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Fischetti VA
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Vaccine Approaches To Protect against Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis

MICROBIOLOGY SPECTRUM 2019 MAY; 7(3):? Article GPP3-0010-2018
Streptococcal pharyngitis (or strep throat) is a common childhood disease affecting millions of children each year, but it is one of the only childhood diseases for which a vaccine does not exist. While for decades the development of a vaccine has been the center of attention in many laboratories worldwide, with some successes, no corporate development has yet to be initiated. The reason for this probably lies in our inability to conclusively identify the streptococcal molecule or molecules responsible for the heart cross-reactive antibodies observed in the serum of rheumatic fever patients. Without this specific knowledge, any streptococcal vaccine antigen is suspect and thus not the target for a billion-dollar investment, despite the fact that the exact role of cross-reactive antibodies in rheumatic fever is still questionable. This article will describe the development of several approaches to protect against Streptococcus pyogenes infections over the past several decades.
Kuchibhotla KV, Sten TH, Papadoyannis ES, Elnozahy S, Fogelson KA, Kumar R, Boubenec Y, Hoiland PC, Ostojic S, Froemke RC
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Dissociating task acquisition from expression during learning reveals latent knowledge

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2019 MAY 14; 10(?):? Article 2151
Performance on cognitive tasks during learning is used to measure knowledge, yet it remains controversial since such testing is susceptible to contextual factors. To what extent does performance during learning depend on the testing context, rather than underlying knowledge? We trained mice, rats and ferrets on a range of tasks to examine how testing context impacts the acquisition of knowledge versus its expression. We interleaved reinforced trials with probe trials in which we omitted reinforcement. Across tasks, each animal species performed remarkably better in probe trials during learning and inter-animal variability was strikingly reduced. Reinforcement feedback is thus critical for learning-related behavioral improvements but, paradoxically masks the expression of underlying knowledge. We capture these results with a network model in which learning occurs during reinforced trials while context modulates only the read-out parameters. Probing learning by omitting reinforcement thus uncovers latent knowledge and identifies context- not "smartness"- as the major source of individual variability.
Bartsch TF, Hengel FE, Oswald A, Dionne G, Chipendo IV, Mangat SS, El Shatanofy M, Shapiro L, Muller U, Hudspeth AJ
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Elasticity of individual protocadherin 15 molecules implicates tip links as the gating springs for hearing

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2019 MAY 28; 116(22):11048-11056
Hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear, respond to mechanical forces originating from sounds and accelerations. An essential feature of each hair cell is an array of filamentous tip links, consisting of the proteins protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) and cadherin 23 (CDH23), whose tension is thought to directly gate the cell's transduction channels. These links are considered far too stiff to represent the gating springs that convert hair bundle displacement into forces capable of opening the channels, and no mechanism has been suggested through which tip-link stiffness could be varied to accommodate hair cells of distinct frequency sensitivity in different receptor organs and animals. Consequently, the gating spring's identity and mechanism of operation remain central questions in sensory neuroscience. Using a high-precision optical trap, we show that an individual monomer of PCDH15 acts as an entropic spring that is much softer than its enthalpic stiffness alone would suggest. This low stiffness implies that the protein is a significant part of the gating spring that controls a hair cell's transduction channels. The tip link's entropic nature then allows for stiffness control through modulation of its tension. We find that a PCDH15 molecule is unstable under tension and exhibits a rich variety of reversible unfolding events that are augmented when the Ca2+ concentration is reduced to physiological levels. Therefore, tip link tension and Ca2+ concentration are likely parameters through which nature tunes a gating spring's mechanical properties.
Zhang Y, Jang Y, Lee JE, Ahn J, Xu LX, Holden MR, Cornett EM, Krajewski K, Klein BJ, Wang SP, Dou YL, Roeder RG, Strahl BD, Rothbart SB, Shi XB, Ge K, Kutateladze TG
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Selective binding of the PHD6 finger of MLL4 to histone H4K16ac links MLL4 and MOF

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2019 MAY 24; 10(?):? Article 2314
Histone methyltransferase MLL4 is centrally involved in transcriptional regulation and is often mutated in human diseases, including cancer and developmental disorders. MLL4 contains a catalytic SET domain that mono-methylates histone H3K4 and seven PHD fingers of unclear function. Here, we identify the PHD6 finger of MLL4 (MLL4-PHD6) as a selective reader of the epigenetic modification H4K16ac. The solution NMR structure of MLL4-PHD6 in complex with a H4K16ac peptide along with binding and mutational analyses reveal unique mechanistic features underlying recognition of H4K16ac. Genomic studies show that one third of MLL4 chromatin binding sites overlap with H4K16ac-enriched regions in vivo and that MLL4 occupancy in a set of genomic targets depends on the acetyltransferase activity of MOF, a H4K16ac-specific acetyltransferase. The recognition of H4K16ac is conserved in the PHD7 finger of paralogous MLL3. Together, our findings reveal a previously uncharacterized acetyllysine reader and suggest that selective targeting of H4K16ac by MLL4 provides a direct functional link between MLL4, MOF and H4K16 acetylation.
