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Found 36319 matches. Displaying 91-100
Renert-Yuval Y, Del Duca E, Pavel AB, Fang M, Lefferdink R, Wu JN, Diaz A, Estrada YD, Canter T, Zhang N, Wagner A, Chamlin S, Krueger JG, Guttman-Yassky E, Paller AS
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The molecular features of normal and atopic dermatitis skin in infants, children, adolescents, and adults

JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2021 JUL; 148(1):148-163
Background: Although atopic dermatitis (AD) often presents in infancy and persists into adulthood, comparative characterization of AD skin among different pediatric age groups is lacking. Objective: We sought to define skin biopsy profiles of lesional and nonlesional AD across different age groups (0-5-year-old infants with disease duration <6 months, 6-11-year-old children, 12-17-year-old adolescents, >= 18-year-old adults) versus age appropriate controls. Methods: We performed gene expression analyses by RNA-sequencing and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and protein expression analysis using immunohistochemistry. Results: T(H)2/T(H)22 skewing, including IL-13, CCL17/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-22, and S100As, characterized the common AD signature, with a global pathway-level enrichment across all ages. Nevertheless, specific cytokines varied widely. For example, IL-33, IL-1RL1/IL-33R, and IL-9, often associated with early atopic sensitization, showed greatest upregulations in infants. T(H)17 inflammation presented a 2-peak curve, with highest increases in infants (including IL-17A and IL-17F), followed by adults. T(H)1 polarization was uniquely detected in adults, even when compared with adolescents, with significant upregulation in adults of IFN-gamma and CXCL9/CXCL10/CXCL11. Although all AD age groups had barrier abnormalities, only adults had significant decreases in filaggrin expression. Despite the short duration of the disease, infant AD presented robust downregulations of multiple barrier-related genes in both lesional and nonlesional skin. Clinical severity scores significantly correlated with T(H)2/T(H)22-related markers in all pediatric age groups. Conclusions: The shared signature of AD across ages is T(H)2/T(H)22-skewed, yet differential expression of specific T(H)2/T(H)22-related genes, other T-H pathways, and barrier-related genes portray heterogenetic, age-specific molecular fingerprints.
Martinez DR, Schafer A, Leist SR, Li DP, Gully K, Yount B, Feng JY, Bunyan E, Porter DP, Cihlar T, Montgomery SA, Haynes BF, Baric RS, Nussenzweig MC, Sheahan TP
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Prevention and therapy of SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.351 variant in mice

CELL REPORTS 2021 JUL 27; 36(4):? Article 109450
Improving clinical care for individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants is a global health priority. Small-molecule antivirals like remdesivir (RDV) and biologics such as human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is not known whether combination RDV/mAb will improve outcomes over single-agent therapies or whether antibody therapies will remain efficacious against variants. Here, we show that a combination of two mAbs in clinical trials, C144 and C135, have potent antiviral effects against even when initiated 48 h after infection and have therapeutic efficacy in vivo against the B.1.351 variant of concern (VOC). Combining RDV and antibodies provided a modest improvement in outcomes compared with single agents. These data support the continued use of RDV to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections and the continued clinical development of the C144 and C135 antibody combination to treat patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Yang L, Chan AKN, Miyashita K, Delaney CD, Wang X, Li HZ, Pokharel SP, Li S, Li ML, Xu XB, Lu W, Liu Q, Mattson N, Chen KYN, Wang JH, Yuan YC, Horne D, Rosen ST, Soto-Feliciano Y, Feng ZH, Hoshii T, Xiao G, Muschen M, Chen JJ, Armstrong SA, Chen CW
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High-resolution characterization of gene function using single-cell CRISPR tiling screen

