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Found 34783 matches. Displaying 81-90
Hudgens JW, Gallagher ES, Karageorgos I, Anderson KW, Filliben JJ, Huang RYC, Chen GD, Bou-Assaf GM, Espada A, Chalmers MJ, Harguindey E, Zhang HM, Walters BT, Zhang J, Venable J, Steckler C, Park I, Brock A, Lu XJ, Pandey R, Chandramohan A, Anand GS, Nirudodhi SN, Sperry JB, Rouse JC, Carroll JA, Rand KD, Leurs U, Weis DD, Al-Naqshabandi MA, Hageman TS, Deredge D, Wintrode PL, Papanastasiou M, Lambris JD, Li S, Urata S
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Interlaboratory Comparison of Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Measurements of the Fab Fragment of NISTmAb

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 2019 JUN 4; 91(11):7336-7345
Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is an established, powerful tool for investigating protein-ligand interactions, protein folding, and protein dynamics. However, HDX-MS is still an emergent tool for quality control of biopharmaceuticals and for establishing dynamic similarity between a biosimilar and an innovator therapeutic. Because industry will conduct quality control and similarity measurements over a product lifetime and in multiple locations, an understanding of HDX-MS reproducibility is critical. To determine the reproducibility of continuous-labeling, bottom-up HDX-MS measurements, the present interlaboratory comparison project evaluated deuterium uptake data from the Fab fragment of NISTmAb reference material (PDB: 5K8A) from 15 laboratories. Laboratories reported similar to 89 800 centroid measurements for 430 proteolytic peptide sequences of the Fab fragment (similar to 78 900 centroids), giving similar to 100% coverage, and similar to 10 900 centroid measurements for 77 peptide sequences of the Fc fragment. Nearly half of peptide sequences are unique to the reporting laboratory, and only two sequences are reported by all laboratories. The majority of the laboratories (87%) exhibited centroid mass laboratory repeatability precisions of < s(Lab)> <= (0.15 +/- 0.01) Da (1 sigma((x) over bar)). All laboratories achieved < s(Lab)> <= 0.4 Da. For immersions of protein at T-HDx = (3.6 to 25) degrees C and for D2O exchange times of t(HDX) = (30 s to 4 h) the reproducibility of back-exchange corrected, deuterium uptake measurements for the 15 laboratories is sigma(Laboratories)(reproducibility15) (t(HDX)) = (9.0 +/- 0.9) % (1 sigma). A nine laboratory cohort that immersed samples at T-HDX = 25 degrees C exhibited reproducibility of sigma(25C cohort)(reproducibility) (t(HDX)) = (6.5 +/- 0.6) % for back-exchange corrected, deuterium uptake measurements.
Humblet-Baron S, Franckaert D, Dooley J, Ailal F, Bousfiha A, Deswarte C, Oleaga-Quintas C, Casanova JL, Bustamante J, Liston A
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IFN-gamma and CD25 drive distinct pathologic features during hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Background: Inflammatory activation of CD8(+) T cells can, when left unchecked, drive severe immunopathology. Hyperstimulation of CD8(+) T cells through a broad set of triggering signals can precipitate hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening systemic inflammatory disorder. Objective: The mechanism linking CD8(+) T-cell hyperactivation to pathology is controversial, with excessive production of IFN-gamma and, more recently, excessive consumption of IL-2, which are proposed as competing hypotheses. We formally tested the proximal mechanistic events of each pathway in a mouse model of HLH. Methods: In addition to reporting a complete autosomal recessive IFN-gamma receptor 1-deficient patient with multiple aspects of HLH pathology, we used the mouse model of perforin (Prf1)(KO) mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to genetically eliminate either IFN-gamma production or CD25 expression and assess the immunologic, hematologic, and physiologic disease measurement. Results: We found a striking dichotomy between the mechanistic basis of the hematologic and inflammatory components of CD8(+) T cell-mediated pathology. The hematologic features of HLH were completely dependent on IFN-gamma production, with complete correction after loss of IFN-gamma production without any role for CD8(+) T cell-mediated IL-2 consumption. By contrast, the mechanistic contribution of the immunologic features was reversed, with no role for IFN-gamma production but substantial correction after reduction of IL-2 consumption by hyperactivated CD8(+) T cells. These results were complemented by the characterization of an IFN-gamma receptor 1-deficient patients with HLH-like disease, in whom multiple aspects of HLH pathology were observed in the absence of IFN-gamma signaling. Conclusion: These results synthesize the competing mechanistic models of HLH pathology into a dichotomous pathogenesis driven through discrete pathways. A holistic model provides a new paradigm for understanding HLH and, more broadly, the consequences of CD8(+) T-cell hyperactivation, thereby paving the way for clinical intervention based on the features of HLH in individual patients.
Abel GJ, Cohen JE
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Bilateral international migration flow estimates for 200 countries