Reich B, Zhou Y, Goldstein E, Srivats SS, Contoreggi NH, Kogan JF, McEwen BS, Kreek MJ, Milner TA, Gray JD
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Chronic immobilization stress primes the hippocampal opioid system for oxycodone-associated learning in female but not male rats

SYNAPSE 2019 MAY; 73(5):? Article e22088
In adult female, but not male, Sprague Dawley rats, chronic immobilization stress (CIS) increases mossy fiber (MF) Leu-Enkephalin levels and redistributes delta- and mu-opioid receptors (DORs and MORs) in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons to promote excitation and learning processes following subsequent opioid exposure. Here, we demonstrate that CIS females, but not males, acquire conditioned place preference (CPP) to oxycodone and that CIS "primes" the hippocampal opioid system in females for oxycodone-associated learning. In CA3b, oxycodone-injected (Oxy) CIS females relative to saline-injected (Sal) CIS females exhibited an increase in the cytoplasmic and total densities of DORs in pyramidal cell dendrites so that they were similar to Sal- and Oxy-CIS males. Consistent with our earlier studies, Sal- and Oxy-CIS females but not CIS males had elevated DOR densities in MF-CA3 dendritic spines, which we have previously shown are important for opioid-mediated long-term potentiation. In the dentate gyrus, Oxy-CIS females had more DOR-labeled interneurons than Sal-CIS females. Moreover, Sal- and Oxy-CIS females compared to both groups of CIS males had elevated levels of DORs and MORs in GABAergic interneuron dendrites, suggesting capacity for greater synthesis or storage of these receptors in circuits important for opioid-mediated disinhibition. However, more plasmalemmal MORs were on large parvalbumin-containing dendrites of Oxy-CIS males compared to Sal-CIS males, suggesting a limited ability for increased granule cell disinhibition. These results suggest that low levels of DORs in MF-CA3 synapses and hilar GABAergic interneurons may contribute to the attenuation of oxycodone CPP in males exposed to CIS.
Garcia-Gomez S, Chaparro R, Safa A, Van den Rym A, Martinez-Barricarte R, Lorenzo L, Sanchez-Ramon S, Toledano V, Cubillos-Zapata C, Lopez-Collazo E, Martin-Arranz MD, Martin-Arranz E, Vela M, Gonzalez-Navarro P, Perez-Martinez A, Casanova JL, Recio MJ, de Diego RP
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Double-strand break repair through homologous recombination in autosomal-recessive BCL10 deficiency

JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2019 MAY; 143(5):1931-1934.e1
Swanstrom AE, Jacques A, Del Prete GQ, Bieniasz P, Hatziioannou T, Gorelick R, Lifson JD
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Short Communication: Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Assessing Residual Simian-Tropic HIV in Nonhuman Primate Models of AIDS

AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES 2019 MAY 1; 35(5):473-476
Persistence of replication-competent viral reservoirs during infection remains a barrier to HIV cure, despite the ability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to effectively suppress viral replication. Simian-tropic HIV (stHIV) is a minimally chimeric HIV-1 that is comprised of 94% HIV-1 sequence, contains HIV-1 drug and immunologic targets, and is capable of replicating to high levels and causing authentic HIV-like pathogenesis leading to clinical AIDS in pigtail macaques. Suppression of stHIV replication by cART provides a model for study of viral reservoirs and HIV-specific intervention strategies targeting them. Accurate measurement of reservoir size is crucial for evaluating the effect of any such intervention strategies. Although there are a variety of assays that allow for indirect monitoring of viral reservoir size ex vivo, they each quantify a different aspect of viral reservoirs, and are characterized by conceptual and/or technical limitations. Measurement of viral protein in ex vivo cell culture assays captures the immunologically relevant viral-antigen producing component of the reservoir. This study demonstrates the utility of an ultrasensitive digital HIV Gag p24 immunoassay, which enabled earlier, and more sensitive detection of viral protein in culture supernatants from stimulated CD4+ T cells from stHIV-infected pigtail macaques receiving cART compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein measurements were highly correlated with cell-free stHIV RNA, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This ultrasensitive p24 assay can be used to complement other reservoir measurement tools to assess ongoing replication and reactivation of infectious virus from reservoirs in stHIV-infected pigtail macaques.
