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Found 36385 matches. Displaying 51-60
Nassir N, Tambi R, Bankapur A, Al Heialy S, Karuvantevida N, Khansaheb HH, Zehra B, Begum G, Hameid RA, Ahmed A, Deesi Z, Alkhajeh A, Uddin KMF, Akter H, Shabestari SAS, Almidani O, Islam A, Gaudet M, Kandasamy RK, Loney T, Abou Tayoun A, Nowotny N, Woodbury-Smith M, Rahman P, Kuebler WM, Hachim MY, Casanova JL, Berdiev BK, Alsheikh-Ali A, Uddin M
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Single-cell transcriptome identifies FCGR3B upregulated subtype of alveolar macrophages in patients with critical COVID-19

ISCIENCE 2021 SEP 24; 24(9):? Article 103030
Understanding host cell heterogeneity is critical for unraveling disease mechanism. Utilizing large-scale single-cell transcriptomics, we analyzed multiple tissue specimens from patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia, compared with healthy controls. We identified a subtype of monocyte-derived alveolar macrophages (MoAMs) where genes associated with severe COVID-19 comorbidities are significantly upregulated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of critical cases. FCGR3B consistently demarcated MoAM subset in different samples fromsevere COVID-19 cohorts and in CCL3L1-upregulated cells from nasopharyngeal swabs. In silico findings were validated by upregulation of FCGR3B in nasopharyngeal swabs of severe ICU COVID-19 cases, particularly in older patients and those with comorbidities. Additional lines of evidence from transcriptomic data and in vivo of severe COVID- 19 cases suggest that FCGR3B may identify a specific subtype of MoAM in patients with severe COVID-19 that may present a novel biomarker for screening and prognosis, as well as a potential therapeutic target.
Kars ME, Basak AN, Onat OE, Bilguvar K, Choi J, Itan Y, Caglar C, Palvadeau R, Casanova JL, Cooper DN, Stenson PD, Yavuz A, Bulus H, Gunel M, Friedman JM, Ozcelik T
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The genetic structure of the Turkish population reveals high levels of variation and admixture

The construction of population-based variomes has contributed substantially to our understanding of the genetic basis of human inherited disease. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of Turkey from 3,362 unrelated subjects whose whole exomes (n = 2,589) or whole genomes (n = 773) were sequenced to generate a Turkish (TR) Variome that should serve to facilitate disease gene discovery in Turkey. Consistent with the history of present-day Turkey as a crossroads between Europe and Asia, we found extensive admixture between Balkan, Caucasus, Middle Eastern, and European populations with a closer genetic relationship of the TR population to Europeans than hitherto appreciated. We determined that 50% of TR individuals had high inbreeding coefficients (>= 0.0156) with runs of homozygosity longer than 4 Mb being found exclusively in the TR population when compared to 1000 Genomes Project populations. We also found that 28% of exome and 49% of genome variants in the very rare range (allele frequency < 0.005) are unique to the modern TR population. We annotated these variants based on their functional consequences to establish a TR Variome containing alleles of potential medical relevance, a repository of homozygous loss-of-function variants and a TR reference panel for genotype imputation using high-quality haplotypes, to facilitate genome-wide association studies. In addition to providing information on the genetic structure of the modern TR population, these data provide an invaluable resource for future studies to identify variants that are associated with specific phenotypes as well as establishing the phenotypic consequences of mutations in specific genes.
Yang ZL, Wu XLS, Wei YL, Polyanskaya SA, Iyer SV, Jung M, Lach FP, Adelman ER, Klingbeil O, Milazzo JP, Kramer M, Demerdash OE, Chang K, Goodwin S, Hodges E, McCombie WR, Figueroa ME, Smogorzewska A, Vakoc CR
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Transcriptional Silencing of ALDH2 Confers a Dependency on Fanconi Anemia Proteins in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

CANCER DISCOVERY 2021 SEP; 11(9):2300-2315
Hundreds of genes become aberrantly silenced in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with most of these epigenetic changes being of unknown functional consequence. Here, we demonstrate how gene silencing can lead to an acquired dependency on the DNA repair machinery in AML. We make this observation by profiling the essentiality of the ubiquitination machinery in cancer cell lines using domain-focused CRISPR screening, which revealed Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins UBE2T and FANCL as unique dependencies in AML. We demonstrate that these dependencies are due to a synthetic lethal interaction between FA proteins and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which function in parallel pathways to counteract the genotoxicity of endogenous aldehydes. We show DNA hypermethylation and silencing of ALDH2 occur in a recurrent manner in human AML, which is sufficient to confer FA pathway dependency. Our study suggests that targeting of the ubiquitination reaction catalyzed by FA proteins can eliminate ALDH2-deficient AML. SIGNIFICANCE: Aberrant gene silencing is an epigenetic hallmark of human cancer, but the functional consequences of this process are largely unknown. In this study, we show how an epigenetic alteration leads to an actionable dependency on a DNA repair pathway through the disabling of genetic redundancy.
Rand DA, Raju A, Saez M, Corson F, Siggia ED
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Geometry of gene regulatory dynamics

