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Found 37003 matches. Displaying 81-90
Silva KDA, Nunes JPS, Andrieux P, Brochet P, Almeida RR, Takara ACKK, Pereira NB, Abel L, Cobat A, Zaniratto RCF, Levy D, Bydlowski SP, Cecconello I, Seguro FCBD, Kalil J, Chevillard C, Cunha-Neto E
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Chagas Disease Megaesophagus Patients Carrying Variant MRPS18B P260A Display Nitro-Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Response to IFN-gamma Stimulus

BIOMEDICINES 2022 SEP; 10(9):? Article 2215
Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 8 million people, and around 1/3 develop chronic cardiac (CCC) or digestive disease (megaesophagus/megacolon), while the majority remain asymptomatic, in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease (ASY). Most CCC cases in families with multiple Chagas disease patients carry damaging mutations in mitochondrial genes. We searched for exonic mutations associated to chagasic megaesophagus (CME) in genes essential to mitochondrial processes. We performed whole exome sequencing of 13 CME and 45 ASY patients. We found the damaging variant MRPS18B 688C > G P230A, in five out of the 13 CME patients (one of them being homozygous; 38.4%), while the variant appeared in one out of 45 ASY patients (2.2%). We analyzed the interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced nitro-oxidative stress and mitochondrial function of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. We found the CME carriers of the mutation displayed increased levels of nitrite and nitrated proteins; in addition, the homozygous (G/G) CME patient also showed increased mitochondrial superoxide and reduced levels of ATP production. The results suggest that pathogenic mitochondrial mutations may contribute to cytokine-induced nitro-oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesize that, in mutation carriers, IFN-gamma produced in the esophageal myenteric plexus might cause nitro-oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons, contributing to megaesophagus.
Rapaport F, Seier K, Neelamraju Y, Hassane D, Baslan T, Gildea DT, Haddox S, Lee T, Murdock HM, Sheridan C, Thurmond A, Wang L, Carroll M, Cripe LD, Fernandez H, Mason CE, Paietta E, Roboz GJ, Sun ZX, Tallman MS, Zhang YM, Gonen M, Levine R, Melnick AM, Kleppe M, Garrett-Bakelman FE
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Integrative analysis identifies an older female-linked AML patient group with better risk in ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group's clinical trial E3999

BLOOD CANCER JOURNAL 2022 SEP 23; 12(9):? Article 137
Du J, Vandavasi VG, Molloy KR, Yang H, Massenburg LN, Singh A, Kwansa AL, Yingling YG, O'Neill H, Chait BT, Kumar M, Nixon BT
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Evidence for Plant-Conserved Region Mediated Trimeric CESAs in Plant Cellulose Synthase Complexes br

BIOMACROMOLECULES 2022 SEP 12; 23(9):3663-3677
Higher plants synthesize cellulose using membrane bound, six-lobed cellulose synthase complexes, each lobe containing trimeric cellulose synthases (CESAs). Although molecular biology reports support heteromeric trimers composed of different isoforms, a homomeric trimer was reported for in vitro studies of the catalytic domain of CESA1 of Arabidopsis (AtCESA1CatD) and confirmed in cryoEM structures of fulllength CESA8 and CESA7 of poplar and cotton, respectively. In both structures, a small portion of the plant-conserved region (PCR) forms the only contacts between catalytic domains of the monomers. We report inter-subunit lysine-crosslinks that localize to the small P-CR, negative-stain EM structure, and modeling data for homotrimers of AtCESA1CatD. Molecular dynamics simulations for AtCESA1CatD trimers based on the CESA8 cryoEM structure were stable and dependent upon a small set of residue contacts. The results suggest that homomeric CESA trimers may be important for the synthesis of primary and secondary cell walls and identify key residues for future mutagenic studies.
Poulton NC, Azadian ZA, DeJesus MA, Rock JM
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Mutations in rv0678 Confer Low-Level Resistance to Benzothiazinone DprE1 Inhibitors in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from any bacterial infection, causing 1.5 million deaths worldwide each year. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) there have been significant efforts aimed at developing novel drugs to treat TB. One promising drug target in Mtb is the arabinogalactan biosynthetic enzyme DprE1, and there have been over a dozen unique chemical scaffolds identified which inhibit the activity of this protein. Among the most promising lead compounds are the benzothiazinones BTZ043 and PBTZ169, both of which are currently in or have completed phase IIa clinical trials. Due to the potential clinical utility of these drugs, we sought to identify potential synergistic interactions and new mechanisms of resistance using a genome-scale CRISPRi chemical-genetic screen with PBTZ169. We found that knockdown of rv0678, the negative regulator of the mmpS5/L5 drug efflux pump, confers resistance to PBTZ169. Mutations in rv0678 are the most common form of resistance to bedaquiline and there is already abundant evidence of these mutations emerging in bedaquiline-treated patients. We confirmed that rv0678 mutations from clinical isolates confer low level cross-resistance to BTZ043 and PBTZ169. While it is yet unclear whether rv0678 mutations would render benzothiazinones ineffective in treating TB, these results highlight the importance of monitoring for clinically prevalent rv0678 mutations during ongoing BTZ043 and PBTZ169 clinical trials.
Zhao HT, Lee J, Chen J
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The hemolysin A secretion system is a multi-engine pump containing three ABC transporters

