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Found 35618 matches. Displaying 81-90
Morse KW, Heinz NK, Abolade JM, Wright-Chisem JI, Russell LA, Zhang M, Mirza SZ, Orange DE, Figgie MP, Sculco PK, Goodman SM
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Tranexamic Acid Does Not Reduce the Risk of Transfusion in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

JOURNAL OF ARTHROPLASTY 2020 SEP; 35(9):2367-2374
Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receive transfusions more often than patients with osteoarthritis following lower extremity total joint arthroplasty (TJA), but mitigating factors are not described. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used to reduce blood loss in patients undergoing TJA, but its effect on transfusion rates in patients with RA has not been studied. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospectively collected cohort of patients with RA undergoing TJA. Disease activity measured by Clinical Disease Activity Index, patient-reported outcome measures, and serologies was obtained. Baseline characteristics were summarized and compared. Transfusion requirements and TXA usage were obtained from chart review. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with transfusion in RA patients undergoing TJA. Results: The cohort included 252 patients, mostly women with longstanding RA and end-stage arthritis requiring TJA. In multivariate analysis, 1 g/dL decrease in baseline hemoglobin (odds ratio [OR] = 0.394, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.232, 0.669], P = .001), 1-minute increase in surgical duration (OR = 1.022, 95% CI [1.008,1.037], P = .003), and 1-point increase in Clinical Disease Activity Index (OR = 1.079, 95% CI [1.001, 1.162]) were associated with increased risk of transfusion. TXA use was not associated with decreased risk of postoperative transfusion. Conclusions: Preoperative health optimization should include assessment and treatment of anemia in RA patients before TJA, as preoperative hemoglobin level is the main risk factor for postoperative transfusion. Increased disease activity and increased surgical time were independent risk factors for postoperative transfusion but are less modifiable. While TXA did not decrease transfusion risk in this population, a prospective trial is needed to confirm this. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinical and animal studies show maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes in offspring persistent alterations in neuroimmune and neurochemical systems known to increase alcohol drinking and related behaviors. Studies in lateral hypothalamus (LH) demonstrate in adolescent offspring that maternal oral administration of ethanol stimulates the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), together with the inflammatory chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 which are increased in most MCH neurons. These effects, consistently stronger in females than males, are detected in embryos, not only in LH but hypothalamic neuroepithelium (NEP) along the third ventricle where neurons are born and CCL2 is stimulated within radial glia progenitor cells and their laterally projecting processes that facilitate MCH neuronal migration toward LH. With ethanol's effects similarly produced by maternal peripheral CCL2 administration and blocked by CCR2 antagonist, we tested here using in utero intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections whether CCL2 acts locally within the embryonic NEP. After ICV injection of CCL2 (0.1 mg/ml) on embryonic day 14 (E14) when neurogenesis peaks, we observed in embryos just before birth (E19) a significant increase in endogenous CCL2 within radial glia cells and their processes in NEP. These auto-regulatory effects, evident only in female embryos, were accompanied by increased density of CCL2 and MCH neurons in LH, more strongly in females than males. These results support involvement of embryonic CCL2/CCR2 neuroimmune system in radial glia progenitor cells in mediating sexually dimorphic effects of maternal challenges such as ethanol on LH MCH neurons that colocalize CCL2 and CCR2. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.
Monteiro T, Wysocka M, Tellez E, Monteiro O, Spencer L, Veiga E, Monteiro S, de Pina C, Goncalves D, de Pina S, Ludgero-Correia A, Moreno J, Conceicao T, Aires-de-Sousa M, de Lencastre H, Gray LJ, Pareek M, Jenkins DR, Beleza S, Oggioni MR, Araujo II
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A five-year retrospective study shows increasing rates of antimicrobial drug resistance in Cabo Verde for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

