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Khambu B, Li TG, Yan SM, Yu CS, Chen XY, Goheen M, Li Y, Lin JM, Cummings OW, Lee YA, Friedman S, Dong Z, Feng GS, Wu SW, Yin XM
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Hepatic Autophagy Deficiency Compromises Farnesoid X Receptor Functionality and Causes Cholestatic Injury

HEPATOLOGY 2019 MAY; 69(5):2196-2213
Autophagy is important for hepatic homeostasis, nutrient regeneration, and organelle quality control. We investigated the mechanisms by which liver injury occurred in the absence of autophagy function. We found that mice deficient in autophagy because of the lack of autophagy-related gene 7 or autophagy-related gene 5, key autophagy-related genes, manifested intracellular cholestasis with increased levels of serum bile acids, a higher ratio of tauromuricholic acid/taurocholic acid in the bile, increased hepatic bile acid load, abnormal bile canaliculi, and altered expression of hepatic transporters. In determining the underlying mechanism, we found that autophagy sustained and promoted the basal and up-regulated expression of farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) in the fed and starved conditions, respectively. Consequently, expression of Fxr and its downstream genes, particularly bile salt export pump, and the binding of FXR to the promoter regions of these genes, were suppressed in autophagy-deficient livers. In addition, codeletion of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in autophagy deficiency status reversed the FXR suppression. Furthermore, the cholestatic injury of autophagy-deficient livers was reversed by enhancement of FXR activity or expression, or by Nrf2 deletion. Conclusion: Together with earlier reports that FXR can suppress autophagy, our findings indicate that autophagy and FXR form a regulatory loop and deficiency of autophagy causes abnormal FXR functionality, leading to the development of intracellular cholestasis and liver injury.
Fischetti VA
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Vaccine Approaches To Protect against Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis

MICROBIOLOGY SPECTRUM 2019 MAY; 7(3):? Article GPP3-0010-2018
Streptococcal pharyngitis (or strep throat) is a common childhood disease affecting millions of children each year, but it is one of the only childhood diseases for which a vaccine does not exist. While for decades the development of a vaccine has been the center of attention in many laboratories worldwide, with some successes, no corporate development has yet to be initiated. The reason for this probably lies in our inability to conclusively identify the streptococcal molecule or molecules responsible for the heart cross-reactive antibodies observed in the serum of rheumatic fever patients. Without this specific knowledge, any streptococcal vaccine antigen is suspect and thus not the target for a billion-dollar investment, despite the fact that the exact role of cross-reactive antibodies in rheumatic fever is still questionable. This article will describe the development of several approaches to protect against Streptococcus pyogenes infections over the past several decades.
Nasr K, Viswanathan P, Nieder A
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Number detectors spontaneously emerge in a deep neural network designed for visual object recognition

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2019 MAY; 5(5):? Article eaav7903
Humans and animals have a "number sense," an innate capability to intuitively assess the number of visual items in a set, its numerosity. This capability implies that mechanisms to extract numerosity indwell the brain's visual system, which is primarily concerned with visual object recognition. Here, we show that network units tuned to abstract numerosity, and therefore reminiscent of real number neurons, spontaneously emerge in a biologically inspired deep neural network that was merely trained on visual object recognition. These numerosity-tuned units underlay the network's number discrimination performance that showed all the characteristics of human and animal number discriminations as predicted by the Weber-Fechner law. These findings explain the spontaneous emergence of the number sense based on mechanisms inherent to the visual system.
