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Found 34685 matches. Displaying 91-100
Silva HM, Bafica A, Rodrigues-Luiz GF, Chi J, Santos PDA, Reis BS, van Konijnenburg DPH, Crane A, Arifa RDN, Martin P, Mendes DAGB, Mansur DS, Torres CJ, Cadwell K, Cohen P, Mucida D, Lafaille JJ
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Vasculature-associated fat macrophages readily adapt to inflammatory and metabolic challenges

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2019 APR; 216(4):786-806
Tissue-resident macrophages are the most abundant immune cell population in healthy adipose tissue. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) change during metabolic stress and are thought to contribute to metabolic syndrome. Here, we studied ATM subpopulations in steady state and in response to nutritional and infectious challenges. We found that tissue-resident macrophages from healthy epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) tightly associate with blood vessels, displaying very high endocytic capacity. We refer to these cells as vasculature-associated ATMs (VAMs). Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) results in the accumulation of a monocyte-derived CD11c(+)CD64(+ )double-positive (DP) macrophage eWAT population with a predominant anti-inflammatory/detoxifying gene profile, but reduced endocytic function. In contrast, fasting rapidly and reversibly leads to VAM depletion, while acute inflammatory stress induced by pathogens transiently depletes VAMs and simultaneously boosts DP macrophage accumulation. Our results indicate that ATM populations dynamically adapt to metabolic stress and inflammation, suggesting an important role for these cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis.
Li R, Hadi S, Guttman-Yassky E
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Current and emerging biologic and small molecule therapies for atopic dermatitis

EXPERT OPINION ON BIOLOGICAL THERAPY 2019 APR 3; 19(4):367-380
Introduction: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease, yet until recently there were no safe systemic therapies approved for the long-term management of AD in adult patients. A deeper understanding of disease pathogenesis and identification of molecular and cellular changes has resulted in a rapidly evolving pipeline of therapeutics that holds promise for safer long-term control. Areas covered: In this review, we highlight the growing arsenal of biologic and small molecule antagonists that target pathways implicated in AD pathogenesis. Evidence that AD is driven by multiple immune axes extending beyond the Th2 polarization has resulted in therapies targeting additional pathways, including the Th22, Th17/IL-23, and JAK-STAT pathways. Pruritus, a hallmark of AD, has been linked to multiple mechanisms and various therapeutics have emerged in response to alternative hypotheses. Expert opinion: Despite the assumption that AD has a common disease mechanism, recent studies indicate that the disorder is characterized by several phenotypes and therapy may need to be tailored to the unique immune traits of specific phenotypes. Targeted therapy should complement and expand our molecular map of AD across the various phenotypic iterations and help push AD pharmacotherapy into a new era of personalized medicine.
Campo AT, Vazquez Y, Alvarez M, Zainos A, Rossi-Pool R, Deco G, Romo R
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Feed-forward information and zero-lag synchronization in the sensory thalamocortical circuit are modulated during stimulus perception

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2019 APR 9; 116(15):7513-7522
The direction of functional information flow in the sensory thalamocortical circuit may play a role in stimulus perception, but, surprisingly, this process is poorly understood. We addressed this problem by evaluating a directional information measure between simultaneously recorded neurons from somatosensory thalamus (ventral posterolateral nucleus, VPL) and somatosensory cortex (S1) sharing the same cutaneous receptive field while monkeys judged the presence or absence of a tactile stimulus. During stimulus presence, feed-forward information (VPL -> S1) increased as a function of the stimulus ampli- tude, while pure feed-back information (S1 -> VPL) was unaffected. In parallel, zero-lag interaction emerged with increasing stimulus amplitude, reflecting externally driven thalamocortical synchronization during stimulus processing. Furthermore, VPL -> S1 information decreased during error trials. Also, VPL -> S1 and zero-lag interaction decreased when monkeys were not required to report the stimulus presence. These findings provide evidence that both the direction of information flow and the instant synchronization in the sensory thalamocortical circuit play a role in stimulus perception.
