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Phase III+: The University is open for expanded research operations; only authorized personnel will be admitted on campus. More info here.
Phase III+: The University is open for expanded research operations; only authorized personnel will be admitted on campus. More info here.
Phase III+: The University is open for expanded research operations; only authorized personnel will be admitted on campus. More info here.

Publications search

Found 37003 matches. Displaying 91-100
Haselwandtera CA, Guoc YR, Fuc Z, MacKinnon R
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Quantitative prediction and measurement of Piezo's membrane footprint

Piezo proteins are mechanosensitive ion channels that can locally curve the membrane into a dome shape [Y. R. Guo, R. MacKinnon, eLife 6, e33660 (2017)]. The curved shape of the Piezo dome is expected to deform the surrounding lipid bilayer membrane into a membrane footprint, which may serve to amplify Piezo's sensitivity to applied forces [C. A. Haselwandter, R. MacKinnon, eLife 7, e41968 (2018)]. If Piezo proteins are embedded in lipid bilayer vesicles, the membrane shape deformations induced by the Piezo dome depend on the vesicle size. We employ here membrane elasticity theory to predict, with no free parameters, the shape of such Piezo vesicles outside the Piezo dome, and show that the predicted vesicle shapes agree quantitatively with the corresponding measured vesicle shapes obtained through cryoelectron tomography, for a range of vesicle sizes [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. C 28, 693-703 (1973)]. On this basis, we explore the coupling between Piezo and membrane shape and demonstrate that the features of the Piezo dome affecting Piezo's membrane footprint approximately follow a spherical cap geometry. Our work puts into place the foundation for deducing key elastic properties of the Piezo dome from membrane shape measurements and provides a general framework for quantifying how proteins deform bilayer membranes.
Richard JC, Frobert E, Destras G, Yonis H, Mezidi M, Dhelft F, Trouillet-Assant S, Bastard P, Gervais A, Danjou W, Aubrun F, Roumieu F, Josset L, Labaune JM, Bal A, Simon B, Casanova JL, Lina B, Picaud JC, Dupont C, Huissoud C, Bitker L
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Virological and clinical features of acute respiratory failure associated with COVID-19 in pregnancy: a case-control study

Objective: Pregnancy is a risk factor for acute respiratory failure (ARF) following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We hypothesised that SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the respiratory tract might be higher in pregnant intensive care unit (ICU) patients with ARF than in non-pregnant ICU patients with ARF as a consequence of immunological adaptation during pregnancy. Design: Single-centre, retrospective observational case- control study. Setting: Adult level 3 ICU in a French university hospital. Participants: Eligible participants were adults with ARF associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Main outcome measure: The primary endpoint of the study was viral load in pregnant and non-pregnant patients. Results: 251 patients were included in the study, including 17 pregnant patients. Median gestational age at ICU admission amounted to 28 + 3/7 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 26 + 1/7 to 31 + 5/7 weeks). Twelve patients (71%) had an emergency caesarean delivery due to maternal respiratory failure. Pregnancy was independently associated with higher viral load (-4.6 +/- 1.9 cycle threshold; P < 0.05). No clustering or over-represented mutations were noted regarding SARS-CoV-2 sequences of pregnant women. Emergency caesarean delivery was independently associated with a modest but significant improvement in arterial oxygenation, amounting to 32 +/- 12 mmHg in patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation. ICU mortality was significantly lower in pregnant patients (0 v 35%; P < 0.05). Age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score, and acute respiratory distress syndrome were independent risk factors for ICU mortality, while pregnancy status and virological variables were not. Conclusions: Viral load was substantially higher in pregnant ICU patients with COVID-19 and ARF compared with non-pregnant ICU patients with COVID-19 and ARF. Pregnancy was not independently associated with ICU mortality after adjustment for age and disease severity.
Wang ZJ, Zhou PC, Muecksch F, Cho ALC, Ben Tanfous T, Canis M, Witte L, Johnson B, Raspe R, Schmidt F, Bednarski E, Da Silva J, Ramos V, Zong S, Turroja M, Millard KG, Yao KH, Shimeliovich I, Dizon J, Kaczynska A, Jankovic M, Gazumyan A, Oliveira TY, Caskey M, Gaebler C, Bieniasz PD, Hatziioannou T, Nussenzweig MC
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Memory B cell responses to Omicron subvariants after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA breakthrough infection in humans

