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Ma L, Lin KY, Chang GD, Chen YW, Yue C, Guo Q, Zhang SC, Jia ZL, Huang TT, Zhou AD, Huang ST
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Aberrant Activation of beta-Catenin Signaling Drives Glioma Tumorigenesis via USP1-Mediated Stabilization of EZH2

CANCER RESEARCH 2019 JAN 1; 79(1):72-85
Aberrant activation of beta-catenin signaling is a critical driver for tumorigenesis, but the mechanism underlying this activation is not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrate a critical role of beta-catenin signaling in stabilization of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and control of EZH2-mediated gene repression in oncogenesis. beta-Catenin/TCF4 activated the transcription of the deubiquitinase USP1, which then interacted with and deubiquitinated EZH2 directly. USP1-mediated stabilization of EZH2 promoted its recruitment to the promoters of CDKN1B, RUNX3, and HOXA5, resulting in enhanced enrichment of histone H3K27me3 and repression of target gene expression. In human glioma specimens, expression levels of nuclear beta-catenin, USP1, and EZH2 correlated with one another. Depletion of beta-catenin/USP1/EZH2 repressed glioma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Our findings indicate that a beta-catenin-USP1-EZH2 axis orchestrates the interplay between dysregulated beta-catenin signaling and EZH2-mediated gene epigenetic silencing during glioma tumorigenesis. Significance: These findings identify the beta-catenin-USP1-EZH2 signaling axis as a critical mechanism for glioma tumorigenesis that may serve as a new therapeutic target in glioblastoma.
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Shalhout S, Shi M, Smith J, Stolp D, Taylor D, Tos K, Tripathi M, Wang Z, Zhang F, Bachtis M, Bravo C, Cousins R, Dasgupta A, Florent A, Hauser J, Ignatenko M, Mccoll N, Regnard S, Saltzberg D, Schnaible C, Valuev V, Bouvier E, Burt K, Clare R, Ellison J, Gary JW, Shirazi SMAG, Hanson G, Karapostoli G, Kennedy E, Lacroix F, Long OR, Negrete MO, Paneva MI, Si W, Wang L, Wei H, Wimpenny S, Yates BR, Branson JG, Cittolin S, Derdzinski M, Gerosa R, Gilbert D, Hashemi B, Holzner A, Klein D, Kole G, Krutelyov V, Letts J, Masciovecchio M, Olivito D, Padhi S, Pieri M, Sani M, Sharma V, Simon S, Tadel M, Vartak A, Wasserbaech S, Wood J, Wurthwein F, Yagil A, Della Porta GZ, Amin N, Bhandari R, Bradmiller-Feld J, Campagnari C, Citron M, Dishaw A, Dutta V, Sevilla MF, Gouskos L, Heller R, Incandela J, Ovcharova A, Qu H, Richman J, Stuart D, Suarez I, Yoo J, Anderson D, Bornheim A, Bunn J, Lawhorn JM, Newman HB, Nguyen TQ, Pena C, Spiropulu M, Vlimant JR, Wilkinson R, Xie S, Zhang Z, Zhu RY, Andrews MB, Ferguson T, Mudholkar T, Paulini M, Russ J, Sun M, Vogel H, Vorobiev I, Weinberg M, Cumalat JP, Ford WT, Jensen F, Johnson A, Krohn M, Leontsinis S, MacDonald E, Mulholland T, Stenson K, Ulmer KA, Wagner SR, Alexander J, Chaves J, Cheng Y, Chu J, Datta A, Mcdermott K, Mirman N, Patterson JR, Quach D, Rinkevicius A, Ryd A, Skinnari L, Soffi L, Tan SM, Tao Z, Thom J, Tucker J, Wittich P, Zientek M, Abdullin S, Albrow M, Alyari M, Apollinari G, Apresyan A, Apyan A, Banerjee S, Bauerdick LAT, Beretvas A, Berryhill J, Bhat PC, Bolla G, Burkett K, Butler JN, Canepa A, Cerati GB, Cheung HWK, Chlebana F, Cremonesi M, Duarte J, Elvira