Cheung-Lee WL, Parry ME, Cartagena AJ, Darst SA, Link AJ
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Discovery and structure of the antimicrobial lasso peptide citrocin

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 2019 APR 26; 294(17):6822-6830
We report the identification of citrocin, a 19-amino acid-long antimicrobial lasso peptide from the bacteria Citrobacter pasteurii and Citrobacter braakii. We refactored the citrocin gene cluster and heterologously expressed it in Escherichia coli. We determined citrocin's NMR structure in water and found that is reminiscent of that of microcin J25 (MccJ25), an RNA polymerase-inhibiting lasso peptide that hijacks the TonB-dependent transporter FhuA to gain entry into cells. Citrocin has moderate antimicrobial activity against E. coli and Citrobacter strains. We then performed an in vitro RNA polymerase (RNAP) inhibition assay using citrocin and microcin J25 against E. coli RNAP. Citrocin has a higher minimal inhibition concentration than microcin J25 does against E. coli but surprisingly is approximate to 100-fold more potent as an RNAP inhibitor. This suggests that citrocin uptake by E. coli is limited. We found that unlike MccJ25, citrocin's activity against E. coli relied on neither of the two proton motive force-linked systems, Ton and Tol-Pal, for transport across the outer membrane. The structure of citrocin contains a patch of positive charge consisting of Lys-5 and Arg-17. We performed mutagenesis on these residues and found that the R17Y construct was matured into a lasso peptide but no longer had activity, showing the importance of this side chain for antimicrobial activity. In summary, we heterologously expressed and structurally and biochemically characterized an antimicrobial lasso peptide, citrocin. Despite being similar to MccJ25 in sequence, citrocin has an altered activity profile and does not use the same outer-membrane transporter to enter susceptible cells.
Vibholm LK, Lorenzi JCC, Pai JA, Cohen YZ, Oliveira TY, Barton JP, Noceda MG, Lu CL, Ablanedo-Terrazas Y, Estrada PMD, Reyes-Teran G, Tolstrup M, Denton PW, Damsgaard T, Sogaard OS, Nussenzweig MC
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Characterization of Intact Proviruses in Blood and Lymph Node from HIV-Infected Individuals Undergoing Analytical Treatment Interruption

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 2019 APR; 93(8):? Article e01920-18
The role of lymphoid tissue as a potential source of HIV-1 rebound following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is uncertain. To address this issue, we compared the latent viruses obtained from CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes to viruses emerging during treatment interruption. Latent viruses were characterized by sequencing near-full-length (NFL) proviral DNA and env from viral outgrowth assays (VOAs). Five HIV-1-infected individuals on ART were studied, four of whom participated in a clinical trial of a TLR9 agonist that included an analytical treatment interruption. We found that 98% of intact or replication-competent clonal sequences overlapped between blood and lymph node. In contrast, there was no overlap between 205 latent reservoir and 125 rebound sequences in the four individuals who underwent treatment interruption. However, rebound viruses could be accounted for by recombination. The data suggest that CD4(+) T cells carrying latent viruses circulate between blood and lymphoid tissues in individuals on ART and support the idea that recombination may play a role in the emergence of rebound viremia. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 persists as a latent infection in CD4(+) T cells that can be found in lymphoid tissues in infected individuals during ART. However, the importance of this tissue reservoir and its contribution to viral rebound upon ART interruption are not clear. In this study, we sought to compare latent HIV-1 from blood and lymph node CD4(+) T cells from five HIV-1-infected individuals. Further, we analyzed the contribution of lymph node viruses to viral rebound. We observed that the frequencies of intact proviruses were the same in blood and lymph node. Moreover, expanded clones of T cells bearing identical proviruses were found in blood and lymph node. These latent reservoir sequences did not appear to be the direct origin of rebound virus. Instead, latent proviruses were found to contribute to the rebound compartment by recombination.
Kume K, Cantwell H, Burrell A, Nurse P
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Nuclear membrane protein Lem2 regulates nuclear size through membrane flow

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2019 APR 23; 10(?):? Article 1871
The size of the membrane-bound nucleus scales with cell size in a wide range of cell types but the mechanisms determining overall nuclear size remain largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of fission yeast inner nuclear membrane proteins in determining nuclear size, and propose that the Lap2-Emerin-Manl domain protein Lem2 acts as a barrier to membrane flow between the nucleus and other parts of the cellular membrane system. Lem2 deletion increases membrane flow into and out of the nuclear envelope in response to changes in membrane synthesis and nucleocytoplasmic transport, altering nuclear size. The endoplasmic reticulum protein Lnp1 acts as a secondary barrier to membrane flow, functionally compensating for lack of Lem2. We propose that this is part of the mechanism that maintains nuclear size proportional to cellular membrane content and thus to cell size. Similar regulatory principles may apply to other organelles in the eukaryotic subcellular membrane network.