Objectives: Data on baseline drug resistance important in informing future antimicrobial stewardship programs. So far, no data on the antimicrobial drug resistance of clinical isolates available for the African archipelago of Cabo Verde. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis over years (2013-17) of the drug susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates in the two main hospitals of Cabo Verde. For Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, representing 47% and 26% of all clinical isolates, the antimicrobial drug resistance profile was reported for six representative drugs. Results: For E. coli we detected an increase in resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-and for S. aureus to methicillin, erythromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. This increase in both the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens is alarm as it might compromise empirical treatment in a setting with limited access to laboratory testing. Conclusions: When compared to the published low resistance rates in carriage isolates, the more alarming situation in clinical isolates for S. aureus might encourage antimicrobial stewardship programs to reduce in hospital settings, possibly as part of the Cabo Verdean national plan against antimicrobial drug resistance. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Anacker C, Sydnor E, Chen BK, LaGamma CC, McGowan JC, Mastrodonato A, Hunsberger HC, Shores R, Dixon RS, McEwen BS, Byne W, Meyer-Bahlburg HFL, Bockting W, Ehrhardt AA, Denny CA
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Behavioral and neurobiological effects of GnRH agonist treatment in mice-potential implications for puberty suppression in transgender individuals

In the United States, similar to 1.4 million individuals identify as transgender. Many transgender adolescents experience gender dysphoria related to incongruence between their gender identity and sex assigned at birth. This dysphoria may worsen as puberty progresses. Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa), such as leuprolide, can help alleviate gender dysphoria and provide additional time before irreversible changes in secondary sex characteristics may be initiated through feminizing or masculinizing hormone therapy congruent with the adolescent's gender experience. However, the effects of GnRH agonists on brain function and mental health are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of leuprolide on reproductive function, social and affective behavior, cognition, and brain activity in a rodent model. Six-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were injected daily with saline or leuprolide (20 mu g) for 6 weeks and tested in several behavioral assays. We found that leuprolide increases hyperlocomotion, changes social preference, and increases neuroendocrine stress responses in male mice, while the same treatment increases hyponeophagia and despair-like behavior in females. Neuronal hyperactivity was found in the dentate gyrus (DG) of leuprolide-treated females, but not males, consistent with the elevation in hyponeophagia and despair-like behavior in females. These data show for the first time that GnRH agonist treatment after puberty onset exerts sex-specific effects on social- and affective behavior, stress regulation, and neural activity. Investigating the behavioral and neurobiological effects of GnRH agonists in mice will be important to better guide the investigation of potential consequences of this treatment for youth experiencing gender dysphoria.
Machado ACD, Cooper BH, Lei X, Di Felice R, Chen L, Rohs R
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Landscape of DNA binding signatures of myocyte enhancer factor-2B reveals a unique interplay of base and shape readout

NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH 2020 SEP 4; 48(15):8529-8544
Myocyte enhancer factor-2B (MEF2B) has the unique capability of binding to its DNA target sites with a degenerate motif, while still functioning as a gene-specific transcriptional regulator. Identifying its DNA targets is crucial given regulatory roles exerted by members of the MEF2 family and MEF2B's involvement in B-cell lymphoma. Analyzing structural data and SELEX-seq experimental results, we deduced the DNA sequence and shape determinants of MEF2B target sites on a high-throughput basis in vitro for wild-type and mutant proteins. Quantitative modeling of MEF2B binding affinities and computational simulations exposed the DNA readout mechanisms of MEF2B. The resulting binding signature of MEF2B revealed distinct intricacies of DNA recognition compared to other transcription factors. MEF2B uses base readout at its half-sites combined with shape readout at the center of its degenerate motif, where A-tract polarity dictates nuances of binding. The predominant role of shape readout at the center of the core motif, with most contacts formed in the minor groove, differs from previously observed protein-DNA readout modes. MEF2B, therefore, represents a unique protein for studies of the role of DNA shape in achieving binding specificity. MEF2B-DNA recognition mechanisms are likely representative for other members of the MEF2 family.
Wong JJM, Ginter PS, Tyryshkin K, Yang XJ, Nanayakkara J, Zhou ZE, Tuschl T, Chen YT, Renwick N
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Classifying Lung Neuroendocrine Neoplasms through MicroRNA Sequence Data Mining

