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Found 37003 matches. Displaying 91-100
Daza-Cajigal V, Albuquerque AS, Young DF, Ciancanelli MJ, Moulding D, Angulo I, Jeanne-Julien V, Rosain J, Minskaia E, Casanova JL, Boisson-Dupuis S, Bustamante J, Randall RE, McHugh TD, Thrasher AJ, Burns SO
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Partial human Janus kinase 1 deficiency predominantly impairs responses to interferon gamma and intracellular control of mycobacteria

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 2022 SEP 9; 13(?):? Article 888427
Purpose Janus kinase-1 (JAK1) tyrosine kinase mediates signaling from multiple cytokine receptors, including interferon alpha/beta and gamma (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma), which are important for viral and mycobacterial protection respectively. We previously reported autosomal recessive (AR) hypomorphic JAK1 mutations in a patient with recurrent atypical mycobacterial infections and relatively minor viral infections. This study tests the impact of partial JAK1 deficiency on cellular responses to IFNs and pathogen control. Methods We investigated the role of partial JAK1 deficiency using patient cells and cell models generated with lentiviral vectors expressing shRNA. Results Partial JAK1 deficiency impairs IFN-gamma -dependent responses in multiple cell types including THP-1 macrophages, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-transformed B cells and primary dermal fibroblasts. In THP-1 myeloid cells, partial JAK1 deficiency reduced phagosome acidification and apoptosis and resulted in defective control of mycobacterial infection with enhanced intracellular survival. Although both EBV-B cells and primary dermal fibroblasts with partial JAK1 deficiency demonstrate reduced IFN-alpha responses, control of viral infection was impaired only in patient EBV-B cells and surprisingly intact in patient primary dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion Our data suggests that partial JAK1 deficiency predominantly affects susceptibility to mycobacterial infection through impact on the IFN-gamma responsive pathway in myeloid cells. Susceptibility to viral infections as a result of reduced IFN-alpha responses is variable depending on cell type. Description of additional patients with inherited JAK1 deficiency will further clarify the spectrum of bacterial and viral susceptibility in this condition. Our results have broader relevance for anticipating infectious complications from the increasing use of selective JAK1 inhibitors.
Silva KDA, Nunes JPS, Andrieux P, Brochet P, Almeida RR, Takara ACKK, Pereira NB, Abel L, Cobat A, Zaniratto RCF, Levy D, Bydlowski SP, Cecconello I, Seguro FCBD, Kalil J, Chevillard C, Cunha-Neto E
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Chagas Disease Megaesophagus Patients Carrying Variant MRPS18B P260A Display Nitro-Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Response to IFN-gamma Stimulus

BIOMEDICINES 2022 SEP; 10(9):? Article 2215
Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 8 million people, and around 1/3 develop chronic cardiac (CCC) or digestive disease (megaesophagus/megacolon), while the majority remain asymptomatic, in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease (ASY). Most CCC cases in families with multiple Chagas disease patients carry damaging mutations in mitochondrial genes. We searched for exonic mutations associated to chagasic megaesophagus (CME) in genes essential to mitochondrial processes. We performed whole exome sequencing of 13 CME and 45 ASY patients. We found the damaging variant MRPS18B 688C > G P230A, in five out of the 13 CME patients (one of them being homozygous; 38.4%), while the variant appeared in one out of 45 ASY patients (2.2%). We analyzed the interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced nitro-oxidative stress and mitochondrial function of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. We found the CME carriers of the mutation displayed increased levels of nitrite and nitrated proteins; in addition, the homozygous (G/G) CME patient also showed increased mitochondrial superoxide and reduced levels of ATP production. The results suggest that pathogenic mitochondrial mutations may contribute to cytokine-induced nitro-oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesize that, in mutation carriers, IFN-gamma produced in the esophageal myenteric plexus might cause nitro-oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons, contributing to megaesophagus.
Rapaport F, Seier K, Neelamraju Y, Hassane D, Baslan T, Gildea DT, Haddox S, Lee T, Murdock HM, Sheridan C, Thurmond A, Wang L, Carroll M, Cripe LD, Fernandez H, Mason CE, Paietta E, Roboz GJ, Sun ZX, Tallman MS, Zhang YM, Gonen M, Levine R, Melnick AM, Kleppe M, Garrett-Bakelman FE
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Integrative analysis identifies an older female-linked AML patient group with better risk in ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group's clinical trial E3999

BLOOD CANCER JOURNAL 2022 SEP 23; 12(9):? Article 137
Du J, Vandavasi VG, Molloy KR, Yang H, Massenburg LN, Singh A, Kwansa AL, Yingling YG, O'Neill H, Chait BT, Kumar M, Nixon BT
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Evidence for Plant-Conserved Region Mediated Trimeric CESAs in Plant Cellulose Synthase Complexes br

