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Found 35955 matches. Displaying 81-90
van Straalen KR, Frew JW
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The Importance of Methodological Rigor in Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trials: A Lesson from Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Boyce WT, Levitt P, Martinez FD, McEwen BS, Shonkoff JP
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Genes, Environments, and Time: The Biology of Adversity and Resilience

PEDIATRICS 2021 FEB; 147(2):? Article e20201651
Exposures to adverse environments, both psychosocial and physicochemical, are prevalent and consequential across a broad range of childhood populations. Such adversity, especially early in life, conveys measurable risk to learning and behavior and to the foundations of both mental and physical health. Using an interactive gene-environment-time (GET) framework, we survey the independent and interactive roles of genetic variation, environmental context, and developmental timing in light of advances in the biology of adversity and resilience, as well as new discoveries in biomedical research. Drawing on this rich evidence base, we identify 4 core concepts that provide a powerful catalyst for fresh thinking about primary health care for young children: (1) all biological systems are inextricably integrated, continuously "reading" and adapting to the environment and "talking back" to the brain and each other through highly regulated channels of cross-system communication; (2) adverse environmental exposures induce alterations in developmental trajectories that can lead to persistent disruptions of organ function and structure; (3) children vary in their sensitivity to context, and this variation is influenced by interactions among genetic factors, family and community environments, and developmental timing; and (4) critical or sensitive periods provide unmatched windows of opportunity for both positive and negative influences on multiple biological systems. These rapidly moving frontiers of investigation provide a powerful framework for new, science-informed thinking about health promotion and disease prevention in the early childhood period. Advances in biology provide a platform for fresh thinking about health promotion and disease prevention in the early childhood period.
Gordon KB, Foley P, Krueger JG, Pinter A, Reich K, Vender R, Vanvoorden V, Madden C, White K, Cioffi C, Blauvelt A
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Bimekizumab efficacy and safety in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (BE READY): a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal phase 3 trial

LANCET 2021 FEB 6; 397(10273):475-486
Background Bimekizumab is a monoclonal IgG1 antibody that selectively inhibits interleukin (IL)-17F in addition to IL-17A. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of bimekizumab in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, the effects of treatment withdrawal, and two maintenance dosing schedules over 56 weeks. Methods BE READY was a phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done at 77 sites (hospitals, clinics, private doctor's practices, and dedicated clinical research centres) in nine countries across Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Adult patients aged 18 years or older with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis were stratified by region and previous biologic exposure, and randomly assigned (4:1) to receive bimekizumab 320 mg every 4 weeks or placebo every 4 weeks by use of interactive response technology. Coprimary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving 90% or greater improvement from baseline in the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI90) and the proportion of patients achieving a score of 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear) on the five-point Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) scale at week 16 (non-responder imputation). Bimekizumab-treated patients achieving PASI90 at week 16 were re-allocated (1:1:1) to receive bimekizumab 320 mg every 4 weeks, every 8 weeks, or placebo for weeks 16-56. Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population; the safety analysis set comprised all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with (NCT03410992), and is now completed. Findings Between Feb 5, 2018, and Jan 7, 2020, 435 patients were randomly assigned to receive either bimekizumab 320 mg every 4 weeks (n=349) or placebo every 4 weeks (n=86). Coprimary endpoints were met: at week 16, 317 (91%) of 349 patients receiving bimekizumab 320 mg every 4 weeks achieved PASI90, compared with one (1%) of 86 patients receiving placebo (risk difference 89.8 [95% CI 86.1-93.4]; p<0.0001); and 323 (93%) of 349 patients receiving bimekizumab 320 mg every 4 weeks achieved an IGA score of 0 or 1 versus one (1%) of 86 patients receiving placebo (risk difference 91.5 [95% CI 88.0-94.9]; p<0.0001). Responses were maintained through to week 56 with bimekizumab 320 mg every 8 weeks and every 4 weeks. Treatment-emergent adverse events in the initial treatment period (up to week 16) were reported in 213 (61%) of 349 patients receiving bimekizumab 320 mg every 4 weeks and 35 (41%) of 86 patients receiving placebo every 4 weeks. From week 16 to week 56, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 78 (74%) of 106 patients receiving bimekizumab 320 mg every 4 weeks, 77 (77%) of 100 patients receiving bimekizumab 320 mg every 8 weeks, and 72 (69%) of 105 patients receiving placebo. Interpretation Bimekizumab showed high levels of response, which were durable over 56 weeks, with both maintenance dosing schedules (every 4 weeks and every 8 weeks). Moreover, bimekizumab was well tolerated, with no unexpected safety findings. Data presented here further support the therapeutic value of bimekizumab and inhibition of IL-17F in addition to IL-17A for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.
Anderson TL, Sheppard LW, Walter JA, Rolley RE, Reuman DC
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Synchronous effects produce cycles in deer populations and deer-vehicle collisions