Pfaff D, Tabansky I, Haubensak W
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Tinbergen's challenge for the neuroscience of behavior

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2019 MAY 14; 116(20):9704-9710
Nobel laureate Nikolaas Tinbergen provided clear criteria for declaring a neuroscience problem solved, criteria which despite the passage of more than 50 years and vastly expanded neuroscience tool kits remain applicable today. Tinbergen said for neuroscientists to claim that a behavior is understood, they must correspondingly understand its (i) development and its (ii) mechanisms and its (iii) function and its (iv) evolution. Now, all four of these domains represent hotbeds of current experimental work, each using arrays of new techniques which overlap only partly. Thus, as new methodologies come online, from single-nerve-cell RNA sequencing, for example, to smart FISH, large-scale calcium imaging from cortex and deep brain structures, computational ethology, and so on, one person, however smart, cannot master everything. Our response to the likely "fracturing" of neuroscience recognizes the value of ever larger consortia. This response suggests new kinds of problems for (i) funding and (ii) the fair distribution of credit, especially for younger scientists.
Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, Brondolin E, Dragicevic M, Ero J, Del Valle AE, Flechl M, Friedl M, Fruhwirth R, Ghete VM, Grossmann J, Hrubec J, Jeitler M, Konig A, Krammer N, Kratschmer I, Liko D, Madlener T, Mikulec I, Pree E, Rad N, Rohringer H, Schieck J, Schofbeck R, Spanring M, Spitzbart D, Taurok A, Waltenberger W, Wittmann J, Wulz CE, Zarucki M, Chekhovsky V, Mossolov V, Gonzalez JS, De Wolf EA, Di Croce D, Janssen X, Lauwers J, Pieters M, Van de Klundert M, Van Haevermaet H, Van Mechelen P, Van Remortel N, Abu Zeid S, Blekman F, D'Hondt J, De Bruyn I, De Clercq J, Deroover K, Flouris G, Lontkovskyi D, Lowette S, Marchesini I, Moortgat S, Moreels L, Python Q, Skovpen K, Tavernier S, Van Doninck W, Van Mulders P, Van Parijs I, Beghin D, Bilin B, Brun H, Clerbaux B, De Lentdecker G, Delannoy H, Dorney B, Fasanella G, Favart L, Goldouzian R, Grebenyuk A, Kalsi AK, Lenzi T, Luetic J, Maerschalk T, Seva T, Starling E, Vander Velde C, Vanlaer P, Vannerom D, Yonamine R, Zenoni F, Cornelis T, Dobur D, Fagot A, Gul M, Khvastunov I, Poyraz D, Roskas C, Trocino D, Tytgat M, Verbeke W, Vit M, Zaganidis N, Bakhshiansohi H, Bondu O, Brochet S, Bruno G, Caputo C, Caudron A, David P, De Visscher S, Delaere C, Delcourt M, Francois B, Giammanco A, Krintiras G, Lemaitre V, Magitteri A, Mertens A, Musich M, Piotrzkowski K, Quertenmont L, Saggio A, Marono MV, Wertz S, Zobec J, Alda WL, Alves FL, Alves GA, Brito L, Silva GC, Hensel C, Moraes A, Pol ME, Teles PR, Das Chagas EBB, Carvalho W, Chinellato J, Coelho E, Da Costa EM, Da Silveira GG, Damiao DD, De Souza SF, Guativa LMH, Malbouisson H, De Almeida MM, Herrera CM, Mundim L, Nogima H, Rosas LJS, Santoro A, Sznajder A, Thiel M, Manganote EJT, De Araujo FTD, Pereira AV, Ahuja S, Bernardes CA, Tomei TRFP, Gregores EM, Mercadante PG, Novaes SF, Padula SS, Abad DR, Vargas JCR, Aleksandrov