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2021 JUL 1; 12(1):? Article 4063
Identifying functional domains and genetic regulatory mechanisms is essential for developing new therapies. Here the authors present sc-Tiling, single-cell high-density CRISPR tiling screening for functional domain characterization. Identification of novel functional domains and characterization of detailed regulatory mechanisms in cancer-driving genes is critical for advanced cancer therapy. To date, CRISPR gene editing has primarily been applied to defining the role of individual genes. Recently, high-density mutagenesis via CRISPR tiling of gene-coding exons has been demonstrated to identify functional regions in genes. Furthermore, breakthroughs in combining CRISPR library screens with single-cell droplet RNA sequencing (sc-RNAseq) platforms have revealed the capacity to monitor gene expression changes upon genetic perturbations at single-cell resolution. Here, we present "sc-Tiling," which integrates a CRISPR gene-tiling screen with single-cell transcriptomic and protein structural analyses. Distinct from other reported single-cell CRISPR screens focused on observing gene function and gene-to-gene/enhancer-to-gene regulation, sc-Tiling enables the capacity to identify regulatory mechanisms within a gene-coding region that dictate gene activity and therapeutic response.
Van Rompay KKA, Olstad KJ, Sammak RL, Dutra J, Watanabe JK, Usachenko JL, Immareddy R, Verma A, Lakshmanappa YS, Schmidt BA, Roh JW, Elizaldi SR, Allen AM, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JCC, Lockwood S, Pollard RE, Yee JL, Nham PB, Ardeshir A, Deere JD, Patterson J, Dang Q, Hatziioannou T, Bieniasz PD, Iyer SS, Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Nussenzweig MC, Reader JR
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Early treatment with a combination of two potent neutralizing antibodies improves clinical outcomes and reduces virus replication and lung inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infected macaques

PLOS PATHOGENS 2021 JUL; 17(7):? Article e1009688
There is an urgent need for effective therapeutic interventions against SARS-CoV-2, including new variants that continue to arise. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have shown promise in clinical studies. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a combination of two potent monoclonal antibodies, C135-LS and C144-LS that carry half-life extension mutations, in the rhesus macaque model of COVID-19. Twelve young adult macaques (three groups of four animals) were inoculated intranasally and intra-tracheally with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 and 24 hours later, treated intravenously with a high (40 mg/kg) or low (12 mg/kg) dose of the C135-LS and C144-LS antibody combination, or a control monoclonal antibody. Animals were monitored for 7 days. Compared to the control animals, animals treated with either dose of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies showed similarly improved clinical scores, lower levels of virus replication in upper and lower respiratory tract, and significantly reduced interstitial pneumonia, as measured by comprehensive lung histology. In conclusion, this study provides proof-of-concept in support of further clinical development of these monoclonal antibodies against COVID-19 during early infection. Author summary Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 have shown promise in treating recently infected individuals who are at high risk of progression to severe COVID-19 disease. Although several monoclonal antibodies are currently being used in the clinic, there is an ongoing need to develop additional antibodies. The ideal monoclonal antibodies, or combinations, should be potent and durable, and maintain activity against emerging viral variants. In this study, we tested a combination of two potent monoclonal antibodies, C135-LS and C-144-LS, engineered to have long half-lives, in the macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Animals treated early after infection fared better than placebo-treated controls, manifesting fewer clinical signs, less virus replication in the respiratory tract, and reduced lung inflammation. These promising data support clinical testing of these monoclonal antibodies in humans and further development of similar antibody-based prophylactic and therapeutic strategies.
Li J, Li EW, Czepielewski RS, Chi JY, Guo X, Han YH, Wang DQ, Wang LH, Hu B, Dawes B, Jacobs C, Tenen D, Lin SJ, Lee B, Morris D, Tobias A, Randolph GJ, Cohen P, Tsai LN, Rosen ED
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Neurotensin is an anti-thermogenic peptide produced by lymphatic endothelial cells