CELL 2022 SEP 1; 185(18):3329-+
Type 1 secretion systems (T1SSs) are widespread in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, extruding protein substrates following synthesis of the entire polypeptide. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system has long been considered a prototype in structural and mechanistic studies of T1SSs. Three membrane pro-teins-an inner membrane ABC transporter HlyB, an adaptor protein HlyD, and an outer membrane porin TolC-are required for secretion. However, the stoichiometry and structure of the complex are unknown. Here, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures determined in two conformations reveal that the inner membrane complex is a hetero-dodecameric assembly comprising three HlyB homodimers and six HlyD subunits. Functional studies indicate that oligomerization of HlyB and HlyD is essential for protein secretion and that polypeptides translocate through a canonical ABC transporter pathway in HlyB. Our data suggest that T1SSs entail three ABC transporters, one that functions as a protein channel and two that allosterically power the translocation process.
Waidmann EN, Koyano KW, Hong JJ, Russ BE, Leopold DA
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Local features drive identity responses in macaque anterior face patches

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2022 SEP 23; 13(1):? Article 5592
Anterior face patches in the macaque have been assumed to represent face identity in a holistic manner. Here the authors show that the neural encoding of face identity in the anterior medial and anterior fundus face patches are instead driven principally by local features. Humans and other primates recognize one another in part based on unique structural details of the face, including both local features and their spatial configuration within the head and body. Visual analysis of the face is supported by specialized regions of the primate cerebral cortex, which in macaques are commonly known as face patches. Here we ask whether the responses of neurons in anterior face patches, thought to encode face identity, are more strongly driven by local or holistic facial structure. We created stimuli consisting of recombinant photorealistic images of macaques, where we interchanged the eyes, mouth, head, and body between individuals. Unexpectedly, neurons in the anterior medial (AM) and anterior fundus (AF) face patches were predominantly tuned to local facial features, with minimal neural selectivity for feature combinations. These findings indicate that the high-level structural encoding of face identity rests upon populations of neurons specialized for local features.
Weymar GHJ, Bar -On Y, Oliveira TY, Gaebler C, Ramos V, Hartweger H, Breton G, Caskey M, Cohn LB, Jankovic M, Nussenzweig MC
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Distinct gene expression by expanded clones of quiescent memory CD4(+) T cells harboring intact latent HIV-1 proviruses

CELL REPORTS 2022 SEP 6; 40(10):? Article 111311
Antiretroviral therapy controls, but does not cure, HIV-1 infection due to a reservoir of rare CD4(+) T cells harboring latent proviruses. Little is known about the transcriptional program of latent cells. Here, we report a strategy to enrich clones of latent cells carrying intact, replication-competent HIV-1 proviruses from blood based on their expression of unique T cell receptors. Latent cell enrichment enabled single-cell transcriptomic analysis of 1,050 CD4(+) T cells belonging to expanded clones harboring intact HIV-1 proviruses from 6 different individuals. The analysis reveals that most of these cells are T effector memory cells that are enriched for expression of HLA-DR, HLA-DP, CD74, CCL5, granzymes A and K, cystatin F, LYAR, and DUSP2. We conclude that expanded clones of latent cells carrying intact HIV-1 proviruses persist preferentially in a distinct CD4(+) T cell population, opening possibilities for eradication.
Kabbani M, Michailidis E, Steensels S, Fulmer CG, Luna JM, Le Pen J, Tardelli M, Razooky B, Ricardo-Lax I, Zou CH, Zeck B, Stenzel AF, Quirk C, Foquet L, Ashbrook AW, Schneider WM, Belkaya S, Lalazar G, Liang YP, Pittman M, Devisscher L, Suemizu H, Theise ND, Chiriboga L, Cohen DE, Copenhaver R, Grompe M, Meuleman P, Ersoy BA, Rice CM, Jong YPD
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Article Human hepatocyte PNPLA3-148M exacerbates rapid non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development in chimeric mice