Galea S, Vaughan RD
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Health as a Means, Not an End: A Public Health of Consequence, May 2019

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 2019 MAY; 109(5):672-673
Nasca C, Watson-Lin K, Bigio B, Robakis TK, Myoraku A, Wroolie TE, McEwen BS, Rasgon N
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Childhood trauma and insulin resistance in patients suffering from depressive disorders

EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY 2019 MAY; 315(?):15-20
Objective: Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic dysfunction often co-morbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). The paths to development of MDD remain largely unspecified, highlighting a need for identification of risk factors. Here, we tested whether specific subscales of childhood trauma as well as family history of type-2 diabetes (Fam-Hx-Dm2) are risk factors for development of metabolic dysfunction and severity of depressive symptoms. Research design and methods: We used a sample of 45 adults suffering from MDD that was well-characterized for insulin resistance and sensitivity as assessed by measures of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) plasma insulin (FPI) levels, body mass index (BMI), weight, homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA), Matsuda index as well as both glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose challenges, Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21). Physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. First-or second-degree relatives with type-2 diabetes defined fam-Hx-DM2. Results: Individuals reporting higher rates of emotional abuse were more likely to have greater IR as showed by elevated FPI levels and HOMA. No association was found with any of the other subscales of childhood trauma (e.g., physical abuse). Similarly, Fam-Hx-DM2 was associated with greater degree of IR as shown by elevated FPI, HOMA, but also FPG, weight and BMI. Moreover, we report a relationship and interaction between Fam-Hx-DM2 and emotional abuse on severity of depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse and Fam-HX-DM2 predicted severity of depressive symptoms at HDRS-21. Also, severity of depressive symptoms was greater with higher reported rates of emotional abuse but only in patients with negative Fam-HX-Dm2. Individuals reporting higher emotional abuse and negative Fam-Hx-Dm2 also showed higher FPG levels. Conversely, individuals reporting higher emotional abuse and positive Fam-Hx-Dm2 showed higher FPI levels. This data suggest that Fam-Hx-Dm2 may define two different metabolic endophenotypes. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Fam-HX-DM2 and emotional abuse represent separate risk factors for developing metabolic dysfunction (i.e.: IR) in patients suffering from MDD, and that the effects of emotional abuse on psychiatric illness may depend upon the personal characteristics, including Farn-Hx-DM2.
Swanstrom AE, Jacques A, Del Prete GQ, Bieniasz P, Hatziioannou T, Gorelick R, Lifson JD
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Short Communication: Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Assessing Residual Simian-Tropic HIV in Nonhuman Primate Models of AIDS

AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES 2019 MAY 1; 35(5):473-476
Persistence of replication-competent viral reservoirs during infection remains a barrier to HIV cure, despite the ability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to effectively suppress viral replication. Simian-tropic HIV (stHIV) is a minimally chimeric HIV-1 that is comprised of 94% HIV-1 sequence, contains HIV-1 drug and immunologic targets, and is capable of replicating to high levels and causing authentic HIV-like pathogenesis leading to clinical AIDS in pigtail macaques. Suppression of stHIV replication by cART provides a model for study of viral reservoirs and HIV-specific intervention strategies targeting them. Accurate measurement of reservoir size is crucial for evaluating the effect of any such intervention strategies. Although there are a variety of assays that allow for indirect monitoring of viral reservoir size ex vivo, they each quantify a different aspect of viral reservoirs, and are characterized by conceptual and/or technical limitations. Measurement of viral protein in ex vivo cell culture assays captures the immunologically relevant viral-antigen producing component of the reservoir. This study demonstrates the utility of an ultrasensitive digital HIV Gag p24 immunoassay, which enabled earlier, and more sensitive detection of viral protein in culture supernatants from stimulated CD4+ T cells from stHIV-infected pigtail macaques receiving cART compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein measurements were highly correlated with cell-free stHIV RNA, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This ultrasensitive p24 assay can be used to complement other reservoir measurement tools to assess ongoing replication and reactivation of infectious virus from reservoirs in stHIV-infected pigtail macaques.