Embryonic development leads to the reproducible and ordered appearance of complexity from egg to adult. The successive differentiation of different cell types that elaborate this complexity results from the activity of gene networks and was likened by Waddington to a flow through a landscape in which valleys represent alternative fates. Geometric methods allow the formal representation of such landscapes and codify the types of behaviors that result from systems of differential equations. Results from Smale and coworkers imply that systems encompassing gene network models can be represented as potential gradients with a Riemann metric, justifying the Waddington metaphor. Here, we extend this representation to include parameter dependence and enumerate all three-way cellular decisions realizable by tuning at most two parameters, which can be generalized to include spatial coordinates in a tissue. All diagrams of cell states vs. model parameters are thereby enumerated. We unify a number of standard models for spatial pattern formation by expressing them in potential form (i.e., as topographic elevation). Turing systems appear nonpotential, yet in suitable variables the dynamics are low dimensional and potential. A time-independent embedding recovers the original variables. Lateral inhibition is described by a saddle point with many unstable directions. A model for the patterning of the Drosophila eye appears as relaxation in a bistable potential. Geometric reasoning provides intuitive dynamic models for development that are well adapted to fit time-lapse data.
Racine-Brzostek SE, Karbaschi M, Gaebler C, Klasse PJ, Yee J, Caskey M, Yang HS, Hao Y, Sukhu A, Rand S, Chadburn A, Shi YY, Zuk R, Nussenzweig MC, Cushing MM, Zhao Z
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TOP-Plus Is a Versatile Biosensor Platform for Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Durability

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 2021 SEP; 67(9):1249-1258
BACKGROUND: Low initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody titers dropping to undetectable levels within months after infection have raised concerns about long-term immunity. Both the antibody levels and the avidity of the antibody-antigen interaction should be examined to understand the quality of the antibody response. METHODS: A testing-on-a-probe "plus" panel (TOPPlus) was developed to include a newly developed avidity assay built into the previously described SARS-CoV2 TOP assays that measured total antibody (TAb), surrogate neutralizing antibody (SNAb), IgM, and IgG on a versatile biosensor platform. TAb and SNAb levels were compared with avidity in previously infected individuals at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in paired samples from 80 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sera from individuals vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 were also evaluated for antibody avidity. RESULTS: The newly designed avidity assay in this TOP panel correlated well with a reference Bio-Layer Interferometry avidity assay (r = 0.88). The imprecision of the TOP avidity assay was <10%. Although TAb and neutralization activity (by SNAb) decreased between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection, the antibody avidity increased significantly (P< 0.0001). Antibody avidity in 10 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals (median: 28 days after vaccination) was comparable to the measured antibody avidity in infected individuals (median: 26 days after infection). CONCLUSIONS: This highly precise and versatile TOPPlus panel with the ability to measure SARS-CoV-2 TAb, SNAb, IgG, and IgM antibody levels and avidity of individual sera on one sensor can become a valuable asset in monitoring not only patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 but also the status of individuals' COVID-19 vaccination response.
Liang TJ, Feld JJ, Cox AL, Rice CM
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Controlled Human Infection Model - Fast Track to HCV Vaccine?

NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 2021 SEP 23; 385(13):1235-1240
del Marmol J, Yedlin MA, Ruta V
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The structural basis of odorant recognition in insect olfactory receptors

NATURE 2021 SEP 2; 597(7874):126-131
Olfactory systems must detect and discriminate amongst an enormous variety of odorants(1). To contend with this challenge, diverse species have converged on a common strategy in which odorant identity is encoded through the combinatorial activation of large families of olfactory receptors(1-3), thus allowing a finite number of receptors to detect a vast chemical world. Here we offer structural and mechanistic insight into how an individual olfactory receptor can flexibly recognize diverse odorants. We show that the olfactory receptor MhOR5 from the jumping bristletail(4) Machilis hrabei assembles as a homotetrameric odorant-gated ion channel with broad chemical tuning. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we elucidated the structure of MhOR5 in multiple gating states, alone and in complex with two of its agonists-the odorant eugenol and the insect repellent DEET. Both ligands are recognized through distributed hydrophobic interactions within the same geometrically simple binding pocket located in the transmembrane region of each subunit, suggesting a structural logic for the promiscuous chemical sensitivity of this receptor. Mutation of individual residues lining the binding pocket predictably altered the sensitivity of MhOR5 to eugenol and DEET and broadly reconfigured the receptor's tuning. Together, our data support a model in which diverse odorants share the same structural determinants for binding, shedding light on the molecular recognition mechanisms that ultimately endow the olfactory system with its immense discriminatory capacity.
Chan TC, Lee MS, Huang WC, Chang WY, Krueger JG, Tsai TF
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Capsaicin attenuates imiquimod-induced epidermal hyperplasia and cutaneous inflammation in a murine model of psoriasis

BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY 2021 SEP; 141(?):? Article 111950
Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases that is characterized by well-defined erythematous plaques, with typical histopathological findings of lymphocytic infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia. Topical treatments of psoriasis are either associated with limited response or with side effects. Up to date, topicals targeting neuroimmune axis in psoriasis or psoriasiform dermatitis have not been explored. Here, we investigated whether percutaneous delivery of capsaicin could attenuate the pathological change of psoriasiform inflammation. Imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like murine model was used to evaluate therapeutic effects from topical application of capsaicin. An additional model of psoriasiform dermatitis induced by direct IL-23 injection was used to identify the level of action from capsaicin in this neuroimmune axis. Cutaneous inflammation was assessed by erythema level and ear thickness change. Key cytokines, infiltrating cells in the skin, and draining lymph node cells were investigated. The results showed that capsaicin administration obstructed the activation of IL-23/IL-17 pathway induced by imiquimod, presenting with significantly reduced psoriasiform dermatitis both in gross appearance and microscopic features. Tissue gene expression of psoriatic core cytokines induced by imiquimod (including IL-23, IL-17A, IL-22, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) were greatly decreased by capsaicin application. This protective effect from capsaicin could be hampered by direct intradermal injection of IL-23. Conclusion: Epicutaneous delivery of capsaicin on imiquimod-treated murine skin could significantly decrease expression of multiple inflammatory cytokines and the severity of prototypic change of psoriasiform inflammation. The beneficial effect imposed by capsaicin reinforces the neuroimmune contribution towards psoriasiform inflammation and provides a potential non-steroidal therapeutic alternative for topical treatment of psoriasiform dermatitis.
Wysocka M, Monteiro T, de Pina C, Goncalves D, de Pina S, Ludgero-Correia A, Moreno J, Zamudio R, Almebairik N, Gray LJ, Pareek M, Jenkins DR, Aires-de-Sousa M, De Lencastre H, Beleza S, Araujo II, Conceicao T, Oggioni MR
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Whole-genome analysis uncovers loss of blaZ associated with carriage isolates belonging to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone ST5-VI in Cape Verde

Objectives: Surveillance studies for Staphylococcus aureus carriage are a primary tool to survey the preva-lence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the general population, patients and healthcare workers. We have previously reported S. aureus carriage in various African countries, including Cape Verde. Methods: Whole-genome sequences of 106 S. aureus isolates from Cape Verde were determined. Results: Staphylococcus aureus carriage isolates in Cape Verde show high genetic variability, with the de-tection of 27 sequence types (STs) and three primary genetic clusters associated with ST152, ST15 and ST5. One transmission event with less than eight core-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (cgSNP) differences was detected among the ST5-VI MRSA lineage. Genetic analysis confirmed the phenotypic resistance and allowed the identification of six independent events of plasmid or transposon loss asso-ciated with the deletion of blaZ in nine isolates. In the four ST5 MRSA isolates, loss of the blaZ plasmid coincided with the acquisition of SCCmec type VI and an unusual penicillin phenotype with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at the breakpoint, indicating an adaptation trend in this endemic lineage. Similar events of blaZ plasmid loss, with concomitant acquisition SCCmec elements, were detected among ST5 isolates from different geographical origins. Conclusion: Overall, the genome data allowed to place isolates in a phylogenetic context and to iden-tify different blaZ gene deletions associated with plasmid or transposon loss. Genomic analysis unveiled adaptation and evolution trends, namely among emerging MRSA lineages in the country, which deserve additional consideration in the design of future infection control protocols. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( )
Cavazzoni CB, Bozza VBT, Lucas TCV, Conde L, Maia B, Mesin L, Schiepers A, Ersching J, Neris RLS, Conde JN, Coelho DR, Lima TM, Alvim RGF, Castilho LR, Neto HAD, Mohana-Borges R, Assuncao-Miranda I, Nobrega A, Victora GD, Vale AM
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The immunodominant antibody response to Zika virus NS1 protein is characterized by cross-reactivity to self

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2021 SEP 6; 218(9):? Article e20210580
Besides antigen-specific responses to viral antigens, humoral immune response in virus infection can generate polyreactive and autoreactive antibodies. Dengue and Zika virus infections have been linked to antibody-mediated autoimmune disorders, including Guillain-Barre ' syndrome. A unique feature of flaviviruses is the secretion of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) by infected cells. NS1 is highly immunogenic, and antibodies targeting NS1 can have both protective and pathogenic roles. In the present study, we investigated the humoral immune response to Zika virus NS1 and found NS1 to be an immunodominant viral antigen associated with the presence of autoreactive antibodies. Through single B cell cultures, we coupled binding assays and BCR sequencing, confirming the immunodominance of NS1. We demonstrate the presence of self-reactive clones in germinal centers after both infection and immunization, some of which present cross-reactivity with NS1. Sequence analysis of anti-NS1 B cell clones showed sequence features associated with pathogenic autoreactive antibodies. Our findings demonstrate NS1 immunodominance at the cellular level as well as a potential role for NS1 in ZIKV-associated autoimmune manifestations.