Indiani C, Sauve K, Raz A, Abdelhady W, Xiong YQ, Cassino C, Elayer AS, Schuch R
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The Antistaphylococcal Lysin, CF-301, Activates Key Host Factors in Human Blood To Potentiate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriolysis

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY 2019 APR; 63(4):? Article e02291-18
Bacteriophage-derived lysins are cell-wall-hydrolytic enzymes that represent a potential new class of antibacterial therapeutics in development to address burgeoning antimicrobial resistance. CF-301, the lead compound in this class, is in clinical development as an adjunctive treatment to potentially improve clinical cure rates of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE) when used in addition to antibiotics. In order to profile the activity of CF-301 in a clinically relevant milieu, we assessed its in vitro activity in human blood versus in a conventional testing medium (cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth [caMHB]). CF-301 exhibited substantially greater potency (32 to >= 100-fold) in human blood versus caMHB in three standard microbiologic testing formats (e.g., broth dilution MICs, checkerboard synergy, and time-kill assays). We demonstrated that CF-301 acted synergistically with two key human blood factors, human serum lysozyme (HuLYZ) and human serum albumin (HSA), which normally have no nascent antistaphylococcal activity, against a prototypic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain (MW2). Similar in vitro enhancement of CF-301 activity was also observed in rabbit, horse, and dog (but not rat or mouse) blood. Two well-established MRSA IE models in rabbit and rat were used to validate these findings in vivo by demonstrating comparable synergistic efficacy with standard-of-care anti-MRSA antibiotics at >= 100-fold lower lysin doses in the rabbit than in the rat model. The unique properties of CF-301 that enable bactericidal potentiation of antimicrobial activity via activation of "latent" host factors in human blood may have important therapeutic implications for durable improvements in clinical outcomes of serious antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infections.
Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, Brondolin E, Dragicevic M, Ero J, Del Valle AE, Flechl M, Friedl M, Fruhwirth R, Ghete VM, Grossmann J, Hrubec J, Jeitler M, Konig A, Krammer N, Kratschmer I, Liko D, Madlener T, Mikulec I, Pree E, Rad N, Rohringer H, Schieck J, Schofbeck R, Spanring M, Spitzbart D, Taurok A, Waltenberger W, Wittmann J, Wulz CE, Zarucki M, Chekhovsky V, Mossolov V, Gonzalez JS, De Wolf EA, Di Croce D, Janssen X, Lauwers J, Pieters M, Van De Klundert M, Van Haevermaet H, Van Mechelen P, Van Remortel N, Abu Zeid S, Blekman F, D'Hondt J, De Bruyn I, De Clercq J, Deroover K, Flouris G, Lontkovskyi D, Lowette S, Marchesini I, Moortgat S, Moreels L, Python Q, Skovpen K, Tavernier S, Van Doninck W, Van Mulders P, Van Parijs I, Beghin D, Bilin B, Brun H, Clerbaux B, De Lentdecker G, Delannoy H, Dorney B, Fasanella G, Favart L, Goldouzian R, Grebenyuk A, Kalsi AK, Lenzi T, Luetic J, Seva T, Starling