A, Hadjiiska R, Iaydjiev P, Marinov A, Misheva M, Rodozov M, Shopova M, Sultanov G, Dimitrov A, Litov L, Pavlov B, Petkov P, Fang W, Gao X, Yuan L, Ahmad M, Bian JG, Chen GM, Chen HS, Chen M, Chen Y, Jiang CH, Leggat D, Liao H, Liu Z, Romeo F, Shaheen SM, Spiezia A, Tao J, Wang C, Wang Z, Yazgan E, Zhang H, Zhao J, Ban Y, Chen G, Li J, Li Q, Liu S, Mao Y, Qian SJ, Wang D, Xu Z, Wang Y, Avila C, Cabrera A, Sierra LFC, Florez C, Hernaandez CFG, Alvarez JDR, Delgado MAS, Courbon B, Godinovic N, Lelas D, Puljak I, Cipriano PMR, Sculac T, Antunovic Z, Kovac M, Brigljevic V, Ferencek D, Kadija K, Mesic B, Starodumov A, Susa T, Ather MW, Attikis A, Mavromanolakis G, Mousa J, Nicolaou C, Ptochos F, Razis PA, Rykaczewski H, Finger M, Finger M, Jarrin EC, Abdelalim AA, Assran Y, Elgammal S, Bhowmik S, Dewanjee RK, Kadastik M, Perrini L, Raidal M, Veelken C, Eerola P, Kirschenmann H, Pekkanen J, Voutilainen M, Havukainen J, Heikkila JK, Jarvinen T, Karimaki V, Kinnunen R, Lampen T, Lassila-Perini K, Laurila S, Lehti S, Linden T, Luukka P, Maenpaa T, Siikonen H, Tuominen E, Tuominiemi J, Tuuva T, Besancon M, Couderc F, Dejardin M, Denegri D, Faure JL, Ferri F, Ganjour S, Ghosh S, Givernaud A, Gras P, de Monchenault GH, Jarry P, Leloup C, Locci E, Machet M, Malcles J, Negro G, Rander J, Rosowsky A, Sahin MO, Titov M, Abdulsalam A, Amendola C, Antropov I, Baffioni S, Beaudette F, Busson P, Cadamuro L, Charlot C, de Cassagnac RG, Jo M, Kucher I, Lisniak S, Lobanov A, Blanco JM, Nguyen M, Ochando C, Ortona G, Paganini P, Pigard P, Salerno R, Sauvan JB, Sirois Y, Leiton AGS, Yilmaz Y, Zabi A, Zghiche A, Agram JL, Andrea J, Bloch D, Brom JM, Buttignol M, Chabert EC, Collard C, Conte E, Coubez X, Drouhin F, Fontaine JC, Gele D, Goerlach U, Jansova M, Juillot P, Le Bihan AC, Tonon N, Van Hove P, Gadrat S, Beauceron S, Bernet C, Boudoul G, Chanon N, Chierici R, Contardo D, Depasse P, El Mamouni H, Fay J, Finco L, Gascon S, Gouzevitch M, Grenier G, Ille B, Lagarde F, Laktineh IB, Lethuillier M, Mirabito L, Pequegnot AL, Perries S, Popov A, Sordini V, Vander Donckt M, Viret S, Zhang S, Khvedelidze A, Lomidze D, Autermann C, Feld L, Kiesel MK, Klein K, Lipinski M, Preuten M, Schomakers C, Schulz J, Teroerde M, Wittmer B, Zhukov V, Albert A, Duchardt D, Endres M, Erdmann M, Erdweg S, Esch T, Fischer R, Guth A, Hebbeker T, Heidemann C, Hoepfner K, Knutzen S, Merschmeyer M, Meyer A, Millet P, Mukherjee S, Pook T, Radziej M, Reithler H, Rieger M, Scheuch F, Teyssier D, Thuer S, Flugge G, Kargoll B, Kress T, Kunsken A, Muller T, Nehrkorn A, Nowack A, Pistone C, Pooth O, Stahl A, Martin MA, Arndt T, Asawatangtrakuldee C, Beernaert K, Behnke O, Behrens U, Martinez AB, Bin Anuar AA, Borras K, Botta V, Campbell A, Connor P, Contreras-Campana C, Costanza F, Pardos CD, Eckerlin G, Eckstein D, Eichhorn T, Eren E, Gallo E, Garcia JG, Geiser A, Luyando JMG, Grohsjean A, Gunnellini P, Guthoff M, Harb A, Hauk J, Hempel M, Jung H, Kasemann M, Keaveney J, Kleinwort C, Korol I, Krucker D, Lange W, Lelek A, Lenz T, Lipka K, Lohmann W, Mankel R, Melzer-Pellmann IA, Meyer AB, Missiroli M, Mittag G, Mnich J, Mussgiller A, Pitzl D, Raspereza A, Savitskyi M, Saxena