Abramowicz H, Abt I, Adamczyk L, Adamus M, Aggarwal R, Antonelli S, Aushev V, Behnke O, Behrens U, Bertolin A, Bloch I, Brock I, Brook NH, Brugnera R, Bruni A, Bussey PJ, Caldwell A, Capua M, Catterall CD, Chwastowski J, Ciborowski J, Ciesielski R, Cooper-Sarkar AM, Corradi M, Dementiev RK, Devenish RCE, Dusini S, Ferrando J, Foster B, Gallo E, Garfagnini A, Geiser A, Gizhko A, Gladilin LK, Golubkov YA, Grzelak G, Gwenlan C, Hlushchenko O, Hochman D, Ibrahim ZA, Iga Y, Jomhari NZ, Kadenko I, Kananov S, Karshon U, Kaur P, Kisielewska D, Klanner R, Klein U, Korzhavina IA, Kotanski A, Kovalchuk N, Kowalski H, Krupa B, Kuprash O, Kuze M, Levchenko BB, Levy A, Libov V, Lisovyi M, Lohr B, Lohrmann E, Longhin A, Lukina OY, Makarenko I, Malka J, Masciocchi S, Idris FM, Nasir NM, Myronenko V, Nagano K, Nam JD, Nicassio M, Onderwaater J, Onishchuk Y, Paul E, Pidhurskyi I, Pokrovskiy NS, Polini A, Przybycien M, Quintero A, Ruspa M, Saxon DH, Schioppa M, Schneekloth U, Schorner-Sadenius T, Selyuzhenkov I, Shchedrolosiev M, Shcheglova LM, Shyrma Y, Skillicorn IO, Slominski W, Solano A, Stanco L, Stefaniuk N, Stern A, Stopa P, Surrow B, Sztuk-Dambietz J, Tassi E, Tokushuku K, Tomaszewska J, Tsurugai T, Turcato M, Turkot O, Tymieniecka T, Verbytskyi A, Abdullah WATW, Wichmann K, Wing M, Yamada S, Yamazaki Y, Zarnecki AF, Zawiejski L, Zenaiev O, Zhautykov BO
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Limits on contact interactions and leptoquarks at HERA

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 2019 MAY 29; 99(9):? Article 092006
High-precision HERA data corresponding to a luminosity of around 1 fb(-1) have been used in the framework of eeqq contact interactions (CI) to set limits on possible high-energy contributions beyond the Standard Model to electron-quark scattering. Measurements of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections in neutral and charged current ep scattering were considered. The analysis of the ep data has been based on simultaneous fits of parton distribution functions including contributions of CI couplings to ep scattering. Several general CI models and scenarios with heavy leptoquarks were considered. Improvements in the description of the inclusive HERA data were obtained for a few models. Since a statistically significant deviation from the Standard Model cannot be established, limits in the TeV range were set on all models considered.
Pavlides C, Donishi T, Ribeiro S, Mello CV, Blanco W, Ogawa S
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Hippocampal functional organization: A microstructure of the place cell network encoding space

NEUROBIOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MEMORY 2019 MAY; 161(?):122-134
A clue to hippocampal function has been the discovery of place cells, leading to the 'spatial map' theory. Although the firing attributes of place cells are well documented, little is known about the organization of the spatial map. Unit recording studies, thus far, have reported a low coherence between neighboring cells and geometric space, leading to the prevalent view that the spatial map is not topographically organized. However, the number of simultaneously recorded units is severely limited, rendering construction of the spatial map nearly impossible. To visualize the functional organization of place cells, we used the activity-dependent immediate early gene Zif268 in combination with behavioral, pharmacological and electrophysiological methods, in mice and rats exploring an environment. Here, we show that in animals confined to a small part of a maze, principal cells in the CA1/CA3 subfields of the dorsal hippocampus immunoreactive (IR) for Zif268 adhere to a 'cluster type' organization. Unit recordings confirmed that the Zif268 IR clusters correspond to active place cells, while blockade of NMDAR (which alters place fields) disrupted the Zif268 IR clusters. Contrary to the prevalent view that the spatial map consists of a non-topographic neural network, our results provide evidence for a 'cluster type' functional organization of hippocampal neurons encoding for space.
Indiani C, Sauve K, Raz A, Abdelhady W, Xiong YQ, Cassino C, Elayer AS, Schuch R
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The Antistaphylococcal Lysin, CF-301, Activates Key Host Factors in Human Blood To Potentiate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriolysis

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY 2019 APR; 63(4):? Article e02291-18
Bacteriophage-derived lysins are cell-wall-hydrolytic enzymes that represent a potential new class of antibacterial therapeutics in development to address burgeoning antimicrobial resistance. CF-301, the lead compound in this class, is in clinical development as an adjunctive treatment to potentially improve clinical cure rates of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE) when used in addition to antibiotics. In order to profile the activity of CF-301 in a clinically relevant milieu, we assessed its in vitro activity in human blood versus in a conventional testing medium (cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth [caMHB]). CF-301 exhibited substantially greater potency (32 to >= 100-fold) in human blood versus caMHB in three standard microbiologic testing formats (e.g., broth dilution MICs, checkerboard synergy, and time-kill assays). We demonstrated that CF-301 acted synergistically with two key human blood factors, human serum lysozyme (HuLYZ) and human serum albumin (HSA), which normally have no nascent antistaphylococcal activity, against a prototypic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain (MW2). Similar in vitro enhancement of CF-301 activity was also observed in rabbit, horse, and dog (but not rat or mouse) blood. Two well-established MRSA IE models in rabbit and rat were used to validate these findings in vivo by demonstrating comparable synergistic efficacy with standard-of-care anti-MRSA antibiotics at >= 100-fold lower lysin doses in the rabbit than in the rat model. The unique properties of CF-301 that enable bactericidal potentiation of antimicrobial activity via activation of "latent" host factors in human blood may have important therapeutic implications for durable improvements in clinical outcomes of serious antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infections.
Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, Brondolin E, Dragicevic M, Ero J, Del Valle AE, Flechl M, Friedl M, Fruhwirth R, Ghete VM, Grossmann J, Hrubec J, Jeitler M, Konig A, Krammer N, Kratschmer I, Liko D, Madlener T, Mikulec I, Pree E, Rad N, Rohringer H, Schieck J, Schofbeck R, Spanring M, Spitzbart D, Taurok A, Waltenberger W, Wittmann J, Wulz CE, Zarucki M, Chekhovsky V, Mossolov V, Gonzalez JS, De Wolf EA, Di Croce D, Janssen X, Lauwers J, Pieters M, Van De Klundert M, Van Haevermaet H, Van Mechelen P, Van Remortel N, Abu Zeid S, Blekman F, D'Hondt J, De Bruyn I, De Clercq J, Deroover K, Flouris G, Lontkovskyi D, Lowette S, Marchesini I, Moortgat S, Moreels L, Python Q, Skovpen K, Tavernier S, Van Doninck W, Van Mulders P, Van Parijs I, Beghin D, Bilin B, Brun H, Clerbaux B, De Lentdecker G, Delannoy H, Dorney B, Fasanella G, Favart L, Goldouzian R, Grebenyuk A, Kalsi AK, Lenzi T, Luetic J, Seva T, Starling E, Vander Velde C, Vanlaer P, Vannerom D, Yonamine R, Cornelis T, Dobur D, Fagot A, Gul M, Khvastunov I, Poyraz D, Roskas C, Trocino D, Tytgat M, Verbeke W, Vermassen B, Vit M, Zaganidis N, Bakhshiansohi H, Bondu O, Brochet S, Bruno G, Caputo C, Caudron A, David P, De Visscher S, Delaere C, Delcourt M, Francois B, Giammanco A, Krintiras G, Lemaitre V, Magitteri A, Mertens A, Musich M, Piotrzkowski K, Quertenmont L, Saggio A, Marono MV, Wertz S, Zobec J, Alda WL, Alves FL, Alves GA, Brito L, Silva GC, Hensel C, Moraes A, Pol ME, Teles PR, Das Chagas EBB, Carvalho W, Chinellato J, Coelho E, Da Costa EM, Da Silveira GG, Damiao DD, De Souza SF, Malbouisson H, Jaime MM, De Almeida MM, Herrera CM, Mundim L, Nogima H, Rosas LJS, Santoro A, Sznajder A, Thiel M, Manganote EJT, De Araujo FTD, Pereira AV, Ahuja S, Bernardes CA, Calligaris L, Tomei TRFP, Gregores EM, Mercadante PG, Novaes SF, Padula S, Abad DR, Vargas JCR, Aleksandrov A, Hadjiiska R, Iaydjiev P, Marinov A, Misheva M, Rodozov M, Shopova M, Sultanov G, Dimitrov A, Litov L, Pavlov B, Petkov P, Fang W, Gao X, Yuan L, Ahmad M, Bian JG, Chen GM, Chen HS, Chen M, Chen Y, Jiang CH, Leggat D, Liao H, Liu Z, Romeo F, Shaheen SM, Spiezia A, Tao J, Wang C, Wang Z, Yazgan E, Zhang H, Zhao J, Ban Y, Chen G, Li J, Li Q, Liu S, Mao Y, Qian SJ, Wang D, Xu Z, Wang Y, Avila C, Cabrera A, Montoya CAC, Sierra LFC, Florez C, Hernandez CFG, Delgado MAS, Courbon B, Godinovic N, Lelas D, Puljak I, Cipriano PMR, Sculac T, Antunovic Z, Kovac M, Brigljevic V, Ferencek D, Kadija K, Mesic B, Starodumov A, Susa T, Ather MW, Attikis A, Mavromanolakis G, Mousa J, Nicolaou C, Ptochos F, Razis PA, Rykaczewski H, Finger M, Finger M, Jarrin EC, Kamel AE, Mohammed Y, Salama E, Bhowmik S, Dewanjee RK, Kadastik M, Perrini L, Raidal M, Veelken C, Eerola P, Kirschenmann H, Pekkanen J, Voutilainen M, Havukainen J, Heikkila JK, Jarvinen T, Karimaki V, Kinnunen R, Lampen T, Lassila-Perini K, Laurila S, Lehti S, Linden T, Luukka P, Maenpaa T, Siikonen H, Tuominen E, Tuominiemi J, Tuuva T, Besancon M, Couderc F, Dejardin