E, Vander Velde C, Vanlaer P, Vannerom D, Yonamine R, Cornelis T, Dobur D, Fagot A, Gul M, Khvastunov I, Poyraz D, Roskas C, Trocino D, Tytgat M, Verbeke W, Vermassen B, Vit M, Zaganidis N, Bakhshiansohi H, Bondu O, Brochet S, Bruno G, Caputo C, Caudron A, David P, De Visscher S, Delaere C, Delcourt M, Francois B, Giammanco A, Krintiras G, Lemaitre V, Magitteri A, Mertens A, Musich M, Piotrzkowski K, Quertenmont L, Saggio A, Marono MV, Wertz S, Zobec J, Alda WL, Alves FL, Alves GA, Brito L, Silva GC, Hensel C, Moraes A, Pol ME, Teles PR, Das Chagas EBB, Carvalho W, Chinellato J, Coelho E, Da Costa EM, Da Silveira GG, Damiao DD, De Souza SF, Malbouisson H, Jaime MM, De Almeida MM, Herrera CM, Mundim L, Nogima H, Rosas LJS, Santoro A, Sznajder A, Thiel M, Manganote EJT, De Araujo FTD, Pereira AV, Ahuja S, Bernardes CA, Calligaris L, Tomei TRFP, Gregores EM, Mercadante PG, Novaes SF, Padula S, Abad DR, Vargas JCR, Aleksandrov A, Hadjiiska R, Iaydjiev P, Marinov A, Misheva M, Rodozov M, Shopova M, Sultanov G, Dimitrov A, Litov L, Pavlov B, Petkov P, Fang W, Gao X, Yuan L, Ahmad M, Bian JG, Chen GM, Chen HS, Chen M, Chen Y, Jiang CH, Leggat D, Liao H, Liu Z, Romeo F, Shaheen SM, Spiezia A, Tao J, Wang C, Wang Z, Yazgan E, Zhang H, Zhao J, Ban Y, Chen G, Li J, Li Q, Liu S, Mao Y, Qian SJ, Wang D, Xu Z, Wang Y, Avila C, Cabrera A, Montoya CAC, Sierra LFC, Florez C, Hernandez CFG, Delgado MAS, Courbon B, Godinovic N, Lelas D, Puljak I, Cipriano PMR, Sculac T, Antunovic Z, Kovac M, Brigljevic V, Ferencek D, Kadija K, Mesic B, Starodumov A, Susa T, Ather MW, Attikis A, Mavromanolakis G, Mousa J, Nicolaou C, Ptochos F, Razis PA, Rykaczewski H, Finger M, Finger M, Jarrin EC, Kamel AE, Mohammed Y, Salama E, Bhowmik S, Dewanjee RK, Kadastik M, Perrini L, Raidal M, Veelken C, Eerola P, Kirschenmann H, Pekkanen J, Voutilainen M, Havukainen J, Heikkila JK, Jarvinen T, Karimaki V, Kinnunen R, Lampen T, Lassila-Perini K, Laurila S, Lehti S, Linden T, Luukka P, Maenpaa T, Siikonen H, Tuominen E, Tuominiemi J, Tuuva T, Besancon M, Couderc F, Dejardin M, Denegri D, Faure JL, Ferri F, Ganjour S, Ghosh S, Givernaud A, Gras P, de Monchenault GH, Jarry P, Leloup C, Locci E, Machet M, Malcles J, Negro G, Rander J, Rosowsky A, Sahin MO, Titov M, Abdulsalam A, Amendola C, Antropov I, Baffioni S, Beaudette F, Busson P, Cadamuro L, Charlot C, de Cassagnac RG, Jo M, Kucher I, Lisniak S, Lobanov A, Blanco JM, Nguyen M, Ochando C, Ortona G, Paganini P, Pigard P, Salerno R, Sauvan JB, Sirois Y, Leiton AGS, Yilmaz Y, Zabi A, Zghiche A, Agram JL, Andrea J, Bloch D, Brom JM, Buttignol M, Chabert EC, Collard C, Conte E, Coubez X, Drouhin F, Fontaine JC, Gele D, Goerlach U, Jansova M, Juillot P, Le Bihan AC, Tonon N, Van Hove P, Gadrat S, Beauceron S, Bernet C, Boudoul G, Chanon N, Chierici R, Contardo D, Depasse P, El Mamouni H, Fay J, Finco L, Gascon S, Gouzevitch M, Grenier G, Ille B, Lagarde F, Laktineh IB, Lattaud H, Lethuillier M, Mirabito L, Pequegnot AL, Perries S, Popov A, Sordini V, Vander Donckt M, Viret S, Zhang S, Toriashvili T, Tsamalaidze Z, Autermann C, Feld L, Kiesel MK, Klein K, Lipinski M, Preuten M, Rauch MP, Schomakers C, Schulz J, Teroerde M, Wittmer B, Zhukov