CANCERS 2020 SEP; 12(9):? Article 2653
Simple Summary Lung neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a subset of lung cancer that is difficult to diagnose. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that are valuable markers in many cancers. In this study, we generated miRNA profiles for 55 preserved lung NEN samples (14 typical carcinoid (TC), 15 atypical carcinoid (AC), 11 small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and 15 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC)), and randomly assigned them to either discovery or validation sets. We used machine learning and data mining algorithms to identify important miRNA that can distinguish between the types. Using the miRNAs identified with these algorithms, we were able to distinguish between carcinoids (TC and AC) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (SCLC and LCNEC) in the discovery set with 93% accuracy; in the validation set, we were able to distinguish between these groups with 100% accuracy. Using the same machine learning and data mining techniques, we also identified miRNAs that can distinguish between TC and AC, and SCLC and LCNEC, however more samples are needed to validate these findings. Lung neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) can be challenging to classify due to subtle histologic differences between pathological types. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that are valuable markers in many neoplastic diseases. To evaluate miRNAs as classificatory markers for lung NENs, we generated comprehensive miRNA expression profiles from 14 typical carcinoid (TC), 15 atypical carcinoid (AC), 11 small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and 15 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) samples, through barcoded small RNA sequencing. Following sequence annotation and data preprocessing, we randomly assigned these profiles to discovery and validation sets. Through high expression analyses, we found that miR-21 and -375 are abundant in all lung NENs, and that miR-21/miR-375 expression ratios are significantly lower in carcinoids (TC and AC) than in neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs; SCLC and LCNEC). Subsequently, we ranked and selected miRNAs for use in miRNA-based classification, to discriminate carcinoids from NECs. Using miR-18a and -155 expression, our classifier discriminated these groups in discovery and validation sets, with 93% and 100% accuracy. We also identified miR-17, -103, and -127, and miR-301a, -106b, and -25, as candidate markers for discriminating TC from AC, and SCLC from LCNEC, respectively. However, these promising findings require external validation due to sample size.
Tovo PA, Garazzino S, Saglio F, Scolfaro C, Bustamante J, Badolato R, Fagioli F
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Successful Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Patient with Complete IFN-gamma Receptor 2 Deficiency: a Case Report and Literature Review

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM #209950) is an inborn error of immunity (IEI) characterized by extreme susceptibility to invasive infections sustained by poorly virulent mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, and environmental mycobacteria [1,2,3,4]. M. tuberculosis may also be involved in rare cases [5]. Many genes involved in interferon (IFN)-γ production (IL12B, IL12RB1, IL12RB2, IL23R, TYK2, ISG15, RORC), in response to IFN-γ (IFN-γR1, IFN-γR2, STAT1, JAK1, CYBB), both (IRF8, SPPL2A, NEMO) or IFN-γ itself are responsible for MSDM [4,5,6,7,8]. The clinical features depend on the genotype and the residual activity of IFN-γ.
Fiore VF, Krajnc M, Quiroz FG, Levorse J, Pasolli HA, Shvartsman SY, Fuchs E
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Mechanics of a multilayer epithelium instruct tumour architecture and function