P, Shevchenko R, Stefaniuk N, Tholen H, Van Onsem GP, Walsh R, Wen Y, Wichmann K, Wissing C, Zenaiev O, Aggleton R, Bein S, Blobel V, Vignali MC, Dreyer T, Garutti E, Gonzalez D, Haller J, Hinzmann A, Hoffmann M, Karavdina A, Kasieczka G, Klanner R, Kogler R, Kovalchuk N, Kurz S, Marconi D, Meyer M, Niedziela M, Nowatschin D, Peiffer T, Perieanu A, Scharf C, Schleper P, Schmidt A, Schumann S, Schwandt J, Sonneveld J, Stadie H, Steinbruck G, Stober FM, Stover M, Troendle D, Usai E, Vanhoefer A, Vormwald B, Akbiyik M, Barth C, Baselga M, Baur S, Butz E, Caspart R, Chwalek T, Colombo F, De Boer W, Dierlamm A, Faltermann N, Freund B, Friese R, Giffels M, Harrendorf MA, Hartmann F, Heindl SM, Husemann U, Kassel F, Kudella S, Mildner H, Mozer MU, Muller T, Plagge M, Quast G, Rabbertz K, Schroder M, Shvetsov I, Sieber G, Simonis HJ, Ulrich R, Wayand S, Weber M, Weiler T, Williamson S, Woehrmann C, Wolf R, Anagnostou G, Daskalakis G, Geralis T, Kyriakis A, Loukas D, Topsis-Giotis I, Karathanasis G, Kesisoglou S, Panagiotou A, Saoulidou N, Tziaferi E, Kousouris K, Evangelou I, Foudas C, Gianneios P, Katsoulis P, Kokkas P, Mallios S, Manthos N, Papadopoulos I, Paradas E, Strologas J, Triantis FA, Tsitsonis D, Csanad M, Filipovic N, Pasztor G, Suranyi O, Veres GI, Bencze G, Hajdu C, Horvath D, Hunyadi A, Sikler F, Veszpremi V, Vesztergombi G, Beni N, Czellar S, Karancsi J, Makovec A, Molnar J, Szillasi Z, Bartok M, Raics P, Trocsanyi ZL, Ujvari B, Choudhury S, Komaragiri JR, Bahinipati S, Mal P, Mandal K, Nayak A, Sahoo DK, Sahoo N, Swain SK, Bansal S, Beri SB, Bhatnagar V, Chawla R, Dhingra N, Kaur A, Kaur M, Kaur S, Kumar R, Kumari P, Mehta A, Singh JB, Walia G, Kumar A, Shah A, Bhardwaj A, Chauhan S, Choudhary BC, Garg RB, Keshri S, Kumar A, Malhotra S, Naimuddin M, Ranjan K, Sharma R, Bhardwaj R, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya S, Bhawandeep U, Bhowmik D, Dey S, Dutt S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, Majumdar N, Modak A, Mondal K, Mukhopadhyay S, Nandan S, Purohit A, Rout PK, Roy A, Chowdhury SR, Sarkar S, Sharan M, Singh B, Thakur S, Behera PK, Chudasama R, Dutta D, Jha V, Kumar V, Mohanty AK, Netrakanti PK, Pant LM, Shukla P, Topkar A, Aziz T, Dugad S, Mahakud B, Mitra S, Mohanty GB, Sur N, Sutar B, Banerjee S, Bhattacharya S, Chatterjee S, Das P, Guchait M, Jain S, Kumar S, Maity M, Majumder G, Mazumdar K, Sarkar T, Wickramage N, Chauhan S, Dube S, Hegde V, Kapoor A, Kothekar K, Pandey S, Rane A, Sharma S, Chenarani S, Tadavani EE, Etesami SM, Khakzad M, Najafabadi MM, Naseri M, Mehdiabadi SP, Hosseinabadi FR, Safarzadeh B, Zeinali M, Felcini M, Grunewald M, Abbrescia M, Calabria C, Colaleo A, Creanza D, Cristella L, De Filippis N, De Palma M, Di Florio A, Errico F, Fiore L, Iaselli G, Lezki S, Maggi G, Maggi M, Marangelli B, Miniello G, My S, Nuzzo S, Pompili A, Pugliese G, Radogna R, Ranieri A, Selvaggi G, Sharma A, Silvestris L, Venditti R, Verwilligen P, Zito G, Abbiendi G, Battilana C, Bonacorsi D, Borgonovi L, Braibant-Giacomelli S, Campanini R, Capiluppi P, Castro A, Cavallo FR, Chhibra SS, Codispoti G, Cuffiani M, Dallavalle GM, Fabbri F, Fanfani A, Fasanella D, Giacomelli