M, Denegri D, Faure JL, Ferri F, Ganjour S, Ghosh S, Givernaud A, Gras P, de Monchenault GH, Jarry P, Leloup C, Locci E, Machet M, Malcles J, Negro G, Rander J, Rosowsky A, Sahin MO, Titov M, Abdulsalam A, Amendola C, Antropov I, Baffioni S, Beaudette F, Busson P, Cadamuro L, Charlot C, de Cassagnac RG, Jo M, Kucher I, Lisniak S, Lobanov A, Blanco JM, Nguyen M, Ochando C, Ortona G, Paganini P, Pigard P, Salerno R, Sauvan JB, Sirois Y, Leiton AGS, Yilmaz Y, Zabi A, Zghiche A, Agram JL, Andrea J, Bloch D, Brom JM, Buttignol M, Chabert EC, Collard C, Conte E, Coubez X, Drouhin F, Fontaine JC, Gele D, Goerlach U, Jansova M, Juillot P, Le Bihan AC, Tonon N, Van Hove P, Gadrat S, Beauceron S, Bernet C, Boudoul G, Chanon N, Chierici R, Contardo D, Depasse P, El Mamouni H, Fay J, Finco L, Gascon S, Gouzevitch M, Grenier G, Ille B, Lagarde F, Laktineh IB, Lattaud H, Lethuillier M, Mirabito L, Pequegnot AL, Perries S, Popov A, Sordini V, Vander Donckt M, Viret S, Zhang S, Toriashvili T, Tsamalaidze Z, Autermann C, Feld L, Kiesel MK, Klein K, Lipinski M, Preuten M, Rauch MP, Schomakers C, Schulz J, Teroerde M, Wittmer B, Zhukov V, Albert A, Duchardt D, Endres M, Erdmann M, Erdweg S, Esch T, Fischer R, Guth A, Hebbeker T, Heidemann C, Hoepfner K, Knutzen S, Merschmeyer M, Meyer A, Millet P, Mukherjee S, Pook T, Radziej M, Reithler H, Rieger M, Scheuch F, Teyssier D, Thuer S, Flugge G, Kargoll B, Kress T, Kunsken A, Muller T, Nehrkorn A, Nowack A, Pistone C, Pooth O, Stahl A, Martin MA, Arndt T, Asawatangtrakuldee C, Beernaert K, Behnke O, Behrens U, Martinez AB, Bin Anuar AA, Borras K, Botta V, Campbell A, Connor P, Contreras-Campana C, Costanza F, Danilov V, De Wit A, Pardos CD, Damiani DD, Eckerlin G, Eckstein D, Eichhorn T, Eren E, Gallo E, Garcia JG, Geiser A, Luyando JMG, Grohsjean A, Gunnellini P, Guthoff M, Harb A, Hauk J, Hempel M, Jung H, Kasemann M, Keaveney J, Kleinwort C, Knolle J, Korol I, Krucker D, Lange W, Lelek A, Lenz T, Lipka K, Lohmann W, Mankel R, Melzer-Pellmann IA, Meyer AB, Meyer M, Missiroli M, Mittag G, Mnich J, Mussgiller A, Pitzl D, Raspereza A, Savitskyi M, Saxena P, Shevchenko R, Stefaniuk N, Tholen H, Van Onsem GP, Walsh R, Wen Y, Wichmann K, Wissing C, Zenaiev O, Aggleton R, Bein S, Blobel V, Vignali MC, Dreyer T, Garutti E, Gonzalez D, Haller J, Hinzmann A, Hoffmann M, Karavdina A, Kasieczka G, Klanner R, Kogler R, Kovalchuk N, Kurz S, Marconi D, Multhaup J, Niedziela M, Nowatschin D, Peiffer T, Perieanu A, Reimers A, Scharf C, Schleper P, Schmidt A, Schumann S, Schwandt J, Sonneveld J, Stadie H, Steinbruck G, Stober FM, Stover M, Troendle D, Usai E, Vanhoefer A, Vormwald B, Akbiyik M, Barth C, Baselga M, Baur S, Butz E, Caspart R, Chwalek T, Colombo F, De Boer W, Dierlamm A, Faltermann N, Freund B, Friese R, Giffels M, Harrendorf MA, Hartmann F, Heindl SM, Husemann U, Kassel F, Kudella S, Mildner H, Mozer MU, Muller T, Plagge M, Quast G, Rabbertz K, Schroder M, Shvetsov I, Sieber G, Simonis HJ, Ulrich R, Wayand S, Weber M, Weiler