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Found 35417 matches. Displaying 51-60
Trible W, McKenzie SK, Kronauer DJC
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Globally invasive populations of the clonal raider ant are derived from Bangladesh

BIOLOGY LETTERS 2020 JUN 24; 16(6):? Article 20200105
Identifying the native range of invasive species is useful to understand their evolution and natural history, as well as to develop new methods to control potentially harmful introduced organisms. The clonal raider ant,Ooceraea biroi, is an introduced species and an increasingly important social insect model organism, but its native range remains unknown. Here, we report a new series ofO. biroicollections from Bangladesh, Singapore, Vietnam and China. We use a molecular phylogeny constructed with five gene fragments from 27 samples to determine that invasive lineages ofO. biroioriginated in Bangladesh. These lineages may have spread from Bangladesh via the historically significant Bay of Bengal shipping ports.Ooceraea biroishares multiple features of its biology with other introduced ants, including parthenogenesis, retention of heterozygosity and presence of multiple egg-layers in the colony. Using laboratory rearing and microsatellite markers, we show that colonies collected from disturbed habitat in Bangladesh have these traits in common with colonies from the invasive range. Ancestral populations with sexual reproduction in primary habitats either remain to be discovered or have gone extinct. Our findings advance our understanding of the global spread of the clonal raider ant and highlight a suite of general traits that make certain ants prone to becoming invasive.
Borghi S, Bournazos S, Thulin NK, Li C, Gajewski A, Sherwood RW, Zhang S, Harris E, Jagannathan P, Wang LX, Ravetch JV, Wang TT
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FcRn, but not Fc gamma Rs, drives maternal-fetal transplacental transport of human IgG antibodies

The IgG Fc domain has the capacity to interact with diverse types of receptors, including the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma Rs), which confer pleiotropic biological activities. Whereas FcRn regulates IgG epithelial transport and recycling, Fc effector activities, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis, are mediated by Fc gamma Rs, which upon cross-linking transduce signals that modulate the function of effector leukocytes. Despite the well-defined and nonoverlapping functional properties of FcRn and Fc gamma Rs, recent studies have suggested that Fc ?Rs mediate transplacental IgG transport, as certain Fc glycoforms were reported to be enriched in fetal circulation. To determine the contribution of Fc gamma Rs and FcRn to the maternal-fetal transport of IgG, we characterized the IgG Fc glycosylation in paired maternal-fetal samples from patient cohorts from Uganda and Nicaragua. No differences in IgG1 Fc glycan profiles and minimal differences in IgG2 Fc glycans were noted, whereas the presence or absence of galactose on the Fc glycan of IgG1 did not alter Fc gamma RIIIa or FcRn bind-ing, half-life, or their ability to deplete target cells in Fc gamma R/FcRn humanized mice. Modeling maternal-fetal transport in Fc gamma/FcRn humanized mice confirmed that only FcRn contributed to trans-placental transport of IgG; IgG selectively enhanced for FcRn binding resulted in enhanced accumulation of maternal antibody in the fetus. In contrast, enhancing Fc gamma RIIIa binding did not result in en-hanced maternal-fetal transport. These results argue against a role for Fc gamma Rs in IgG transplacental transport, suggesting Fc engineering of maternally administered antibody to enhance only FcRn binding as a means to improve maternal-fetal transport of IgG.
Jishage M, Ito K, Chu CS, Wang XL, Yamaji M, Roeder RG
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Transcriptional down-regulation of metabolic genes by Gdown1 ablation induces quiescent cell re-entry into the cell cycle

GENES & DEVELOPMENT 2020 JUN 1; 34(11-12):767-784
Liver regeneration and metabolism are highly interconnected. Here, we show that hepatocyte-specific ablation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-associated Gdown1 leads to down-regulation of highly expressed genes involved in plasma protein synthesis and metabolism, a concomitant cell cycle re-entry associated with induction of cell cycle-related genes (including cyclin D1), and up-regulation of p21 through activation of p53 signaling. In the absence of p53, Gdown1-deficient hepatocytes show a severe dysregulation of cell cycle progression, with incomplete mitoses, and a premalignant-like transformation. Mechanistically, Gdown1 is associated with elongating Pol II on the highly expressed genes and its ablation leads to reduced Pol II recruitment to these genes, suggesting that Pol II redistribution may facilitate hepatocyte re-entry into the cell cycle. These results establish an important physiological function for a Pol II regulatory factor (Gdown1) in the maintenance of normal liver cell transcription through constraints on cell cycle re-entry of quiescent hepatocytes.
Armstrong AW, Blauvelt A, Crowley JJ, Gordon KB, Krueger GG, Krueger JG, Sobell JM, Strober BE, Srivastava B, Menter A
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Defining drug-free remission of skin disease in patients with plaque psoriasis

Donaldson GP, Mucida D
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Local cellular cues that influence the immunology of colorectal cancer treatment

NATURE MEDICINE 2020 JUN; 26(6):824-826
Therapeutic interventions in colorectal cancer are dependent on immune responses to dying epithelial cells that are modulated by specific members of the gut microbiota.
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadic viral encephalitis in Western countries. Over the last 15 years, human genetic and immunological studies have provided proof-of-principle that childhood HSE can result from inborn errors of central nervous system (CNS)-specific, cell-intrinsic immunity to HSV-1. HSE-causing mutations of eight genes disrupt known (TLR3-dependent IFN-alpha/beta immunity) and novel (dependent on DBR1 or snoRNA31) antiviral mechanisms. Monogenic inborn errors confer susceptibility to forebrain (TLR3-IFN or snoRNA31) or brainstem (DBR1) HSE. Most of these disorders display incomplete clinical penetrance, with the possible exception of DBR1 deficiency. They account for a small, but non-negligible proportion of cases (about 7%). These findings pave the way for the gradual definition of the genetic and immunological architecture of childhood HSE, with both biological and clinical implications.
Beziat V
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Human genetic dissection of papillomavirus-driven diseases: new insight into their pathogenesis