P, Grandi C, Guiducci L, Iemmi F, Marcellini S, Masetti G, Montanari A, Navarria FL, Perrotta A, Rossi AM, Rovelli T, Siroli GP, Tosi N, Albergo S, Costa S, Di Mattia A, Giordano F, Potenza R, Tricomi A, Tuve C, Barbagli G, Chatterjee K, Ciulli V, Civinini C, D'Alessandro R, Focardi E, Latino G, Lenzi P, Meschini M, Paoletti S, Russo L, Sguazzoni G, Strom D, Viliani L, Benussi L, Bianco S, Fabbri F, Piccolo D, Primavera F, Calvelli V, Ferro F, Ravera F, Robutti E, Tosi S, Benaglia A, Beschi A, Brianza L, Brivio F, Ciriolo V, Dinardo ME, Fiorendi S, Gennai S, Ghezzi A, Govoni P, Malberti M, Malvezzi S, Manzoni RA, Menasce D, Moroni L, Paganoni M, Pauwels K, Pedrini D, Pigazzini S, Ragazzi S, de Fatis TT, Buontempo S, Cavallo N, Di Guida S, Fabozzi F, Fienga F, Iorio AOM, Khan WA, Lista L, Meola S, Paolucci P, Sciacca C, Thyssen F, Azzi P, Bacchetta N, Benato L, Bisello D, Boletti A, Carlin R, De Oliveira ACA, Checchia P, Dall'Osso M, Manzano PD, Dorigo T, Dosselli U, Gasparini U, Gozzelino A, Lacaprara S, Lujan P, Margoni M, Meneguzzo AT, Pozzobon N, Ronchese P, Rossin R, Simonetto F, Tiko A, Torassa E, Zanetti M, Zotto P, Zumerle G, Braghieri A, Magnani A, Montagna P, Ratti SP, Re V, Ressegotti M, Riccardi C, Salvini P, Vai I, Vitulo P, Solestizi LA, Biasini M, Bilei GM, Cecchi C, Ciangottini D, Fano L, Lariccia P, Leonardi R, Manoni E, Mantovani G, Mariani V, Menichelli M, Rossi A, Santocchia A, Spiga D, Androsov K, Azzurri P, Bagliesi G, Bianchini L, Boccali T, Borrello L, Castaldi R, Ciocci MA, Dell'Orso R, Fedi G, Giannini L, Giassi A, Grippo MT, Ligabue F, Lomtadze T, Manca E, Mandorli G, Messineo A, Palla F, Rizzi A, Spagnolo P, Tenchini R, Tonelli G, Venturi A, Verdini PG, Barone L, Cavallari F, Cipriani M, Daci N, Del Re D, Di Marco E, Diemoz M, Gelli S, Longo E, Margaroli F, Marzocchi B, Meridiani P, Organtini G, Paramatti R, Preiato F, Rahatlou S, Rovelli C, Santanastasio F, Amapane N, Arcidiacono R, Argiro S, Arneodo M, Bartosik N, Bellan R, Biino C, Cartiglia N, Castello R, Cenna F, Costa M, Covarelli R, Degano A, Demaria N, Kiani B, Mariotti C, Maselli S, Migliore AE, Monaco V, Monteil E, Monteno M, Obertino MM, Pacher L, Pastrone N, Pelliccioni M, Angioni GLP, Romero A, Ruspa M, Sacchi R, Shchelina K, Sola V, Solano A, Staiano A, Traczyk P, Belforte S, Casarsa M, Cossutti F, Della Ricca G, Zanetti A, Kim DH, Kim GN, Kim MS, Lee J, Lee S, Lee SW, Moon CS, Oh YD, Sekmen S, Son DC, Yang YC, Kim H, Moon DH, Oh G, Cifuentes JAB, Goh J, Kim TJ, Cho S, Choi S, Go Y, Gyun D, Ha S, Hong B, Jo Y, Kim Y, Lee K, Lee KS, Lee S, Lim J, Park SK, Roh Y, Almond J, Kim J, Kim JS, Lee H, Lee K, Nam K, Oh SB, Radburn-Smith BC, Seo SH, Yang UK, Yoo HD, Yu GB, Kim H, Kim JH, Lee JSH, Park IC, Choi Y, Hwang C, Lee J, Yu I, Dudenas V, Juodagalvis A, Vaitkus J, Ahmed I, Ibrahim ZA, Ali MABM, Idris FM, Abdullah WATW, Yusli MN, Zolkapli Z, Reyes-Almanza R, Ramirez-Sanchez G, Duran-Osuna MC, Castilla-Valdez H, De la Cruz-Burelo E, Heredia-De La Cruz I, Rabadan-Trejo RI, Lopez-Fernandez R, Guisao JM, Sanchez-Hernandez A, Moreno SC, Barrera CO, Valencia FV, Eysermans J, Pedraza I, Ibarguen HAS, Estrada CU, Pineda AM, Krofcheck