T, Williamson S, Wohrmann C, Wolf R, Anagnostou G, Daskalakis G, Geralis T, Kyriakis A, Loukas D, Topsis-Giotis I, Karathanasis G, Kesisoglou S, Panagiotou A, Saoulidou N, Tziaferi E, Kousouris K, Papakrivopoulos I, Evangelou I, Foudas C, Gianneios P, Katsoulis P, Kokkas P, Mallios S, Manthos N, Papadopoulos I, Paradas E, Strologas J, Triantis FA, Tsitsonis D, Csanad M, Filipovic N, Pasztor G, Suranyi O, Veres GI, Bencze G, Hajdu C, Horvath D, Hunyadi A, Sikler F, Vami TA, Veszpremi V, Vesztergombi G, Beni N, Czellar S, Karancsi J, Makovec A, Molnar J, Szillasi Z, Bartok M, Raics P, Trocsanyi ZL, Ujvari B, Choudhury S, Komaragiri JR, Bahinipati S, Mal P, Mandal K, Nayak A, Sahoo DK, Swain SK, Bansal S, Beri SB, Bhatnagar V, Chauhan S, Chawla R, Dhingra N, Gupta R, Kaur A, Kaur M, Kaur S, Kumar R, Kumari P, Lohan M, Mehta A, Sharma S, Singh JB, Walia G, Bhardwaj A, Choudhary BC, Garg RB, Keshri S, Kumar A, Kumar A, Malhotra S, Naimuddin M, Ranjan K, Shah A, Sharma R, Bhardwaj R, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya S, Bhawandeep U, Bhowmik D, Dey S, Dutt S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, Majumdar N, Mondal K, Mukhopadhyay S, Nandan S, Purohit A, Rout PK, Roy A, Chowdhury SR, Sarkar S, Sharan M, Singh B, Thakur S, Behera PK, Chudasama R, Dutta D, Jha V, Kumar V, Mohanty AK, Netrakanti PK, Pant LM, Shukla P, Topkar A, Aziz T, Dugad S, Mahakud B, Mitra S, Mohanty GB, Sur N, Sutar B, Banerjee S, Bhattacharya S, Chatterjee S, Das P, Guchait M, Jain S, Kumar S, Maity M, Majumder G, Mazumdar K, Sahoo N, Sarkar T, Wickramage N, Chauhan S, Dube S, Hegde V, Kapoor A, Kothekar K, Pandey S, Rane A, Sharma S, Chenarani S, Tadavani EE, Etesami SM, Khakzad M, Najafabadi MM, Naseri M, Mehdiabadi SP, Hosseinabadi FR, Safarzadeh B, Zeinali M, Felcini M, Grunewald M, Abbrescia M, Calabria C, Colaleo A, Creanza D, Cristella L, De Filippis N, De Palma M, Di Florio A, Errico F, Fiore L, Gelmi A, Iaselli G, Lezki S, Maggi G, Maggi M, Marangelli B, Miniello G, My 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Search for excited leptons in final states in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS 2019 APR 2; ?(4):? Article 015
A search is presented for excited electrons and muons in final states at the LHC. The search is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected with the CMS detector in 2016. This is the first search for excited leptons at = 13 TeV. The observation is consistent with the standard model background prediction, and the most stringent exclusion limits to date are set on the excited lepton mass and the compositeness scale, at 95% confidence level. Excited electrons and muons are excluded for masses below 3.9 and 3.8 TeV, respectively, under the assumption that the excited lepton mass equals the compositeness scale. The best observed limit on the compositeness scale is obtained with an excited lepton mass of around 1.0 TeV, excluding values below 25 TeV for both excited electrons and muons.