SCIENTIFIC DATA 2019 JUN 17; 6(?):? Article 82
Data on stocks and flows of international migration are necessary to understand migrant patterns and trends and to monitor and evaluate migration-relevant international development agendas. Many countries do not publish data on bilateral migration flows. At least six methods have been proposed recently to estimate bilateral migration flows between all origin-destination country pairs based on migrant stock data published by the World Bank and United Nations. We apply each of these methods to the latest available stock data to provide six estimates of five-year bilateral migration flows between 1990 and 2015. To assess the resulting estimates, we correlate estimates of six migration measures from each method with equivalent reported data where possible. Such systematic efforts at validation have largely been neglected thus far. We show that the correlation between the reported data and the estimates varies widely among different migration measures, over space, and over time. We find that the two methods using a closed demographic accounting approach perform consistently better than the four other estimation approaches.
Steinman JB, Kapoor TM
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Using chemical inhibitors to probe AAA protein conformational dynamics and cellular functions

The AAA proteins are a family of enzymes that play key roles in diverse dynamic cellular processes, ranging from proteostasis to directional intracellular transport. Dysregulation of AAA proteins has been linked to several diseases, including cancer, suggesting a possible therapeutic role for inhibitors of these enzymes. In the past decade, new chemical probes have been developed for AAA proteins including p97, dynein, midasin, and ClpC1. In this review, we discuss how these compounds have been used to study the cellular functions and conformational dynamics of AAA proteins. We discuss future directions for inhibitor development and early efforts to utilize AAA protein inhibitors in the clinical setting.
Chudnovskiy A
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Studying interactions between dendritic cells and T cells in vivo

Antigen presentation is the key first step in the establishment of an
Etoc F, Brivanlou A
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A boost towards totipotency for stem cells

NATURE CELL BIOLOGY 2019 JUN; 21(6):671-673
Visvanathan S, Baum P, Vinisko R, Schmid R, Flack M, Lalovic B, Kleiner O, Fuentes-Duculan J, Garcet S, Davis JW, Grebe KM, Fine JS, Padula SJ, Krueger JG
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Psoriatic skin molecular and histopathologic profiles after treatment with risankizumab versus ustekinumab

Background: IL-23 contributes to the activation, maintenance, and proliferation of TH17 cells and plays a major role in psoriasis pathophysiology. IL-23p19 inhibition with risankizumab resulted in superior clinical responses in patients with psoriasis compared with ustekinumab (dual IL-12/IL-23 inhibitor), but comparative molecular effects have not been established. Objective: We investigated the similarities and differences in molecular and histopathologic profiles in skin lesions from patients with psoriasis receiving risankizumab versus ustekinumab at an early time point. Methods: Lesional skin biopsy samples from 81 patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis participating in 2 different studies (a phase I risankizumab study and a phase II study of risankizumab vs ustekinumab) were analyzed by using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and RNA sequencing. Results: Risankizumab induced a rapid decrease in levels of proteins and transcriptomic biomarkers associated with the IL-23 pathway, which were maintained through 8 weeks. At week 4, risankizumab decreased histopathologic expression of biomarkers, including K16, Ki67, CD3, lipocalin-2, CD11c, dendritic cell lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein, beta-defensin 2, and S100A7; global histopathologic scoring revealed that 54% and 69% of patients treated with 90 or 180 mg of risankizumab, respectively, were graded as experiencing "excellent improvement'' versus 29% of patients treated with ustekinumab. At week 4, there was a common decrease in expression of 2645 genes expressed in lesional skin between patients receiving risankizumab and ustekinumab and a significant decrease in 2682 genes unique to risankizumab treatment. Risankizumab more strongly downregulated expression of genes associated with keratinocytes, epidermal cells, and monocytes, versus ustekinumab. Conclusion: Risankizumab demonstrated more pronounced changes in the molecular and histopathologic profile of psoriatic skin lesions compared with ustekinumab at week 4.
Yuan Y, Park J, Tian Y, Choi J, Pasquariello R, Alexenko AP, Dai AH, Behura SK, Roberts RM, Ezashi T
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A six-inhibitor culture medium for improving naive-type pluripotency of porcine pluripotent stem cells