V, Albert A, Duchardt D, Endres M, Erdmann M, Erdweg S, Esch T, Fischer R, Guth A, Hebbeker T, Heidemann C, Hoepfner K, Knutzen S, Merschmeyer M, Meyer A, Millet P, Mukherjee S, Pook T, Radziej M, Reithler H, Rieger M, Scheuch F, Teyssier D, Thuer S, Flugge G, Kargoll B, Kress T, Kunsken A, Muller T, Nehrkorn A, Nowack A, Pistone C, Pooth O, Stahl A, Martin MA, Arndt T, Asawatangtrakuldee C, Beernaert K, Behnke O, Behrens U, Martinez AB, Bin Anuar AA, Borras K, Botta V, Campbell A, Connor P, Contreras-Campana C, Costanza F, Danilov V, De Wit A, Pardos CD, Damiani DD, Eckerlin G, Eckstein D, Eichhorn T, Eren E, Gallo E, Garcia JG, Geiser A, Luyando JMG, Grohsjean A, Gunnellini P, Guthoff M, Harb A, Hauk J, Hempel M, Jung H, Kasemann M, Keaveney J, Kleinwort C, Knolle J, Korol I, Krucker D, Lange W, Lelek A, Lenz T, Lipka K, Lohmann W, Mankel R, Melzer-Pellmann IA, Meyer AB, Meyer M, Missiroli M, Mittag G, Mnich J, Mussgiller A, Pitzl D, Raspereza A, Savitskyi M, Saxena P, Shevchenko R, Stefaniuk N, Tholen H, Van Onsem GP, Walsh R, Wen Y, Wichmann K, Wissing C, Zenaiev O, Aggleton R, Bein S, Blobel V, Vignali MC, Dreyer T, Garutti E, Gonzalez D, Haller J, Hinzmann A, Hoffmann M, Karavdina A, Kasieczka G, Klanner R, Kogler R, Kovalchuk N, Kurz S, Marconi D, Multhaup J, Niedziela M, Nowatschin D, Peiffer T, Perieanu A, Reimers A, Scharf C, Schleper P, Schmidt A, Schumann S, Schwandt J, Sonneveld J, Stadie H, Steinbruck G, Stober FM, Stover M, Troendle D, Usai E, Vanhoefer A, Vormwald B, Akbiyik M, Barth C, Baselga M, Baur S, Butz E, Caspart R, Chwalek T, Colombo F, De Boer W, Dierlamm A, Faltermann N, Freund B, Friese R, Giffels M, Harrendorf MA, Hartmann F, Heindl SM, Husemann U, Kassel F, Kudella S, Mildner H, Mozer MU, Muller T, Plagge M, Quast G, Rabbertz K, Schroder M, Shvetsov I, Sieber G, Simonis HJ, Ulrich R, Wayand S, Weber M, Weiler T, Williamson S, Wohrmann C, Wolf R, Anagnostou G, Daskalakis G, Geralis T, Kyriakis A, Loukas D, Topsis-Giotis I, Karathanasis G, Kesisoglou S, Panagiotou A, Saoulidou N, Tziaferi E, Kousouris K, Papakrivopoulos I, Evangelou I, Foudas C, Gianneios P, Katsoulis P, Kokkas P, Mallios S, Manthos N, Papadopoulos I, Paradas E, Strologas J, Triantis FA, Tsitsonis D, Csanad M, Filipovic N, Pasztor G, Suranyi O, Veres GI, Bencze G, Hajdu C, Horvath D, Hunyadi A, Sikler F, Vami TA, Veszpremi V, Vesztergombi G, Beni N, Czellar S, Karancsi J, Makovec A, Molnar J, Szillasi Z, Bartok M, Raics P, Trocsanyi ZL, Ujvari B, Choudhury S, Komaragiri JR, Bahinipati S, Mal P, Mandal K, Nayak A, Sahoo DK, Swain SK, Bansal S, Beri SB, Bhatnagar V, Chauhan S, Chawla R, Dhingra N, Gupta R, Kaur A, Kaur M, Kaur S, Kumar R, Kumari P, Lohan M, Mehta A, Sharma S, Singh JB, Walia G, Bhardwaj A, Choudhary BC, Garg RB, Keshri S, Kumar A, Kumar A, Malhotra S, Naimuddin M, Ranjan K, Shah A, Sharma R, Bhardwaj R, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya S, Bhawandeep U, Bhowmik D, Dey S, Dutt S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, Majumdar N, Mondal K, Mukhopadhyay S, Nandan S, Purohit A, Rout PK, Roy A, Chowdhury SR, Sarkar S, Sharan M, Singh B, Thakur S, Behera PK, Chudasama R, Dutta D, Jha V, Kumar