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2022 SEP 23; 219(12):? Article e20221006
Wang et al. analyze memory B cell and antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines to breakthrough infections with Delta or Omicron BA.1 variants. Breakthrough infection after two or three doses of mRNA vaccination was comparable to three doses of vaccination in eliciting broad and potent memory B cells. The findings provide insights on broad and strain-specific memory responses after mRNA vaccination with Wuhan-Hu-1. Individuals who receive a third mRNA vaccine dose show enhanced protection against severe COVID-19, but little is known about the impact of breakthrough infections on memory responses. Here, we examine the memory antibodies that develop after a third or fourth antigenic exposure by Delta or Omicron BA.1 infection, respectively. A third exposure to antigen by Delta breakthrough increases the number of memory B cells that produce antibodies with comparable potency and breadth to a third mRNA vaccine dose. A fourth antigenic exposure with Omicron BA.1 infection increased variant-specific plasma antibody and memory B cell responses. However, the fourth exposure did not increase the overall frequency of memory B cells or their general potency or breadth compared to a third mRNA vaccine dose. In conclusion, a third antigenic exposure by Delta infection elicits strain-specific memory responses and increases in the overall potency and breadth of the memory B cells. In contrast, the effects of a fourth antigenic exposure with Omicron BA.1 are limited to increased strain-specific memory with little effect on the potency or breadth of memory B cell antibodies. The results suggest that the effect of strain-specific boosting on memory B cell compartment may be limited.
Daza-Cajigal V, Albuquerque AS, Young DF, Ciancanelli MJ, Moulding D, Angulo I, Jeanne-Julien V, Rosain J, Minskaia E, Casanova JL, Boisson-Dupuis S, Bustamante J, Randall RE, McHugh TD, Thrasher AJ, Burns SO
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Partial human Janus kinase 1 deficiency predominantly impairs responses to interferon gamma and intracellular control of mycobacteria

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 2022 SEP 9; 13(?):? Article 888427
Purpose Janus kinase-1 (JAK1) tyrosine kinase mediates signaling from multiple cytokine receptors, including interferon alpha/beta and gamma (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma), which are important for viral and mycobacterial protection respectively. We previously reported autosomal recessive (AR) hypomorphic JAK1 mutations in a patient with recurrent atypical mycobacterial infections and relatively minor viral infections. This study tests the impact of partial JAK1 deficiency on cellular responses to IFNs and pathogen control. Methods We investigated the role of partial JAK1 deficiency using patient cells and cell models generated with lentiviral vectors expressing shRNA. Results Partial JAK1 deficiency impairs IFN-gamma -dependent responses in multiple cell types including THP-1 macrophages, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-transformed B cells and primary dermal fibroblasts. In THP-1 myeloid cells, partial JAK1 deficiency reduced phagosome acidification and apoptosis and resulted in defective control of mycobacterial infection with enhanced intracellular survival. Although both EBV-B cells and primary dermal fibroblasts with partial JAK1 deficiency demonstrate reduced IFN-alpha responses, control of viral infection was impaired only in patient EBV-B cells and surprisingly intact in patient primary dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion Our data suggests that partial JAK1 deficiency predominantly affects susceptibility to mycobacterial infection through impact on the IFN-gamma responsive pathway in myeloid cells. Susceptibility to viral infections as a result of reduced IFN-alpha responses is variable depending on cell type. Description of additional patients with inherited JAK1 deficiency will further clarify the spectrum of bacterial and viral susceptibility in this condition. Our results have broader relevance for anticipating infectious complications from the increasing use of selective JAK1 inhibitors.
Dussex N, Robertson BC, Dalen L, Jarvis ED
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The kakapo (Strigops habroptilus)

TRENDS IN GENETICS 2022 AUG; 38(8):881-882
Sunkari YK, Meijer L, Flajolet M
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The protein kinase CK1: Inhibition, activation, and possible allosteric modulation

Protein kinases play a vital role in biology and deregulation of kinases is implicated in numerous diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases, making them a major target class for the pharmaceutical industry. However, the high degree of conservation that exists between ATP-binding sites among kinases makes it difficult for current inhibitors to be highly specific. In the context of neurodegeneration, several groups including ours, have linked different kinases such as CK1 and Alzheimer's disease for example. Strictly CK1-isoform specific regulators do not exist and known CK1 inhibitors are inhibiting the enzymatic activity, targeting the ATP-binding site. Here we review compounds known to target CK1, as well as other inhibitory types that could benefit CK1. We introduce the DNA-encoded library (DEL) technology that might represent an interesting approach to uncover allosteric modulators instead of ATP competitors. Such a strategy, taking into account known allosteric inhibitors and mechanisms, might help designing modulators that are more specific towards a specific kinase, and in the case of CK1, toward specific isoforms.
Marodi L
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A Rose Amongst the Thorns: the Mission of the J Project in a Conflictual World

Neehus AL, Tuano K, Le Voyer T, Nandiwada SL, Murthy K, Puel A, Casanova JL, Chinen J, Bustamante J
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Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Like Presentation of a Child with Autosomal Recessive PKC delta Deficiency