CELL METABOLISM 2021 JUL 6; 33(7):1449-1465.e6
The lymphatic vasculature plays important roles in the physiology of the organs in which it resides, though a clear mechanistic understanding of how this crosstalk is mediated is lacking. Here, we performed single-cell transcriptional profiling of human and mouse adipose tissue and found that lymphatic endothelial cells highly express neurotensin (NTS/Nts). Nts expression is reduced by cold and norepinephrine in an a-adrenergicdependent manner, suggesting a role in adipose thermogenesis. Indeed, NTS treatment of brown adipose tissue explants reduced expression of thermogenic genes. Furthermore, adenoviral-mediated overexpression and knockdown or knockout of NTS in vivo reduced and enhanced cold tolerance, respectively, an effect that is mediated by NTSR2 and ERK signaling. Inhibition of NTSR2 promoted energy expenditure and improved metabolic function in obese mice. These data establish a link between adipose tissue lymphatics and adipocytes with potential therapeutic implications.
Beziat V, Rapaport F, Hu JF, Titeux M, des Claustres MB, Bourgey M, Griffin H, Bandet E, Ma CS, Sherkat R, Rokni-Zadeh H, Louis DM, Changi-Ashtiani M, Delmonte OM, Fukushima T, Habib T, Guennoun A, Khan T, Bender N, Rahman M, About F, Yang R, Rao G, Rouzaud C, Li JW, Shearer D, Balogh K, Al Ali F, Ata M, Dabiri S, Momenilandi M, Nammour J, Alyanakian MA, Leruez-Ville M, Guenat D, Materna M, Marcot L, Vladikine N, Soret C, Vahidnezhad H, Youssefian L, Saeidian AH, Uitto J, Catherinot E, Navabi SS, Zarhrate M, Woodley DT, Jeljeli M, Abraham T, Belkaya S, Lorenzo L, Rosain J, Bayat M, Lanternier F, Lortholary O, Zakavi F, Gros P, Orth G, Abel L, Pretet JL, Fraitag S, Jouanguy E, Davis MM, Tangye SG, Notarangelo LD, Marr N, Waterboer T, Langlais D, Doorbar J, Hovnanian A, Christensen N, Bossuyt X, Shahrooei M, Casanova JL
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Humans with inherited T cell CD28 deficiency are susceptible to skin papillomaviruses but are otherwise healthy

CELL 2021 JUL 8; 184(14):3812-3828.e30
We study a patient with the human papilloma virus (HPV)-2-driven ``tree-man'' phenotype and two relatives with unusually severe HPV4-driven warts. The giant horns form an HPV-2-driven multifocal benign epithelial tumor overexpressing viral oncogenes in the epidermis basal layer. The patients are unexpectedly homozygous for a private CD28 variant. They have no detectable CD28 on their T cells, with the exception of a small contingent of revertant memory CD4(+) T cells. T cell development is barely affected, and T cells respond to CD3 and CD2, but not CD28, costimulation. Although the patients do not display HPV-2- and HPV-4-reactive CD4(+) T cells in vitro, they make antibodies specific for both viruses in vivo. CD28-deficient mice are susceptible to cutaneous infections with themouse papillomavirus MmuPV1. The control of HPV-2 and HPV-4 in keratinocytes is dependent on the T cell CD28 co-activation pathway. Surprisingly, human CD28-dependent T cell responses are largely redundant for protective immunity.
Campbell E, Lilic M
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Meet the authors: Mirjana Lilic and Elizabeth Campbell

MOLECULAR CELL 2021 JUL 15; 81(14):2869-2870
We talk to Mirjana (Mira) Lilic and Elizabeth (Liz) Campbell about their paper, "Structural basis of transcriptional activation by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis intrinsic antibiotic-resistance transcription factor WhiB7,'' the collaborations that made it happen, and the people who mentored and motivated them along the way.
Domzalski A, Perez SD, Yoo B, Velasquez A, Vigo V, Pasolli HA, Oldham AL, Henderson DP, Kawamura A
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Uncovering potential interspecies signaling factors in plant-derived mixed microbial culture

BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 2021 JUL 15; 42(?):? Article 116254
Microbes use signaling factors for intraspecies and interspecies communications. While many intraspecies signaling factors have been found and characterized, discovery of factors for interspecies communication is lagging behind. To facilitate the discovery of such factors, we explored the potential of a mixed microbial culture (MMC) derived from wheatgrass, in which heterogeneity of this microbial community might elicit signaling factors for interspecies communication. The stability of Wheatgrass MMC in terms of community structure and metabolic output was first characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), respectively. In addition, detailed MS analyses led to the identification of 12hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) as one of the major metabolites produced by Wheatgrass MMC. Stereochemical analysis revealed that Wheatgrass MMC produces mostly the (R)-isomer, although a small amount of the (S)isomer was also observed. Furthermore, 12-HSA was found to modulate planktonic growth and biofilm formation of various marine bacterial strains. The current study suggests that naturally derived MMCs could serve as a simple and reproducible platform to discover potential signaling factors for interspecies communication. In addition, the study indicates that hydroxylated long-chain fatty acids, such as 12-HSA, may constitute a new class of interspecies signaling factors.
Yang L, Chan AKN, Miyashita K, Delaney CD, Wang X, Li HZ, Pokharel SP, Li S, Li ML, Xu XB, Lu W, Liu Q, Mattson N, Chen KY, Wang JH, Yuan YC, Horne D, Rosen ST, Soto-Feliciano Y, Feng ZH, Hoshii T, Xiao G, Muschen M, Chen JJ, Armstrong SA, Chen CW
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High-resolution characterization of gene function using single-cell CRISPR tiling screen

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2021 JUL 1; 12(1):? Article 4063
Identification of novel functional domains and characterization of detailed regulatory mechanisms in cancer-driving genes is critical for advanced cancer therapy. To date, CRISPR gene editing has primarily been applied to defining the role of individual genes. Recently, high-density mutagenesis via CRISPR tiling of gene-coding exons has been demonstrated to identify functional regions in genes. Furthermore, breakthroughs in combining CRISPR library screens with single-cell droplet RNA sequencing (sc-RNAseq) platforms have revealed the capacity to monitor gene expression changes upon genetic perturbations at single-cell resolution. Here, we present "sc-Tiling," which integrates a CRISPR gene-tiling screen with single-cell transcriptomic and protein structural analyses. Distinct from other reported single-cell CRISPR screens focused on observing gene function and gene-to-gene/enhancer-to-gene regulation, sc-Tiling enables the capacity to identify regulatory mechanisms within a gene-coding region that dictate gene activity and therapeutic response. Identifying functional domains and genetic regulatory mechanisms is essential for developing new therapies. Here the authors present sc-Tiling, single-cell high-density CRISPR tiling screening for functional domain characterization.
Sten TH, Li RF, Otopalik A, Ruta V
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Sexual arousal gates visual processing during Drosophila courtship

NATURE 2021 JUL 22; 595(7868):549-553
Long-lasting internal arousal states motivate and pattern ongoing behaviour, enabling the temporary emergence of innate behavioural programs that serve the needs of an animal, such as fighting, feeding, and mating. However, how internal states shape sensory processing or behaviour remains unclear. In Drosophila, male flies perform a lengthy and elaborate courtship ritual that is triggered by the activation of sexually dimorphic P1 neurons(1-5), during which they faithfully follow and sing to a female(6,7). Here, by recording from males as they court a virtual 'female', we gain insight into how the salience of visual cues is transformed by a male's internal arousal state to give rise to persistent courtship pursuit. The gain of LC10a visual projection neurons is selectively increased during courtship, enhancing their sensitivity to moving targets. A concise network model indicates that visual signalling through the LC10a circuit, once amplified by P1-mediated arousal, almost fully specifies a male's tracking of a female. Furthermore, P1 neuron activity correlates with ongoing fluctuations in the intensity of a male's pursuit to continuously tune the gain of the LC10a pathway. Together, these results reveal how a male's internal state can dynamically modulate the propagation of visual signals through a high-fidelity visuomotor circuit to guide his moment-to-moment performance of courtship.