondary ICI resistance (NCT02899793). Methods Patients with measurable MSI-H/dMMR EC confirmed by polymerase chain reaction/immunohistochemistry were evaluated by WES and received 200 mg of pembrolizumab every 3 weeks for <= 2 years. The primary end point was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Twenty-five patients (24 evaluable) were treated. Six patients (25%) harbored Lynch/Lynch-like tumors, whereas 18 (75%) had sporadic EC. The tumor mutation burden was higher in Lynch-like tumors (median, 2939 mutations/megabase [Mut/Mb]; interquartile range [IQR], 867-5108 Mut/Mb) than sporadic tumors (median, 604 Mut/Mb; IQR, 411-798 Mut/Mb; P = .0076). The ORR was 100% in Lynch/Lynch-like patients but only 44% in sporadic patients (P = .024). The 3-year PFS and OS proportions were 100% versus 30% (P = .017) and 100% versus 43% (P = .043), respectively. Conclusions This study suggests prognostic significance of Lynch-like cancers versus sporadic MSI-H/dMMR ECs for ORR, PFS, and OS when patients are treated with pembrolizumab. Larger confirmatory studies in ECs and other MSI-H/dMMR tumors are necessary. Defective antigen processing/presentation and deranged induction in interferon responses serve as mechanisms of resistance in sporadic MSI-H ECs. Oligoprogression in MSI-H/dMMR patients appears salvageable with surgical resection and/or local treatment and the continuation of pembrolizumab off study. Clinical studies evaluating separate MSI-H/dMMR EC subtypes treated with ICIs are warranted.
Wang J, Yu XF, Gong WD, Liu XJ, Park KS, Ma AQ, Tsai YH, Shen YD, Onikubo T, Pi WC, Allison DF, Liu J, Chen WY, Cai L, Roeder RG, Jin J, Wang GG
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EZH2 noncanonically binds cMyc and p300 through a cryptic transactivation domain to mediate gene activation and promote oncogenesis

NATURE CELL BIOLOGY 2022 MAR; 24(3):384-+
Canonically, EZH2 serves as the catalytic subunit of PRC2, which mediates H3K27me3 deposition and transcriptional repression. Here, we report that in acute leukaemias, EZH2 has additional noncanonical functions by binding cMyc at non-PRC2 targets and uses a hidden transactivation domain (TAD) for (co)activator recruitment and gene activation. Both canonical (EZH2-PRC2) and noncanonical (EZH2-TAD-cMyc-coactivators) activities of EZH2 promote oncogenesis, which explains the slow and ineffective antitumour effect of inhibitors of the catalytic function of EZH2. To suppress the multifaceted activities of EZH2, we used proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) to develop a degrader, MS177, which achieved effective, on-target depletion of EZH2 and interacting partners (that is, both canonical EZH2-PRC2 and noncanonical EZH2-cMyc complexes). Compared with inhibitors of the enzymatic function of EZH2, MS177 is fast-acting and more potent in suppressing cancer growth. This study reveals noncanonical oncogenic roles of EZH2, reports a PROTAC for targeting the multifaceted tumorigenic functions of EZH2 and presents an attractive strategy for treating EZH2-dependent cancers.
Valet M, Siggia ED, Brivanlou AH
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Mechanical regulation of early vertebrate embryogenesis

Embryonic cells grow in environments that provide a plethora of physical cues, including mechanical forces that shape the development of the entire embryo. Despite their prevalence, the role of these forces in embryonic development and their integration with chemical signals have been mostly neglected, and scrutiny in modern molecular embryology tilted, instead, towards the dissection of molecular pathways involved in cell fate determination and patterning. It is now possible to investigate how mechanical signals induce downstream genetic regulatory networks to regulate key developmental processes in the embryo. Here, we review the insights into mechanical control of early vertebrate development, including the role of forces in tissue patterning and embryonic axis formation. We also highlight recent in vitro approaches using individual embryonic stem cells and self-organizing multicellular models of human embryos, which have been instrumental in expanding our understanding of how mechanics tune cell fate and cellular rearrangements during human embryonic development. Cells in the embryo are subject to autonomous and external mechanical forces that help steer embryonic tissue patterning. Technical developments, such as in vitro models of early embryos, allow probing of the roles of mechanical forces in animal and human embryonic development.