BIOMACROMOLECULES 2022 SEP 12; 23(9):3663-3677
Higher plants synthesize cellulose using membrane bound, six-lobed cellulose synthase complexes, each lobe containing trimeric cellulose synthases (CESAs). Although molecular biology reports support heteromeric trimers composed of different isoforms, a homomeric trimer was reported for in vitro studies of the catalytic domain of CESA1 of Arabidopsis (AtCESA1CatD) and confirmed in cryoEM structures of fulllength CESA8 and CESA7 of poplar and cotton, respectively. In both structures, a small portion of the plant-conserved region (PCR) forms the only contacts between catalytic domains of the monomers. We report inter-subunit lysine-crosslinks that localize to the small P-CR, negative-stain EM structure, and modeling data for homotrimers of AtCESA1CatD. Molecular dynamics simulations for AtCESA1CatD trimers based on the CESA8 cryoEM structure were stable and dependent upon a small set of residue contacts. The results suggest that homomeric CESA trimers may be important for the synthesis of primary and secondary cell walls and identify key residues for future mutagenic studies.
Sunkari YK, Meijer L, Flajolet M
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The protein kinase CK1: Inhibition, activation, and possible allosteric modulation

Protein kinases play a vital role in biology and deregulation of kinases is implicated in numerous diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases, making them a major target class for the pharmaceutical industry. However, the high degree of conservation that exists between ATP-binding sites among kinases makes it difficult for current inhibitors to be highly specific. In the context of neurodegeneration, several groups including ours, have linked different kinases such as CK1 and Alzheimer's disease for example. Strictly CK1-isoform specific regulators do not exist and known CK1 inhibitors are inhibiting the enzymatic activity, targeting the ATP-binding site. Here we review compounds known to target CK1, as well as other inhibitory types that could benefit CK1. We introduce the DNA-encoded library (DEL) technology that might represent an interesting approach to uncover allosteric modulators instead of ATP competitors. Such a strategy, taking into account known allosteric inhibitors and mechanisms, might help designing modulators that are more specific towards a specific kinase, and in the case of CK1, toward specific isoforms.
Marodi L
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A Rose Amongst the Thorns: the Mission of the J Project in a Conflictual World

Neehus AL, Tuano K, Le Voyer T, Nandiwada SL, Murthy K, Puel A, Casanova JL, Chinen J, Bustamante J
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Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Like Presentation of a Child with Autosomal Recessive PKC delta Deficiency

Background Autosomal recessive (AR) PKC delta deficiency is a rare inborn error of immunity (IEI) characterized by autoimmunity and susceptibility to bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. PKC delta is involved in the intracellular production of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Material and Methods We studied a 5-year old girl presenting with a history of Burkholderia cepacia infection. She had no history of autoimmunity, lymphocyte counts were normal, and no auto-antibodies were detected in her plasma. We performed a targeted panel analysis of 407 immunity-related genes and immunological investigations of the underlying genetic condition in this patient. Results Consistent with a history suggestive of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), oxidative burst impairment was observed in the patient's circulating phagocytes in a dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) assay. However, targeted genetic panel analysis identified no candidate variants of known CGD-causing genes. Two heterozygous candidate variants were detected in PRKCD: c.285C > A (p.C95*) and c.376G > T (p.D126Y). The missense variant was also predicted to cause abnormal splicing, as it is located at the splice donor site of exon 5. TOPO-TA cloning confirmed that exon 5 was completely skipped, resulting in a truncated protein. No PKC delta protein was detected in the patient's neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages. The monocyte-derived macrophages of the patient produced abnormally low levels of ROS, as shown in an Amplex Red assay. Conclusion PKC delta deficiency should be considered in young patients with CGD-like clinical manifestations and abnormal DHR assay results, even in the absence of clinical and biological manifestations of autoimmunity.
Barnes CO, Schoofs T, Gnanapragasam PNP, Golijanin J, Huey-Tubman KE, Gruell H, Schommers P, Suh-Toma N, Lee YE, Lorenzi JCC, Piechocka-Trocha A, Scheid JF, Jr APW, Walker BD, Seaman MS, Klein F, Nussenzweig MC, Bjorkman PJ
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A naturally arising broad and potent CD4-binding site antibody with low somatic mutation