CELL REPORTS 2022 SEP 13; 40(11):? Article 111321
Advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging global health problem associated with pre-disposing genetic polymorphisms, most strikingly an isoleucine to methionine substitution in pa-tatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3-I148M). Here, we study how human hepa-tocytes with PNPLA3 148I and 148M variants engrafted in the livers of broadly immunodeficient chimeric mice respond to hypercaloric diets. As early as four weeks, mice developed dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and steatosis with ballooning degeneration selectively in the human graft, followed by pericel-lular fibrosis after eight weeks of hypercaloric feeding. Hepatocytes with the PNPLA3-148M variant, either from a homozygous 148M donor or overexpressed in a 148I donor background, developed microvesicular and severe steatosis with frequent ballooning degeneration, resulting in more active steatohepatitis than 148I hepatocytes. We conclude that PNPLA3-148M in human hepatocytes exacerbates NAFLD. These models will facilitate mechanistic studies into human genetic variant contributions to advanced fatty liver diseases.
Rashid A, Tevlin M, Lu Y, Shaham S
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A developmental pathway for epithelial-to-motoneuron transformation in C. elegans

CELL REPORTS 2022 SEP 27; 40(13):? Article 111414
Motoneurons and motoneuron-like pancreatic b cells arise from radial glia and ductal cells, respectively, both tube-lining progenitors that share molecular regulators. To uncover programs underlying motoneuron forma-tion, we studied a similar, cell-division-independent transformation of the C. elegans tube-lining Y cell into the PDA motoneuron. We find that lin-12/Notch acts through ngn-1/Ngn and its regulator hlh-16/Olig to control transformation timing. lin-12 loss blocks transformation, while lin-12(gf) promotes precocious PDA forma-tion. Early basal expression of ngn-1/Ngn and hlh-16/Olig depends on sem-4/Sall and egl-5/Hox. Later, coin-cident with Y cell morphological changes, ngn-1/Ngn expression is upregulated in a sem-4/Sall and egl-5/ Hox-dependent but hlh-16/Olig-independent manner. Subsequently, Y cell retrograde extension forms an anchored process priming PDA axon extension. Extension requires ngn-1-dependent expression of the cyto-skeleton organizers UNC-119, UNC-44/ANK, and UNC-33/CRMP, which also activate PDA terminal-gene expression. Our findings uncover cell-division-independent regulatory events leading to motoneuron gener-ation, suggesting a conserved pathway for epithelial-to-motoneuron/motoneuron-like cell differentiation.
Triller G, Garyfallos DA, Papavasiliou FN, Sklaviadis T, Stavropoulos P, Xanthopoulos K
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Immunization with Genetically Modified Trypanosomes Provides Protection against Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are incurable neurodegenerative diseases, associated with the conversion of the physiological prion protein to its disease-associated counterpart. Even though immunization against transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has shown great potential, immune tolerance effects impede the use of active immunization protocols for successful prophylaxis. In this study, we evaluate the use of trypanosomes as biological platforms for the presentation of a prion antigenic peptide to the host immune system. Using the engineered trypanosomes in an immunization protocol without the use of adjuvants led to the development of a humoral immune response against the prion protein in wild type mice, without the appearance of adverse reactions. The immune reaction elicited with this protocol displayed in vitro therapeutic potential and was further evaluated in a bioassay where immunized mice were partially protected in a representative murine model of prion diseases. Further studies are underway to better characterize the immune reaction and optimize the immunization protocol.