VD, Freeman J, Gecse Z, Gottschalk E, Gray L, Green D, Grunendahl S, Gutsche O, Hanlon J, Harris RM, Hasegawa S, Hirschauer J, Hu Z, Jayatilaka B, Jindariani S, Johnson M, Joshi U, Klima B, Kortelainen MJ, Kreis B, Lammel S, Lincoln D, Lipton R, Liu M, Liu T, De Sa RL, Lykken J, Maeshima K, Magini N, Marraffino JM, Mason D, McBride P, Merkel P, Mrenna S, Nahn S, O'Dell V, Pedro K, Prokofyev O, Rakness G, Ristori L, Savoy-Navarro A, Schneider B, Sexton-Kennedy E, Soha A, Spalding WJ, Spiegel L, Stoynev S, Strait J, Strobbe N, Taylor L, Tkaczyk S, Tran NV, Uplegger L, Vaandering EW, Vernieri C, Verzocchi M, Vidal R, Wang M, Weber HA, Whitbeck A, Wu W, Acosta D, Avery P, Bortignon P, Bourilkov D, Brinkerhoff A, Carnes A, Carver M, Curry D, Field RD, Furic IK, Gleyzer SV, Joshi BM, Konigsberg J, Korytov A, Kotov K, Ma P, Matchev K, Mei H, Mitselmakher G, Shi K, Sperka D, Terentyev N, Thomas L, Wang J, Wang S, Yelton J, Joshi YR, Linn S, Markowitz P, Rodriguez JL, Ackert A, Adams T, Askew A, Hagopian S, Hagopian V, Johnson KF, Kolberg T, Martinez G, Perry T, Prosper H, Saha A, Santra A, Sharma V, Yohay R, Baarmand MM, Bhopatkar V, Colafranceschi S, Hohlmann M, Noonan D, Roy T, Yumiceva F, Adams MR, Apanasevich L, Berry D, Betts RR, Cavanaugh R, Chen X, Dittmer S, Evdokimov O, Gerber CE, Hangal DA, Hofman DJ, Jung K, Kamin J, Gonzalez IDS, Tonjes MB, Varelas N, Wang H, Wu Z, Zhang J, Bilki B, Clarida W, Dilsiz K, Durgut S, Gandrajula RP, Haytmyradov M, Khristenko V, Merlo JP, Mermerkaya H, Mestvirishvili A, Moeller A, Nachtman J, Ogul H, Onel Y, Ozok F, Penzo A, Snyder C, Tiras E, Wetzel J, Yi K, Blumenfeld B, Cocoros A, Eminizer N, Fehling D, Feng L, Gritsan AV, Maksimovic P, Roskes J, Sarica U, Swartz M, Xiao M, You C, Al-bataineh A, Baringer P, Bean A, Boren S, Bowen J, Castle J, Khalil S, Kropivnitskaya A, Majumder D, Mcbrayer W, Murray M, Rogan C, Royon C, Sanders S, Schmitz E, Takaki JDT, Wang Q, Ivanov A, Kaadze K, Maravin Y, Modak A, Mohammadi A, Saini LK, Skhirtladze N, Rebassoo F, Wright D, Baden A, Baron O, Belloni A, Eno SC, Feng Y, Ferraioli C, Hadley NJ, Jabeen S, Jeng GY, Kellogg RG, Kunkle J, Mignerey AC, Ricci-Tam F, Shin YH, Skuja A, Tonwar SC, Abercrombie D, Allen B, Azzolini V, Barbieri R, Baty A, Bauer G, Bi R, Brandt S, Busza W, Cali IA, D'Alfonso M, Demiragli Z, Ceballos GG, Goncharov M, Harris P, Hsu D, Hu M, Iiyama Y, Innocenti GM, Klute M, Kovalskyi D, Lee YJ, Levin A, Luckey PD, Maier B, Marini AC, Mcginn C, Mironov C, Narayanan S, Niu X, Paus C, Roland C, Roland G, Stephans GSF, Sumorok K, Tatar K, Velicanu D, Wang J, Wang TW, Wyslouch B, Zhaozhong S, Benvenuti AC, Chatterjee RM, Evans A, Hansen P, Kalafut S, Kubota Y, Lesko Z, Mans J, Nourbakhsh S, Ruckstuhl N, Rusack R, Turkewitz J, Wadud MA, Acosta JG, Oliveros S, Avdeeva E, Bloom K, Claes DR, Fangmeier C, Golf F, Suarez RG, Kamalieddin R, Kravchenko I, Monroy J, Siado JE, Snow GR, Stieger B, Godshalk A, Harrington C, Iashvili I, Nguyen D, Parker A, Rappoccio S, Roozbahani B, Alverson G, Barberis E, Freer C, Hortiangtham A, Massironi A, Morse DM, Orimoto T, De Lima RT, Wamorkar T, Wang B, Wisecarver A, Wood D, Bhattacharya S, Charaf O, Hahn KA, Mucia N, Odell N, Schmitt MH, Sung K, Trovato M, Velasco M, Bucci R, Dev N, Hildreth M, Anampa KH, Jessop C, Karmgard DJ, Kellams N, Lannon K, Li W, Loukas N, Marinelli N, Meng F, Mueller C, Musienko