D, Butler PH, Ahmad A, Ahmad M, Hassan Q, Hoorani HR, Saddique A, Shah MA, Shoaib M, Waqas M, Bialkowska H, Bluj M, Boimska B, Frueboes T, Gorski M, Kazana M, Nawrocki K, Szleper M, Zalewski P, Bunkowski K, Byszuk A, Doroba K, Kalinowski A, Konecki M, Krolikowski J, Misiura M, Olszewski M, Pyskir A, Walczak M, Bargassa P, Silva CBDE, Di Francesco A, Faccioli P, Galinhas B, Gallinaro M, Hollar J, Leonardo N, Iglesias LL, Nemallapudi MV, Seixas J, Strong G, Toldaiev O, Vadruccio D, Varela J, Afanasiev S, Bunin P, Gavrilenko M, Golutvin I, Gorbunov I, Kamenev A, Karjavin V, Lanev A, Malakhov A, Matveev V, Moisenz P, 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Ruggles T, Savin A, Smith N, Smith WH, Woods N
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Search for associated production of a Higgs boson and a single top quark in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 2019 MAY 21; 99(9):? Article 092005
A search is presented for the production of a Higgs boson in association with a single top quark, based on data collected in 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The production cross section for this process is highly sensitive to the absolute values of the top quark Yukawa coupling, y(t); the Higgs boson coupling to vector bosons, g(HVV); and, uniquely, their relative sign. Analyses using multilepton signatures, targeting H -> WW, H -> tau tau, and H -> ZZ decay modes, and signatures with a single lepton and a b (b) over bar pair, targeting the H -> b (b) over bar decay, are combined with a reinterpretation of a measurement in the H -> gamma gamma channel to constrain y(t). For a standard model-like value of g(HVV), the data favor positive values of y(t) and exclude values of y(t) below about -0.9y(t)(SM).
Ellis SJ, Gomez NC, Levorse J, Mertz AF, Ge YJ, Fuchs E
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Distinct modes of cell competition shape mammalian tissue morphogenesis

NATURE 2019 MAY 23; 569(7757):497-502
Cell competition-the sensing and elimination of less fit 'loser' cells by neighbouring 'winner' cells-was first described in Drosophila. Although cell competition has been proposed as a selection mechanism to optimize tissue and organ development, its evolutionary generality remains unclear. Here, by using live imaging, lineage tracing, single-cell transcriptomics and genetics, we identify two cell competition mechanisms that sequentially shape and maintain the architecture of stratified tissue during skin development in mice. In the single-layered epithelium of the early embryonic epidermis, winner progenitors kill and subsequently clear neighbouring loser cells by engulfment. Later, as the tissue begins to stratify, the basal layer instead expels losers through upward flux of differentiating progeny. This cell competition switch is physiologically relevant: when it is perturbed, so too is barrier formation. Our findings show that cell competition is a selective force that optimizes vertebrate tissue function, and illuminate how a tissue dynamically adjusts cell competition strategies to preserve fitness as its architectural complexity increases during morphogenesis.