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2022 AUG 12; 8(32):? Article eabp8155
The induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a potential strategy for a vaccine against HIV-1. However, most bNAbs exhibit features such as unusually high somatic hypermutation, including insertions and deletions, which make their induction challenging. VRC01-class bNAbs not only exhibit extraordinary breadth and potency but also rank among the most highly somatically mutated bNAbs. Here, we describe a VRC01-class antibody isolated from a viremic controller, BG24, that is much less mutated than most relatives of its class while achieving comparable breadth and potency. A 3.8-angstrom x-ray crystal structure of a BG24-BG505 Env trimer complex revealed conserved contacts at the gp120 interface characteristic of the VRC01-class Abs, despite lacking common CDR3 sequence motifs. The existence of moderately mutated CD4-binding site (CD4bs) bNAbs such as BG24 provides a simpler blueprint for CD4bs antibody induction by a vaccine, raising the prospect that such an induction might be feasible with a germline-targeting approach.
Herati RS, Knorr DA, Vella LA, Silva LV, Chilukuri L, Apostolidis SA, Huang AC, Muselman A, Manne S, Kuthuru O, Staupe RP, Adamski SA, Kannan S, Kurupati RK, Ertl HCJ, Wong JL, Bournazos S, McGettigan S, Schuchter LM, Kotecha RR, Funt SA, Voss MH, Motzer RJ, Lee CH, Bajorin DF, Mitchell TC, Ravetch JV, Wherry EJ
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PD-1 directed immunotherapy alters Tfh and humoral immune responses to seasonal influenza vaccine

NATURE IMMUNOLOGY 2022 AUG; 23(8):1183-+
Anti-programmed death-1 (anti-PD-1) immunotherapy reinvigorates CD8 T cell responses in patients with cancer but PD-1 is also expressed by other immune cells, including follicular helper CD4 T cells (Tfh) which are involved in germinal centre responses. Little is known, however, about the effects of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy on noncancer immune responses in humans. To investigate this question, we examined the impact of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy on the Tfh-B cell axis responding to unrelated viral antigens. Following influenza vaccination, a subset of adults receiving anti-PD-1 had more robust circulating Tfh responses than adults not receiving immunotherapy. PD-1 pathway blockade resulted in transcriptional signatures of increased cellular proliferation in circulating Tfh and responding B cells compared with controls. These latter observations suggest an underlying change in the Tfh-B cell and germinal centre axis in a subset of immunotherapy patients. Together, these results demonstrate dynamic effects of anti-PD-1 therapy on influenza vaccine responses and highlight analytical vaccination as an approach that may reveal underlying immune predisposition to adverse events. Patients with cancer undergoing anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade can experience immune-related adverse effects. Wherry and colleagues examined the immunity elicited upon immunization of patients with cancer and report that anti-PD-1 immunotherapy dynamically affects influenza vaccine-induced immune responses.
Wang ZJ, Muecksch F, Muenn F, Cho A, Zong S, Raspe R, Ramos V, Johnson B, Ben Tanfous T, DaSilva J, Bednarski E, Guzman-Cardozo C, Turroja M, Millard KG, Tober-Lau P, Hillus D, Yao KH, Shimeliovich I, Dizon J, Kaczynska A, Jankovic M, Gazumyan A, Oliveira TY, Caskey M, Bieniasz PD, Hatziioannou T, Kurth F, Sander LE, Nussenzweig MC, Gaebler C
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Humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 elicited by combination COVID-19 vaccination regimens

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2022 AUG 25; 219(10):? Article e20220826
Wang et al. compare antibody immune responses following different COVID-19 vaccination regimens. Their detailed immunological and structural analysis revealed significant differences that can inform improved vaccination strategies for the prevention of COVID-19 and other respiratory viral infections of pandemic potential. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic prompted a global vaccination effort and the development of numerous COVID-19 vaccines at an unprecedented scale and pace. As a result, current COVID-19 vaccination regimens comprise diverse vaccine modalities, immunogen combinations, and dosing intervals. Here, we compare vaccine-specific antibody and memory B cell responses following two-dose mRNA, single-dose Ad26.COV.2S, and two-dose ChAdOx1, or combination ChAdOx1/mRNA vaccination. Plasma-neutralizing activity, as well as the magnitude, clonal composition, and antibody maturation of the RBD-specific memory B cell compartments, showed substantial differences between the vaccination regimens. While individual monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells exhibited similar binding affinities and neutralizing potency against Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2, there were significant differences in epitope specificity and neutralizing breadth against viral variants of concern. Although the ChAdOx1 vaccine was inferior to mRNA and Ad26.COV.2S in several respects, biochemical and structural analyses revealed enrichment in a subgroup of memory B cell neutralizing antibodies with distinct RBD-binding properties resulting in remarkable potency and breadth.