Y, Planer M, Reinsvold A, Ruchti R, Siddireddy P, Smith G, Taroni S, Wayne M, Wightman A, Wolf M, Woodard A, Alimena J, Antonelli L, Bylsma B, Durkin LS, Flowers S, Francis B, Hart A, Hill C, Ji W, Ling TY, Luo W, Winer BL, Wulsin HW, Cooperstein S, Driga O, Elmer P, Hardenbrook J, Hebda P, Higginbotham S, Kalogeropoulos A, Lange D, Luo J, Marlow D, Mei K, Ojalvo I, Olsen J, Palmer C, Piroue P, Salfeld-Nebgen J, Stickland D, Tully C, Malik S, Norberg S, Barker A, Barnes VE, Das S, Gutay L, Jones M, Jung AW, Khatiwada A, Miller DH, Neumeister N, Peng CC, Qiu H, Schulte JF, Sun J, Wang F, Xiao R, Xie W, Cheng T, Dolen J, Parashar N, Chen Z, Ecklund KM, Freed S, Geurts FJM, Guilbaud M, Kilpatrick M, Li W, Michlin B, Padley BP, Roberts J, Rorie J, Shi W, Tu Z, Zabel J, Zhang A, Bodek A, de Barbaro P, Demina R, Duh YT, Ferbel T, Galanti M, Garcia-Bellido A, Han J, Hindrichs O, Khukhunaishvili A, Lo KH, Tan P, Verzetti M, Ciesielski R, Goulianos K, Mesropian C, Agapitos A, Chou JP, Gershtein Y, Espinosa TAG, Halkiadakis E, Heindl M, Hughes E, Kaplan S, Elayavalli RK, Kyriacou S, Lath A, Montalvo R, Nash K, Osherson M, Saka H, Salur S, Schnetzer S, Sheffield D, Somalwar S, Stone R, Thomas S, Thomassen P, Walker M, Delannoy AG, Heideman J, Riley G, Rose K, Spanier S, Thapa K, Bouhali O, Hernandez AC, Celik A, Dalchenko M, De Mattia M, Delgado A, Dildick S, Eusebi R, Gilmore J, Huang T, Kamon T, Mueller R, Pakhotin Y, Patel R, Perloff A, Pernie L, Rathjens D, Safonov A, Tatarinov A, Akchurin N, Damgov J, De Guio F, Dudero PR, Faulkner J, Gurpinar E, Kunori S, Lamichhane K, Lee SW, Mengke T, Muthumuni S, Peltola T, Undleeb S, Volobouev I, Wang Z, Greene S, Gurrola A, Janjam R, Johns W, Maguire C, Melo A, Ni H, Padeken K, Alvarez JDR, Sheldon P, Tuo S, Velkovska J, Xu Q, Arenton MW, Barria P, Cox B, Hirosky R, Joyce M, Ledovskoy A, Li H, Neu C, Sinthuprasith T, Wang Y, Wolfe E, Xia F, Harr R, Karchin PE, Poudyal N, Sturdy J, Thapa P, Zaleski S, Brodski M, Buchanan J, Caillol C, Carlsmith D, Dasu S, Dodd L, Duric S, Gomber B, Grothe M, Herndon M, Herve A, Hussain U, Klabbers P, Lanaro A, Levine A, Long K, Loveless R, Rekovic V, Ruggles T, Savin A, Smith N, Smith WH, Woods N
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Search for heavy resonances decaying into two Higgs bosons or into a Higgs boson and a W or Z boson in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV

JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS 2019 JAN 7; ?(1):? Article 051
A search is presented for massive narrow resonances decaying either into two Higgs bosons, or into a Higgs boson and a W or Z boson. The decay channels considered are HHbb+- and VHqq-, where H denotes the Higgs boson, and V denotes the W or Z boson. This analysis is based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV by the CMS Collaboration, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). For the TeV-scale mass resonances considered, substructure techniques provide ways to differentiate among the hadronization products from vector boson decays to quarks, Higgs boson decays to bottom quarks, and quark- or gluon-induced jets. Reconstruction techniques are used that have been specifically optimized to select events in which the tau lepton pair is highly boosted. The observed data are consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits are set at 95% confidence level on the product of cross section and branching fraction for resonance masses between 0.9 and 4.0 TeV. Exclusion limits are set in the context of bulk radion and graviton models:spin-0 radion resonances are excluded below a mass of 2.7 TeV at 95% confidence level. In the spin-1 heavy vector triplet framework, mass-degenerate W and Z resonances with dominant couplings to the standard model gauge bosons are excluded below a mass of 2.8 TeV at 95% confidence level. These are the first limits for massive resonances at the TeV scale with these decay channels at 13 TeV.
Svetec N, Saelao P, Cridland JM, Hoffmann AA, Begun DJ
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Functional Analysis of a Putative Target of Spatially Varying Selection in the Menin1 Gene of Drosophila melanogaster

G3-GENES GENOMES GENETICS 2019 JAN; 9(1):73-80
While significant effort has been devoted to investigating the potential influence of spatially varying selection on genomic variation, relatively little effort has been devoted to experimental analysis of putative variants or genes experiencing such selection. Previous population genetic work identified an amino acid polymorphism in the Mnn1 gene as one of the most strongly latitudinally differentiated SNPs in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster in the United States and Australia. Here we report the results of our transgenic analysis of this amino acid polymorphism. Genotypes carrying alternative Mnn1 alleles differed in multiple phenotypes in a direction generally consistent with phenotypic differences previously observed along latitudinal clines. These results support inferences from earlier population genomic work that this variant influences fitness, and support the idea that the alleles exhibiting clines may be likely to have pleiotropic effects that are correlated along the axes favored by natural selection.
Jia N, Mo CY, Wang CY, Eng ET, Marraffini LA, Patel DJ
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Type III-A CRISPR-Cas Csm Complexes: Assembly, Periodic RNA Cleavage, DNase Activity Regulation, and Autoimmunity

MOLECULAR CELL 2019 JAN 17; 73(2):264-277.e5
Type III CRISPR-Cas systems provide robust immunity against foreign RNA and DNA by sequence-specific RNase and target RNA-activated sequence-nonspecific DNase and RNase activities. We report on cryo-EM structures of Thermococcus onnurineus Csm(crRNA) binary, Csm(crRNA)-target RNA and Csm(crRNA)-target RNA(anti-tag) ternary complexes in the 3.1 angstrom range. The topological features of the crRNA 5'-repeat tag explains the 5'-ruler mechanism for defining target cleavage sites, with accessibility of positions -2 to -5 within the 5'-repeat serving as sensors for avoidance of autoimmunity. The Csm3 thumb elements introduce periodic kinks in the crRNA-target RNA duplex, facilitating cleavage of the target RNA with 6-nt periodicity. Key Glu residues within a Csm1 loop segment of Csm(crRNA) adopt a proposed autoinhibitory conformation suggestive of DNase activity regulation. These structural findings, complemented by mutational studies of key intermolecular contacts, provide insights into Csm(crRNA) complex assembly, mechanisms underlying RNA targeting and site-specific periodic cleavage, regulation of DNase cleavage activity, and autoimmunity suppression.