NATURE 2020 SEP 17; 585(7825):433-439
Mathematical and experimental approaches are used to investigate the mechanical forces that shape the tumour architecture of two different common forms of skin cancer: basal cell carcinomas and invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Loss of normal tissue architecture is a hallmark of oncogenic transformation(1). In developing organisms, tissues architectures are sculpted by mechanical forces during morphogenesis(2). However, the origins and consequences of tissue architecture during tumorigenesis remain elusive. In skin, premalignant basal cell carcinomas form 'buds', while invasive squamous cell carcinomas initiate as 'folds'. Here, using computational modelling, genetic manipulations and biophysical measurements, we identify the biophysical underpinnings and biological consequences of these tumour architectures. Cell proliferation and actomyosin contractility dominate tissue architectures in monolayer, but not multilayer, epithelia. In stratified epidermis, meanwhile, softening and enhanced remodelling of the basement membrane promote tumour budding, while stiffening of the basement membrane promotes folding. Additional key forces stem from the stratification and differentiation of progenitor cells. Tumour-specific suprabasal stiffness gradients are generated as oncogenic lesions progress towards malignancy, which we computationally predict will alter extensile tensions on the tumour basement membrane. The pathophysiologic ramifications of this prediction are profound. Genetically decreasing the stiffness of basement membranes increases membrane tensions in silico and potentiates the progression of invasive squamous cell carcinomas in vivo. Our findings suggest that mechanical forces-exerted from above and below progenitors of multilayered epithelia-function to shape premalignant tumour architectures and influence tumour progression.
Gruber CN, Calis JJA, Buta S, Evrony G, Martin JC, Uhl SA, Caron R, Jarchin L, Dunkin D, Phelps R, Webb BD, Saland JM, Merad M, Orange JS, Mace EM, Rosenberg BR, Gelb BD, Bogunovic D
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Complex Autoinflammatory Syndrome Unveils Fundamental Principles of JAK1 Kinase Transcriptional and Biochemical Function

IMMUNITY 2020 SEP 15; 53(3): 672-684.e11
Autoinflammatory disease can result from monogenic errors of immunity. We describe a patient with early-onset multi-organ immune dysregulation resulting from a mosaic, gain-of-function mutation (S7031) in JAK1, encoding a kinase essential for signaling downstream of >25 cytokines. By custom single-cell RNA sequencing, we examine mosaicism with single-cell resolution. We find that JAK1 transcription was predominantly restricted to a single allele across different cells, introducing the concept of a mutational "transcriptotype" that differs from the genotype. Functionally, the mutation increases JAK1 activity and transactivates partnering JAKs, independent of its catalytic domain. S7031 JAK1 is not only hypermorphic for cytokine signaling but also neomorphic, as it enables signaling cascades not canonically mediated by JAK1 Given these results, the patient was treated with tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor, leading to the rapid resolution of clinical disease. These findings offer a platform for personalized medicine with the concurrent discovery of fundamental biological principles.
Requena D, Medico A, Chacon RD, Ramirez M, Marin-Sanchez O
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Identification of Novel Candidate Epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 Proteins for South America: A Review of HLA Frequencies by Country

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 2020 SEP 3; 11(?):? Article 2008
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, is already responsible for more than 4.3 million confirmed cases and 295,000 deaths worldwide as of May 15, 2020. Ongoing efforts to control the pandemic include the development of peptide-based vaccines and diagnostic tests. In these approaches, HLA allelic diversity plays a crucial role. Despite its importance, current knowledge of HLA allele frequencies in South America is very limited. In this study, we have performed a literature review of datasets reporting HLA frequencies of South American populations, available in scientific literature and/or in the Allele Frequency Net Database. This allowed us to enrich the current scenario with more than 12.8 million data points. As a result, we are presenting updated HLA allelic frequencies based on country, including 91 alleles that were previously thought to have frequencies either under 5% or of an unknown value. Using alleles with an updated frequency of at least >= 5% in any South American country, we predicted epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 proteins using NetMHCpan (I and II) and MHC flurry. Then, the best predicted epitopes (class-I and -II) were selected based on their binding to South American alleles (Coverage Score). Class II predicted epitopes were also filtered based on their three-dimensional exposure. We obtained 14 class-I and four class-II candidate epitopes with experimental evidence (reported in the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource), having good coverage scores for South America. Additionally, we are presenting 13 HLA-I and 30 HLA-II novel candidate epitopes without experimental evidence, including 16 class-II candidates in highly exposed conserved areas of the NTD and RBD regions of the Spike protein. These novel candidates have even better coverage scores for South America than those with experimental evidence. Finally, we show that recent similar studies presenting candidate epitopes also predicted some of our candidates but discarded them in the selection process, resulting in candidates with suboptimal coverage for South America. In conclusion, the candidate epitopes presented provide valuable information for the development of epitope-based strategies against SARS-CoV-2, such as peptide vaccines and diagnostic tests. Additionally, the updated HLA allelic frequencies provide a better representation of South America and may impact different immunogenetic studies.