V, Mohanty AK, Netrakanti PK, Pant LM, Shukla P, Topkar A, Aziz T, Dugad S, Mahakud B, Mitra S, Mohanty GB, Sur N, Sutar B, Banerjee S, Bhattacharya S, Chatterjee S, Das P, Guchait M, Jain S, Kumar S, Maity M, Majumder G, Mazumdar K, Sahoo N, Sarkar T, Wickramage N, Chauhan S, Dube S, Hegde V, Kapoor A, Kothekar K, Pandey S, Rane A, Sharma S, Chenarani S, Tadavani EE, Etesami SM, Khakzad M, Najafabadi MM, Naseri M, Mehdiabadi SP, Hosseinabadi FR, Safarzadeh B, Zeinali M, Felcini M, Grunewald M, Abbrescia M, Calabria C, Colaleo A, Creanza D, Cristella L, De Filippis N, De Palma M, Di Florio A, Errico F, Fiore L, Gelmi A, Iaselli G, Lezki S, Maggi G, Maggi M, Marangelli B, Miniello G, My S, Nuzzo S, Pompili A, Pugliese G, Radogna R, Ranieri A, Selvaggi G, Sharma A, Silvestris L, Venditti R, Verwilligen P, Zito G, Abbiendi G, Battilana C, Bonacorsi D, Borgonovi L, Braibant-Giacomelli S, Campanini R, Capiluppi P, Castro A, Cavallo FR, Chhibra SS, Codispoti G, Cuffiani M, Dallavalle GM, Fabbri F, Fanfani A, Fasanella D, Giacomelli P, Grandi C, Guiducci L, Marcellini S, Masetti G, Montanari A, Navarria FL, Odorici F, Perrotta A, Rossi AM, Rovelli T, Siroli GP, Tosi N, Albergo S, Costa S, Di Mattia A, Giordano F, Potenza R, Tricomi A, Tuve C, Barbagli G, Chatterjee K, Ciulli V, Civinini C, D'Alessandro R, Focardi E, Latino G, Lenzi P, Meschini M, Paoletti S, Russo L, Sguazzoni G, Strom D, Viliani L, Benussi L, Bianco S, Fabbri F, Piccolo D, Primavera F, Calvelli V, Ferro F, Ravera F, Robutti E, Tosi S, Benaglia A, Beschi A, Brianza L, Brivio F, Ciriolo V, Dinardo ME, Fiorendi S, Gennai S, Ghezzi A, Govoni P, Malberti M, Malvezzi S, Manzoni RA, Menasce D, Moroni L, Paganoni M, Pauwels K, Pedrini D, Pigazzini S, Ragazzi S, de Fatis TT, Buontempo S, Cavallo N, Di Guida S, Fabozzi F, Fienga F, Galati G, Iorio AOM, Khan WA, Lista L, Meola S, Paolucci P, Sciacca C, Thyssen F, Voevodina E, Azzi P, Bacchetta N, Benato L, Bisello D, Boletti A, Carlin R, De Oliveira ACA, Checchia P, Manzano PD, Dorigo T, Dosselli U, Gasparini F, Gasparini U, Gozzelino A, Lacaprara S, Margoni M, Meneguzzo AT, Pozzobon N, Ronchese P, Rossin R, Simonetto F, Tiko A, Torassa E, Zanetti M, Zotto P, Zumerle G, Braghieri A, Magnani A, Montagna P, Ratti SP, Re V, Ressegotti M, Riccardi C, Salvini P, Vai I, Vitulo P, Solestizi LA, Biasini M, Bilei GM, Cecchi C, Ciangottini D, Fano L, Lariccia P, Leonardi R, Manoni E, Mantovani G, Mariani V, Menichelli M, Rossi A, Santocchia A, Spiga D, Androsov K, Azzurri P, Bagliesi G, Bianchini L, Boccali T, Borrello L, Castaldi R, Ciocci MA, Dell'Orso R, Fedi G, Giannini L, Giassi A, Grippo MT, Ligabue F, Lomtadze T, Manca E, Mandorli G, Messineo A, Palla F, Rizzi A, Spagnolo P, Tenchini R, Tonelli G, Venturi A, Verdini PG, Barone L, Cavallari F, Cipriani M, Daci N, Del Re D, Di Marco E, Diemoz M, Gelli S, Longo E, Marzocchi B, Meridiani P, Organtini G, Pandolfi F, Paramatti R, Preiato F, Rahatlou S, Rovelli C, Santanastasio F, Amapane N, Arcidiacono R, Argiro S, Arneodo M, Bartosik N, Bellan R, Biino C, Cartiglia N, Castello R, Cenna F, Costa M, Covarelli R, Degano A, Demaria N, Kiani B, Mariotti C, Maselli S, Migliore E, Monaco V, Monteil