Background Autosomal recessive (AR) PKC delta deficiency is a rare inborn error of immunity (IEI) characterized by autoimmunity and susceptibility to bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. PKC delta is involved in the intracellular production of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Material and Methods We studied a 5-year old girl presenting with a history of Burkholderia cepacia infection. She had no history of autoimmunity, lymphocyte counts were normal, and no auto-antibodies were detected in her plasma. We performed a targeted panel analysis of 407 immunity-related genes and immunological investigations of the underlying genetic condition in this patient. Results Consistent with a history suggestive of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), oxidative burst impairment was observed in the patient's circulating phagocytes in a dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) assay. However, targeted genetic panel analysis identified no candidate variants of known CGD-causing genes. Two heterozygous candidate variants were detected in PRKCD: c.285C > A (p.C95*) and c.376G > T (p.D126Y). The missense variant was also predicted to cause abnormal splicing, as it is located at the splice donor site of exon 5. TOPO-TA cloning confirmed that exon 5 was completely skipped, resulting in a truncated protein. No PKC delta protein was detected in the patient's neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages. The monocyte-derived macrophages of the patient produced abnormally low levels of ROS, as shown in an Amplex Red assay. Conclusion PKC delta deficiency should be considered in young patients with CGD-like clinical manifestations and abnormal DHR assay results, even in the absence of clinical and biological manifestations of autoimmunity.
Barnes CO, Schoofs T, Gnanapragasam PNP, Golijanin J, Huey-Tubman KE, Gruell H, Schommers P, Suh-Toma N, Lee YE, Lorenzi JCC, Piechocka-Trocha A, Scheid JF, Jr APW, Walker BD, Seaman MS, Klein F, Nussenzweig MC, Bjorkman PJ
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A naturally arising broad and potent CD4-binding site antibody with low somatic mutation

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2022 AUG 12; 8(32):? Article eabp8155
The induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a potential strategy for a vaccine against HIV-1. However, most bNAbs exhibit features such as unusually high somatic hypermutation, including insertions and deletions, which make their induction challenging. VRC01-class bNAbs not only exhibit extraordinary breadth and potency but also rank among the most highly somatically mutated bNAbs. Here, we describe a VRC01-class antibody isolated from a viremic controller, BG24, that is much less mutated than most relatives of its class while achieving comparable breadth and potency. A 3.8-angstrom x-ray crystal structure of a BG24-BG505 Env trimer complex revealed conserved contacts at the gp120 interface characteristic of the VRC01-class Abs, despite lacking common CDR3 sequence motifs. The existence of moderately mutated CD4-binding site (CD4bs) bNAbs such as BG24 provides a simpler blueprint for CD4bs antibody induction by a vaccine, raising the prospect that such an induction might be feasible with a germline-targeting approach.
Herati RS, Knorr DA, Vella LA, Silva LV, Chilukuri L, Apostolidis SA, Huang AC, Muselman A, Manne S, Kuthuru O, Staupe RP, Adamski SA, Kannan S, Kurupati RK, Ertl HCJ, Wong JL, Bournazos S, McGettigan S, Schuchter LM, Kotecha RR, Funt SA, Voss MH, Motzer RJ, Lee CH, Bajorin DF, Mitchell TC, Ravetch JV, Wherry EJ
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PD-1 directed immunotherapy alters Tfh and humoral immune responses to seasonal influenza vaccine

NATURE IMMUNOLOGY 2022 AUG; 23(8):1183-+
Anti-programmed death-1 (anti-PD-1) immunotherapy reinvigorates CD8 T cell responses in patients with cancer but PD-1 is also expressed by other immune cells, including follicular helper CD4 T cells (Tfh) which are involved in germinal centre responses. Little is known, however, about the effects of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy on noncancer immune responses in humans. To investigate this question, we examined the impact of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy on the Tfh-B cell axis responding to unrelated viral antigens. Following influenza vaccination, a subset of adults receiving anti-PD-1 had more robust circulating Tfh responses than adults not receiving immunotherapy. PD-1 pathway blockade resulted in transcriptional signatures of increased cellular proliferation in circulating Tfh and responding B cells compared with controls. These latter observations suggest an underlying change in the Tfh-B cell and germinal centre axis in a subset of immunotherapy patients. Together, these results demonstrate dynamic effects of anti-PD-1 therapy on influenza vaccine responses and highlight analytical vaccination as an approach that may reveal underlying immune predisposition to adverse events. Patients with cancer undergoing anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade can experience immune-related adverse effects. Wherry and colleagues examined the immunity elicited upon immunization of patients with cancer and report that anti-PD-1 immunotherapy dynamically affects influenza vaccine-induced immune responses.