Sanyal RD, Pavel AB, Glickman J, Chan TC, Zheng XZ, Zhang N, Cueto I, Peng XY, Estrada Y, Fuentes-Duculan J, Alexis AF, Krueger JG, Guttman-Yassky E
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Atopic dermatitis in African American patients is T(H)2/T(H)22-skewed with T(H)1/T(H)17 attenuation

ANNALS OF ALLERGY ASTHMA & IMMUNOLOGY 2019 JAN; 122(1):99-110.e6
BACKGROUND: African Americans (AA) are disproportionately impacted by atopic dermatitis (AD), with increased prevalence and therapeutic challenges unique to this population. Molecular profiling data informing development of targeted therapeutics for AD are derived primarily from European American (EA) patients. These studies are absent in AA, hindering development of effective treatments for this population. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the global molecular profile of AD in the skin of AA patients as compared with that of EA AD and healthy controls. METHODS: We performed RNA-Seq with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction validation and immunohistochemistry studies in lesional and nonlesional skin of AA and EA AD patients vs healthy controls. RESULTS: African American AD lesions were characterized by greater infiltration of dendritic cells (DCs) marked by the high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (Fc epsilon R1+) compared with EA AD (P < .05). Both AD cohorts showed similarly robust up-regulation of Th2-related (CCL17/18/26) and Th22-related markers (interleukin [IL]-22, S100A8/9/12), but AA AD featured decreased expression of innate immune (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], IL-1 beta), Th1-related (interferon gamma [IFN-gamma], MX1, IL-12RB1), and Th17-related markers (IL-23p19, IL-36G, CXCL1) vs EA AD (P < .05). The Th2 (IL-13) and Th22-related products (IL-22, S100A8/9/12) and serum IgE were significantly correlated with clinical severity (Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis [SCORAD]) in AA. Fillagrin (FLG) was exclusively down-regulated in EA AD, whereas loricrin (LOR) was down-regulated in both AD cohorts and negatively correlated with SCORAD in AA. CONCLUSION: The molecular phenotype of AA AD skin is characterized by attenuated Th1 and Th17 but similar Th2/Th22-skewing to EA AD. Our data encourages a personalized medicine approach accounting for phenotype-specific characteristics in future development of targeted therapeutics and clinical trial design for AD. (c) 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hudson AM, Mannix KM, Gerdes JA, Kottemann MC, Cooley L
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Targeted substrate degradation by Kelch controls the actin cytoskeleton during ring canal expansion

DEVELOPMENT 2019 JAN; 146(1):? Article UNSP dev169219
During Drosophila oogenesis, specialized actin-based structures called ring canals form and expand to accommodate growth of the oocyte. Previous work demonstrated that Kelch and Cullin 3 function together in a Cullin 3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL3(Kelch)) to organize the ring canal cytoskeleton, presumably by targeting a substrate for proteolysis. Here, we use tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to identify HtsRC as the CRL3(Kelch) ring canal substrate. CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis of HtsRC revealed its requirement in the recruitment of the ring canal F-actin cytoskeleton. We present genetic evidence consistent with HtsRC being the CRL3(Kelch) substrate, as well as biochemical evidence indicating that HtsRC is ubiquitylated and degraded by the proteasome. Finally, we identify a short sequence motif in HtsRC that is necessary for Kelch binding. These findings uncover an unusual mechanism during development wherein a specialized cytoskeletal structure is regulated and remodeled by the ubiquitinproteasome system.
Sani I, McPherson BC, Stemmann H, Pestilli F, Freiwald WA
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Functionally defined white matter of the macaque monkey brain reveals a dorsoventral attention network

ELIFE 2019 JAN 2; 8(?):? Article e40520
Classical studies of attention have identified areas of parietal and frontal cortex as sources of attentional control. Recently, a ventral region in the macaque temporal cortex, the posterior infero-temporal dorsal area PITd, has been suggested as a third attentional control area. This raises the question of whether and how spatially distant areas coordinate a joint focus of attention. Here we tested the hypothesis that parieto-frontal attention areas and PITd are directly interconnected. By combining functional MRI with ex-vivo high-resolution diffusion MRI, we found that PITd and dorsal attention areas are all directly connected through three specific fascicles. These results ascribe a new function, the communication of attention signals, to two known fiber-bundles, highlight the importance of vertical interactions across the two visual streams, and imply that the control of endogenous attention, hitherto thought to reside in macaque dorsal cortical areas, is exerted by a dorso-ventral network.