E, Monteno M, Obertino MM, Pacher L, Pastrone N, Pelliccioni M, Angioni GLP, Romero A, Ruspa M, Sacchi R, Shchelina K, Sola V, Solano A, Staiano A, Belforte S, Casarsa M, Cossutti F, Della Ricca G, Zanetti A, Kim DH, Kim GN, Kim MS, Lee J, Lee S, Lee SW, Moon CS, Oh YD, Sekmen S, Son DC, Yang YC, Kim H, Moon DH, Oh G, Cifuentes JAB, Goh J, Kim TJ, Cho S, Choi S, Go Y, Gyun D, Ha S, Hong B, Jo Y, Kim Y, Lee K, Lee KS, Lee S, Lim J, Park SK, Roh Y, Almond J, Kim J, Kim JS, Lee H, Lee K, Nam K, Oh SB, Radburn-Smith BC, Seo SH, Yang UK, Yoo HD, Yu GB, Kim H, Kim JH, Lee JSH, Park IC, Choi Y, Hwang C, Lee J, Yu I, Dudenas V, Juodagalvis A, Vaitkus J, Ahmed I, Ibrahim ZA, Ali MABM, Idris FM, Abdullah WATW, Yusli MN, Zolkapli Z, Castilla-Valdez H, De La Cruz-Burelo E, Duran-Osuna MC, Heredia-De La Cruz I, Lopez-Fernandez R, Guisao JM, Rabadan-Trejo RI, Ramirez-Sanchez G, Reyes-Almanza R, Sanchez-Hernandez A, Moreno SC, Barrera CO, Valencia FV, Eysermans J, Pedraza I, Ibarguen HAS, Estrada CU, Pineda AM, Krofcheck D, Bheesette S, Butler PH, Ahmad A, Ahmad M, Hassan Q, Hoorani HR, Saddique A, Shah MA, Shoaib M, Waqas M, Bialkowska H, Bluj M, Boimska B, Frueboes T, Gorski M, Kazana M, Nawrocki K, Szleper M, Traczyk P, Zalewski P, Bunkowski K, Byszuk A, Doroba K, Kalinowski A, Konecki M, Krolikowski J, Misiura M, Olszewski M, Pyskir A, Walczak M, Bargassa P, Silva CBDE, Di Francesco A, Faccioli P, Galinhas B, Gallinaro M, Hollar J, Leonardo N, Iglesias LL, Nemallapudi MV, Seixas J, 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Agapitos A, Chou JP, Gershtein Y, Espinosa TAG, Halkiadakis E, Heindl M, Hughes E, Kaplan S, Elayavalli RK, Kyriacou S, Lath A, Montalvo R, Nash K, Osherson M, Saka H, Salur S, Schnetzer S, Sheffield D, Somalwar S, Stone R, Thomas S, Thomassen P, Walker M, Delannoy AG, Heideman J, Riley G, Rose K, Spanier S, Thapa K, Bouhali O, Hernandez AC, Celik A, Dalchenko M, De Mattia M, Delgado A, Dildick S, Eusebi R, Gilmore J, Huang T, Kamon T, Mueller R, Pakhotin Y, Patel R, Perloff A, Pernie L, Rathjens D, Safonov A, Tatarinov A, Akchurin N, Damgov J, De Guio F, Dudero PR, Faulkner J, Gurpinar E, Kunori S, Lamichhane K, Lee SW, Mengke T, Muthumuni S, Peltola T, Undleeb S, Volobouev I, Wang Z, Greene S, Gurrola A, Janjam R, Johns W, Maguire C, Melo A, Ni H, Padeken K, Alvarez JDR, Sheldon P, Tuo S, Velkovska J, Xu Q, Arenton MW, Barria P, Cox B, Hirosky R, Joyce M, Ledovskoy A, Li H, Neu C, Sinthuprasith T, Wang Y, Wolfe E, Xia F, Harr R, Karchin PE, Poudyal N, Sturdy J, Thapa P, Zaleski S, Brodski M, Buchanan J, Caillol C, Carlsmith D, Dasu S, Dodd L, Duric S, Gomber B, Grothe M, Herndon M, Herve A, Hussain U, Klabbers P, Lanaro A, Levine A, Long K, Loveless R, Rekovic V, Ruggles T, Savin A, Smith N, Smith WH, Woods N
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Search for excited leptons in final states in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS 2019 APR 2; ?(4):? Article 015