ECOLOGY LETTERS 2021; 24(2):337-347
Population cycles are fundamentally linked with spatial synchrony, the prevailing paradigm being that populations with cyclic dynamics are easily synchronised. That is, population cycles help give rise to spatial synchrony. Here we demonstrate this process can work in reverse, with synchrony causing population cycles. We show that timescale-specific environmental effects, by synchronising local population dynamics on certain timescales only, cause major population cycles over large areas in white-tailed deer. An important aspect of the new mechanism is specificity of synchronising effects to certain timescales, which causes local dynamics to sum across space to a substantial cycle on those timescales. We also demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that synchrony can be transmitted not only from environmental drivers to populations (deer), but also from there to human systems (deer-vehicle collisions). Because synchrony of drivers may be altered by climate change, changes to population cycles may arise via our mechanism.
La Fleur L, Botling J, He F, Pelicano C, Zhou CK, He CF, Palano G, Mezheyeuski A, Micke P, Ravetch JV, Karlsson MCI, Sarhan D
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Targeting MARCO and IL37R on Immunosuppressive Macrophages in Lung Cancer Blocks Regulatory T Cells and Supports Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Function

CANCER RESEARCH 2021 FEB 15; 81(4):956-967
The progression and metastatic capacity of solid tumors are strongly influenced by immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accumulation of anti-inflammatory tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) is associated with worse clinical outcome and resistance to therapy. Here we investigated the immune landscape of NSCLC in the presence of protumoral TAMs expressing the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO). MARCO-expressing TAM numbers correlated with increased occurrence of regulatory T cells and effector T cells and decreased natural killer (NK) cells in these tumors. Furthermore, transcriptomic data from the tumors uncovered a correlation between MARCO expression and the antiinflammatory cytokine IL37. In vitro studies subsequently showed that lung cancer cells polarized macrophages to express MARCO and gain an immune-suppressive phenotype through the release of IL37. MARCO-expressing TAMs blocked cytotoxic T-cell and NK-cell activation, inhibiting their proliferation, cytokine production, and tumor killing capacity. Mechanistically, MARCO(+) macrophages enhanced regulatory T (Treg) cell proliferation and IL10 production and diminished CD8 T-cell activities. Targeting MARCO or IL37 receptor (IL37R) by antibody or CRISPR knockout of IL37 in lung cancer cell lines repolarized TAMs, resulting in recovered cytolytic activity and antitumoral capacity of NK cells and T cells and down-modulated Treg cell activities. In summary, our data demonstrate a novel immune therapeutic approach targeting human TAMs immune suppression of NK- and T-cell antitumor activities. Significance: This study defines tumor-derived IL37 and the macrophage scavenger receptor MARCO as potential therapeutic targets to remodel the immune-suppressive microenvimnment in patients with lung cancer.
Zhao S, Chuh KN, Zhang BC, Dul BE, Thompson RE, Farrelly LA, Liu XH, Xu N, Xue Y, Roeder RG, Maze I, Muir TW, Li HT
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Histone H3Q5 serotonylation stabilizes H3K4 methylation and potentiates its readout

Serotonylation of glutamine 5 on histone H3 (H3Q5ser) was recently identified as a permissive posttranslational modification that coexists with adjacent lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). While the resulting dual modification, H3K4me3Q5ser, is enriched at regions of active gene expression in serotonergic neurons, the molecular outcome underlying H3K4me3-H3Q5ser crosstalk remains largely unexplored. Herein, we examine the impact of H3Q5ser on the readers, writers, and erasers of H3K4me3. All tested H3K4me3 readers retain binding to the H3K4me3Q5ser dual modification. Of note, the PHD finger of TAF3 favors H3K4me3Q5ser, and this binding preference is dependent on the Q5ser modification regardless of H3K4 methylation states. While the activity of the H3K4 methyltransferase, MLL1, is unaffected by H3Q5ser, the corresponding H3K4me3/2 erasers, KDM5B/C and LSD1, are profoundly inhibited by the presence of the mark. Collectively, this work suggests that adjacent H3Q5ser potentiates H3K4me3 function by either stabilizing H3K4me3 from dynamic turnover or enhancing its physical readout by downstream effectors, thereby potentially providing a mechanism for fine-tuning critical gene expression programs.
Gleicher N, Barad DH, Ben-Rafael Z, Glujovsky D, Mochizuki L, Modi D, Murtinger M, Patrizio P, Orvieto R, Takahashi S, Weghofer A, Ziebe S
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Commentary on two recently published formal guidelines on management of "mosaic" embryos after preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A)

