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Found 35038 matches. Displaying 81-90
Willett RT, Bayin NS, Lee AS, Krishnamurthy A, Wojcinski A, Lao ZM, Stephen D, Rosello-Diez A, Dauber-Decker KL, Orvis GD, Wu ZH, Tessier-Lavigne M, Joyner AL
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Cerebellar nuclei excitatory neurons regulate developmental scaling of presynaptic Purkinje cell number and organ growth

ELIFE 2019 NOV 19; 8(?):? Article e50617
For neural systems to function effectively, the numbers of each cell type must be proportioned properly during development. We found that conditional knockout of the mouse homeobox genes En1 and En2 in the excitatory cerebellar nuclei neurons (eCN) leads to reduced postnatal growth of the cerebellar cortex. A subset of medial and intermediate eCN are lost in the mutants, with an associated cell non-autonomous loss of their presynaptic partner Purkinje cells by birth leading to proportional scaling down of neuron production in the postnatal cerebellar cortex. Genetic killing of embryonic eCN throughout the cerebellum also leads to loss of Purkinje cells and reduced postnatal growth but throughout the cerebellar cortex. Thus, the eCN play a key role in scaling the size of the cerebellum by influencing the survival of their Purkinje cell partners, which in turn regulate production of granule cells and interneurons via the amount of sonic hedgehog secreted.
Del Duca E
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Major Differences in Expression of Inflammatory Pathways in Skin from

Haremaki T, Metzger JJ, Rito T, Ozair MZ, Etoc F, Brivanlou AH
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Self-organizing neuruloids model developmental aspects of Huntington's disease in the ectodermal compartment

NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY 2019 OCT; 37(10):1198-1208
Harnessing the potential of human embryonic stem cells to mimic normal and aberrant development with standardized models is a pressing challenge. Here we use micropattern technology to recapitulate early human neurulation in large numbers of nearly identical structures called neuruloids. Dual-SMAD inhibition followed by bone morphogenic protein 4 stimulation induced self-organization of neuruloids harboring neural progenitors, neural crest, sensory placode and epidermis. Single-cell transcriptomics unveiled the precise identities and timing of fate specification. Investigation of the molecular mechanism of neuruloid self-organization revealed a pulse of pSMAD1 at the edge that induced epidermis, whose juxtaposition to central neural fates specifies neural crest and placodes, modulated by fibroblast growth factor and Wnt. Neuruloids provide a unique opportunity to study the developmental aspects of human diseases. Using isogenic Huntington's disease human embryonic stem cells and deep neural network analysis, we show how specific phenotypic signatures arise in our model of early human development as a consequence of mutant huntingtin protein, outlining an approach for phenotypic drug screening.
Riessland M
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Loss of SATB1 Induces p21-Dependent Cellular Senescence in Post-mitotic

CELL STEM CELL 2019 OCT 3; 25(4):514-530.e8
Cellular senescence is a mechanism used by mitotic cells to prevent
Fins JJ
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Disorders of Consciousness, Past, Present, and Future

CAMBRIDGE QUARTERLY OF HEALTHCARE ETHICS 2019 OCT; 28(4):603-615 Article PII S0963180119000719
This paper, presented as the 2019 Cambridge Quarterly Neuroethics
Duncan A, Heyer MP, Ishikawa M, Caligiuri SPB, Liu XA, Chen ZX, Di Bonaventura MVM, Elayouby KS, Ables JL, Howe WM, Bali P, Fillinger C, Williams M, O'Connor RM, Wang ZC, Lu Q, Kamenecka TM, Ma'ayan A, O'Neill HC, Ibanez-Tallon I, Geurts AM, Kenny PJ
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Habenular TCF7L2 links nicotine addiction to diabetes

NATURE 2019 OCT 17; 574(7778):372-377
Diabetes is far more prevalent in smokers than non-smokers, but the underlying mechanisms of vulnerability are unknown. Here we show that the diabetes-associated gene Tcf7l2 is densely expressed in the medial habenula (mHb) region of the rodent brain, where it regulates the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Inhibition of TCF7L2 signalling in the mHb increases nicotine intake in mice and rats. Nicotine increases levels of blood glucose by TCF7L2-dependent stimulation of the mHb. Virus-tracing experiments identify a polysynaptic connection from the mHb to the pancreas, and wild-type rats with a history of nicotine consumption show increased circulating levels of glucagon and insulin, and diabetes- like dysregulation of blood glucose homeostasis. By contrast, mutant Tcf7l2 rats are resistant to these actions of nicotine. Our findings suggest that TCF7L2 regulates the stimulatory actions of nicotine on a habenula-pancreas axis that links the addictive properties of nicotine to its diabetes-promoting actions.
Gaebler C
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Combination of quadruplex qPCR and next-generation sequencing for

HIV-1 infection requires lifelong therapy with antiretroviral drugs due
Kitzler TM
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COL4A1 mutations as a potential novel cause of autosomal dominant CAKUT

HUMAN GENETICS 2019 OCT; 138(10):1105-1115
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the
Sirunyan AM
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Evidence for light-by-light scattering and searches for axion-like

PHYSICS LETTERS B 2019 OCT 10; 797(?):? Article UNSP 134826
Evidence for the light-by-light scattering process, gamma gamma -> gamma
Bournazos S
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Differential requirements for Fc gamma R engagement by protective

Ebola virus (EBOV) continues to pose significant threats to global