CELL DEATH DISCOVERY 2019 JUN 17; 5(?):? Article 104
Understanding essential signaling network requirements and making appropriate adjustments in culture conditions are crucial if porcine pluripotent stem cells (PSC) are to achieve their full potential. Here, we first used two protein factors (LIF and FGF2) and kinase inhibitor combinations in attempts to convert primed type lentiviral-reprogrammed porcine induced PSC (Lv-piPSC) into naive-like state and developed a medium called FL6i. In addition to FGF2 and LIF, this medium contained inhibitors of MAPK14, MAPK8, TGFB1, MAP2K1, GSK3A and BMP. Crucially, the usual TGFB1 and BMP4 protein components of many stem cell media were replaced in FL6i with inhibitors of TGFB1 and BMP. With this medium, Lv-piPSC were readily transformed from their original primed state into cells that formed colonies with typical features of naive-state stem cells. The FL6i medium also assisted generation of naive-type piPSC lines from porcine embryonic fibroblasts with non-integrating episomal plasmids (Epi-piPSC). These lines, despite retaining variable amounts of vector DNA, expressed higher endogenous pPOU5F1 and pSOX2 than Lv-piPSC. They have been cultured without obvious morphological change for > 45 passages and retained pluripotent phenotypes in terms of upregulation of genes associated with pluripotency, low expression of genes linked to emergence of somatic cell lineages, and ability to generate well differentiated teratomas in immune-compromised mice. FL6i conditions, therefore, appear to support elevated pluripotent phenotypes. However, FL6i was less able to support the generation of embryonic stem cells from porcine blastocysts. Although colonies with dome-shaped morphologies were evident and the cells had some gene expression features linked to pluripotency, the phenotypes were ultimately not stable. Pathway analysis derived from RNAseq data performed on the various cell lines generated in this study suggest the benefits of employing the FL6i medium on porcine cells reside in its ability to minimize TGFB1 and BMP signaling, which would otherwise de-stabilize the stem cell state.
Zhou J, Park CY, Theesfeld CL, Wong AK, Yuan Y, Scheckel C, Fak JJ, Funk J, Yao K, Tajima Y, Packer A, Darnell RB, Troyanskaya OG
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Whole-genome deep-learning analysis identifies contribution of noncoding mutations to autism risk

NATURE GENETICS 2019 JUN; 51(6):973-980
We address the challenge of detecting the contribution of noncoding mutations to disease with a deep-learning-based framework that predicts the specific regulatory effects and the deleterious impact of genetic variants. Applying this framework to 1,790 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) simplex families reveals a role in disease for noncoding mutations-ASD probands harbor both transcriptional- and post-transcriptional-regulation-disrupting de novo mutations of significantly higher functional impact than those in unaffected siblings. Further analysis suggests involvement of noncoding mutations in synaptic transmission and neuronal development and, taken together with previous studies, reveals a convergent genetic landscape of coding and noncoding mutations in ASD. We demonstrate that sequences carrying prioritized mutations identified in probands possess allele-specific regulatory activity, and we highlight a link between noncoding mutations and heterogeneity in the IQ of ASD probands. Our predictive genomics framework illuminates the role of noncoding mutations in ASD and prioritizes mutations with high impact for further study, and is broadly applicable to complex human diseases.
Meeske AJ, Nakandakari-Higa S, Marraffini LA
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Cas13-induced cellular dormancy prevents the rise of CRISPR-resistant bacteriophage

NATURE 2019 JUN 13; 570(7760):241-245
Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci in prokaryotes are composed of 30-40-base-pair repeats separated by equally short sequences of plasmid and bacteriophage origin known as spacers(1-3). These loci are transcribed and processed into short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are used as guides by CRISPR-associated (Cas) nucleases to recognize and destroy complementary sequences (known as protospacers) in foreign nucleic acids(4,5). In contrast to most Cas nucleases, which destroy invader DNA(4-7), the type VI effector nuclease Cas13 uses RNA guides to locate complementary transcripts and catalyse both sequence-specific cis-and non-specific trans-RNA cleavage(8). Although it has been hypothesized that Cas13 naturally defends against RNA phages(8), type VI spacer sequences have exclusively been found to match the genomes of double-stranded DNA phages(9,10), suggesting that Cas13 can provide immunity against these invaders. However, whether and how Cas13 uses its cis- and/or trans-RNA cleavage activities to defend against double-stranded DNA phages is not understood. Here we show that trans-cleavage of transcripts halts the growth of the host cell and is sufficient to abort the infectious cycle. This depletes the phage population and provides herd immunity to uninfected bacteria. Phages that harbour target mutations, which easily evade DNA-targeting CRISPR systems(11-13), are also neutralized when Cas13 is activated by wild-type phages. Thus, by acting on the host rather than directly targeting the virus, type VI CRISPR systems not only provide robust defence against DNA phages but also prevent outbreaks of CRISPR-resistant phage.