Two professional societies recently published opinions on the clinical management of "mosaic" results from preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) in human blastocyst-stage embryos in associations with in vitro fertilization (IVF). We here point out three principal shortcomings: (i) Though a most recent societal opinion states that it should not be understood as an endorsement of the use of PGT-A, any discussion of how PGT-A should be clinically interpreted for all practical purposes does offer such an endorsement. (ii) The same guideline derived much of its opinion from a preceding guidance in favor of utilization of PGT-A that did not follow even minimal professional requirements for establishment of practice guidelines. (iii) Published guidelines on so-called "mosaic" embryos from both societies contradict basic biological characteristics of human preimplantation-stage embryos. They, furthermore, are clinically unvalidated and interpret results of a test, increasingly seen as harmful to IVF outcomes for many infertile women. Qualified professional organizations, therefore, should finally offer transparent guidelines about the utilization of PGT-A in association with IVF in general.
Novak JSS, Baksh SC, Fuchs E
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Dietary interventions as regulators of stem cell behavior in homeostasis and disease

GENES & DEVELOPMENT 2021 FEB 1; 35(3-4):?
Stem cells maintain tissues by balancing self-renewal with differentiation. A stem cell's local microenvironment, or niche, informs stem cell behavior and receives inputs at multiple levels. Increasingly, it is becoming clear that the overall metabolic status of an organism or metabolites themselves can function as integral members of the niche to alter stem cell fate. Macroscopic dietary interventions such as caloric restriction, the ketogenic diet, and a high-fat diet systemically alter an organism's metabolic state in different ways. Intriguingly, however, they all converge on a propensity to enhance self-renewal. Here, we highlight our current knowledge on how dietary changes feed into stem cell behavior across a wide variety of tissues and illuminate possible explanations for why diverse interventions can result in similar stem cell phenotypes. In so doing, we hope to inspire new avenues of inquiry into the importance of metabolism in stem cell homeostasis and disease.
Alabi RO, Lora J, Celen AB, Maretzky T, Blobel CP
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Analysis of the Conditions That Affect the Selective Processing of Endogenous Notch1 by ADAM10 and ADAM17

Notch signaling is critical for controlling a variety of cell fate decisions during metazoan development and homeostasis. This unique, highly conserved signaling pathway relies on cell-to-cell contact, which triggers the proteolytic release of the cytoplasmic domain of the membrane-anchored transcription factor Notch from the membrane. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteins are crucial for Notch activation by processing its S2 site. While ADAM10 cleaves Notch1 under physiological, ligand-dependent conditions, ADAM17 mainly cleaves Notch1 under ligand-independent conditions. However, the mechanism(s) that regulate the distinct contributions of these ADAMs in Notch processing remain unclear. Using cell-based assays in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) lacking ADAM10 and/or ADAM17, we aimed to clarify what determines the relative contributions of ADAM10 and ADAM17 to ligand-dependent or ligand-independent Notch processing. We found that EDTA-stimulated ADAM17-dependent Notch1 processing is rapid and requires the ADAM17-regulators iRhom1 and iRhom2, whereas the Delta-like 4-induced ligand-dependent Notch1 processing is slower and requires ADAM10. The selectivity of ADAM17 for EDTA-induced Notch1 processing can most likely be explained by a preference for ADAM17 over ADAM10 for the Notch1 cleavage site and by the stronger inhibition of ADAM10 by EDTA. The physiological ADAM10-dependent processing of Notch1 cannot be compensated for by ADAM17 in Adam10-/- mEFs, or by other ADAMs shown here to be able to cleave the Notch1 cleavage site, such as ADAMs9, 12, and 19. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the substrate selectivity of ADAM10 and ADAM17 towards Notch1.
Pan CH, Chien SC, Chen CJ, Shih CM, Hsieh MH, Huang CY, Bi WF, Chan CS, Kao YT, Hsiao CY, Chiang SJ, Chiang KH, Huang JH, Liu YR, Luo JD, Huang HY, Wu CH
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Circulating level of microRNA-142-5p is a potential biomarker for predicting in-stent restenosis: a case-control study

BackgroundPatients who receive percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have different chances of developing in-stent restenosis (ISR). To date, no predictable biomarker can be applied in the clinic. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play critical roles in transcription regulation, and their circulating levels were reported to have potential as clinical biomarkers.MethodsIn total, 93 coronary stent-implanted patients without pregnancy, liver or renal dysfunction, malignancy, hemophilia, or autoimmune diseases were recruited in this clinical study. All recruited participants were divided into an ISR group (n=45) and a non-ISR group (n=48) based on their restenotic status as confirmed by cardiologists at the first follow-up visit (6 months after surgery). Blood samples of all participants were harvested to measure circulating levels of miRNA candidates (miR-132, miR-142-5p, miR-15b, miR-24-2, and miR-424) to evaluate whether these circulating miRNAs can be applied as predictive biomarkers of ISR.ResultsOur data indicated that circulating levels of miR-142-5p were significantly higher in the ISR population, and results from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis also demonstrated superior discriminatory ability of miR-142-5p in predicting patients' restenotic status. In addition, circulating levels of miR-15b, miR-24-2, and miR-424 had differential expressions in participants with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, respectively.ConclusionsThe current study revealed that the circulating level of miR-142-5p has potential application as a clinical biomarker for predicting the development of ISR in stent-implanted patients.