A search is presented for excited electrons and muons in final states at the LHC. The search is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected with the CMS detector in 2016. This is the first search for excited leptons at = 13 TeV. The observation is consistent with the standard model background prediction, and the most stringent exclusion limits to date are set on the excited lepton mass and the compositeness scale, at 95% confidence level. Excited electrons and muons are excluded for masses below 3.9 and 3.8 TeV, respectively, under the assumption that the excited lepton mass equals the compositeness scale. The best observed limit on the compositeness scale is obtained with an excited lepton mass of around 1.0 TeV, excluding values below 25 TeV for both excited electrons and muons.
Ferreiros-Vidal I, Carroll T, Zhang TY, Lagani V, Ramirez RN, Ing-Simmons E, Gomez-Valades AG, Cooper L, Liang ZW, Papoutsoglou G, Dharmalingam G, Guo Y, Tarazona S, Fernandes SJ, Noori P, Silberberg G, Fisher AG, Tsamardinos I, Mortazavi A, Lenhard B, Conesa A, Tegner J, Merkenschlager M, Gomez-Cabrero D
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Feedforward regulation of Myc coordinates lineage-specific with housekeeping gene expression during B cell progenitor cell differentiation

PLOS BIOLOGY 2019 APR; 17(4):? Article e2006506
The differentiation of self-renewing progenitor cells requires not only the regulation of lineage- and developmental stage-specific genes but also the coordinated adaptation of housekeeping functions from a metabolically active, proliferative state toward quiescence. How metabolic and cell-cycle states are coordinated with the regulation of cell type-specific genes is an important question, because dissociation between differentiation, cell cycle, and metabolic states is a hallmark of cancer. Here, we use a model system to systematically identify key transcriptional regulators of Ikaros-dependent B cell-progenitor differentiation. We find that the coordinated regulation of housekeeping functions and tissue-specific gene expression requires a feedforward circuit whereby Ikaros down-regulates the expression of Myc. Our findings show how coordination between differentiation and housekeeping states can be achieved by interconnected regulators. Similar principles likely coordinate differentiation and housekeeping functions during progenitor cell differentiation in other cell lineages.
Berger F, Klumpp S, Lipowsky R
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Force-Dependent Unbinding Rate of Molecular Motors from Stationary Optical Trap Data

NANO LETTERS 2019 APR; 19(4):2598-2602
Molecular motors walk along filaments until they detach stochastically with a force-dependent unbinding rate. Here, we show how this unbinding rate can be obtained from the analysis of experimental data of molecular motors moving in stationary optical traps. Two complementary methods are presented, based on the analysis of the distribution for the unbinding forces and of the motor's force traces. In the first method, analytically derived force distributions for slip bonds, slip-ideal bonds, and catch bonds are used to fit the cumulative distributions of the unbinding forces. The second method is based on the statistical analysis of the observed force traces. We validate both methods with stochastic simulations and apply them to experimental data for kinesin-1.