HUMAN GENETICS 2020 JUN; 139(6-7):919-939
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect mucosal or cutaneous stratified epithelia. There are 5 genera and more than 200 types of HPV, each with a specific tropism and virulence. HPV infections are typically asymptomatic or result in benign tumors, which may be disseminated or persistent in rare cases, but a few oncogenic HPVs can cause cancers. This review deals with the human genetic and immunological basis of interindividual clinical variability in the course of HPV infections of the skin and mucosae. Typical epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is characterized by beta-HPV-driven flat wart-like and pityriasis-like cutaneous lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers in patients with inborn errors of EVER1-EVER2-CIB1-dependent skin-intrinsic immunity. Atypical EV is associated with other infectious diseases in patients with inborn errors of T cells. Severe cutaneous or anogenital warts, including anogenital cancers, are also driven by certain alpha-, gamma-, mu or nu-HPVs in patients with inborn errors of T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The genetic basis of HPV diseases at other mucosal sites, such as oral multifocal epithelial hyperplasia or juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JRRP), remains poorly understood. The human genetic dissection of HPV-driven lesions will clarify the molecular and cellular basis of protective immunity to HPVs, and should lead to novel diagnostic, preventive, and curative approaches in patients.
Burton AJ, Haugbro M, Gates LA, Bagert JD, Allis CD, Muir TW
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In situ chromatin interactomics using a chemical bait and trap approach

NATURE CHEMISTRY 2020 JUN; 12(6):520-527
Elucidating the physiological binding partners of histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs) is key to understanding fundamental epigenetic regulatory pathways. Determining such interactomes will enable the study of how perturbations of these interactions affect disease. Here we use a synthetic biology approach to set a series of hPTM-controlled photo-affinity traps in native chromatin. Using quantitative proteomics, the local interactomes of these chemically customized chromatin landscapes are determined. We show that the approach captures transiently interacting factors such as methyltransferases and demethylases, as well as previously reported and novel hPTM reader proteins. We also apply this in situ proteomics approach to a recently disclosed cancer-associated histone mutation, H3K4M, revealing a number of perturbed interactions with the mutated tail. Collectively our studies demonstrate that modifying and interrogating native chromatin with chemical precision is a powerful tool for exploring epigenetic regulation and dysregulation at the molecular level. Proteins that interact with histone post-translational modifications have now been identified using an approach based on split-intein mediated histone semisynthesis. Histone modifications and disease-relevant mutations were installed into native chromatin with an adjacent photocross-linker to enable in situ cross-linking. This strategy enabled the determination of chromatin-relevant interactomes and represents a powerful tool for exploring epigenetic regulation and dysregulation at the molecular level.
Jia MX, Liberatore RA, Guo YC, Chan KW, Pan RM, Lu H, Waltari E, Mittler E, Chandran K, Finzi A, Kaufmann DE, Seaman MS, Ho DD, Shapiro L, Sheng ZZ, Kong XP, Bieniasz PD, Wu XL
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VSV-Displayed HIV-1 Envelope Identifies Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Class-Switched to IgG and IgA

CELL HOST & MICROBE 2020 JUN 10; 27(6):963-975.e5
The HIV-1 envelope (Env) undergoes conformational changes during infection. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are typically isolated by using soluble Env trimers, which do not capture all Env states. To address these limitations, we devised a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based probe to display membrane-embedded Env trimers and isolated five bNAbs from two chronically infected donors, M4008 and M1214. Donor B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires identified two bNAb lineages, M4008_N1 and M1214_N1, that class-switched to immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA. Variants of these bNAbs reconstituted as IgA demonstrated broadly neutralizing activity, and the IgA fraction of M1214 plasma conferred neutralization. M4008_N1 epitope mapping revealed a glycan-independent V3 epitope conferring tier 2 virus neutralization. A 4.86-angstrom-resolution cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of M1214_N1 complexed with CH505 SOSIP revealed another elongated epitope, the V2V5 corridor, extending from V2 to V5. Overall, the VSVENV probe identified bNAb lineages with neutralizing IgG and IgA members targeting distinct sites of HIV-1 Env vulnerability.
Yang S, Bahl K, Chou HT, Woodsmith J, Stelzl U, Walz T, Nachury MV
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Near-atomic structures of the BBSome reveal the basis for BBSome activation and binding to GPCR cargoes

ELIFE 2020 JUN 8; 9(?):? Article e55954
Dynamic trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) out of cilia is mediated by the BBSome. In concert with its membrane recruitment factor, the small GTPase ARL6/BBS3, the BBSome ferries GPCRs across the transition zone, a diffusion barrier at the base of cilia. Here, we present the near-atomic structures of the BBSome by itself and in complex with ARL6(GTP), and we describe the changes in BBSome conformation induced by ARL6(GTP) binding. Modeling the interactions of the BBSome with membranes and the GPCR Smoothened (SMO) reveals that SMO, and likely also other GPCR cargoes, must release their amphipathic helix 8 from the membrane to be recognized by the BBSome.