Guttman-Yassky E, Bissonnette R, Ungar B, Suarez-Farinas M, Ardeleanu M, Esaki H, Suprun M, Estrada Y, Xu H, Peng XY, Silverberg JI, Menter A, Krueger JG, Zhang R, Chaudhry U, Swanson B, Graham NMH, Pirozzi G, Yancopoulos GD, Hamilton JDD
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Dupilumab progressively improves systemic and cutaneous abnormalities in patients with atopic dermatitis

JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2019 JAN; 143(1):155-172
Background: Dupilumab is an IL-4 receptor a mAb inhibiting signaling of IL-4 and IL-13, key drivers of type 2-driven inflammation, as demonstrated by its efficacy in patients with atopic/allergic diseases. Objective: This placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (NCT01979016) evaluated the efficacy, safety, and effects of dupilumab on molecular/cellular lesional and nonlesional skin phenotypes and systemic type 2 biomarkers of patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods: Skin biopsy specimens and blood were evaluated from 54 patients randomized 1: 1 to weekly subcutaneous doses of 200 mg of dupilumab or placebo for 16 weeks. Results: Dupilumab (vs placebo) significantly improved clinical signs and symptoms of AD, was well tolerated, and progressively shifted the lesional transcriptome toward a nonlesional phenotype (weeks 4-16). Mean improvements in a meta-analysis-derived AD transcriptome (genes differentially expressed between lesional and nonlesional skin) were 68.8% and 110.8% with dupilumab and -10.5% and 55.0% with placebo (weeks 4 and 16, respectively; P <.001). Dupilumab significantly reduced expression of genes involved in type 2 inflammation (IL13, IL31, CCL17, CCL18, and CCL26), epidermal hyperplasia (keratin 16 [K16] and MKi67), T cells, dendritic cells (ICOS, CD11c, and CTLA4), and T(H)17/T(H)22 activity (IL17A, IL-22, and S100As) and concurrently increased expression of epidermal differentiation, barrier, and lipid metabolism genes (filaggrin [FLG], loricrin [LOR], claudins, and ELOVL3). Dupilumab reduced lesional epidermal thickness versus placebo (week 4, P =.001; week 16, P =.0002). Improvements in clinical and histologic measures correlated significantly with modulation of gene expression. Dupilumab also significantly suppressed type 2 serum biomarkers, including CCL17, CCL18, periostin, and total and allergenspecific IgEs. Conclusion: Dupilumab-mediated inhibition of IL-4/IL-13 signaling through IL-4 receptor a blockade significantly and progressively improved disease activity, suppressed cellular/molecular cutaneous markers of inflammation and systemic measures of type 2 inflammation, and reversed AD-associated epidermal abnormalities.
Hatzi K, Geng HM, Doane AS, Meydan C, LaRiviere R, Cardenas M, Duy C, Shen H, Vidal MNC, Baslan T, Mohammad HP, Kruger RG, Shaknovich R, Haberman AM, Inghirami G, Lowe SW, Melnick AM
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Histone demethylase LSD1 is required for germinal center formation and BCL6-driven lymphomagenesis

NATURE IMMUNOLOGY 2019 JAN; 20(1):86-96
Germinal center (GC) B cells feature repression of many gene enhancers to establish their characteristic transcriptome. Here we show that conditional deletion of Lsd1 in GCs significantly impaired GC formation, associated with failure to repress immune synapse genes linked to GC exit, which are also direct targets of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. We found that BCL6 directly binds LSD1 and recruits it primarily to intergenic and intronic enhancers. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 suppressed GC hyperplasia caused by constitutive expression of BCL6 and significantly delayed BCL6-driven lymphomagenesis. Administration of catalytic inhibitors of LSD1 had little effect on GC formation or GC-derived lymphoma cells. Using a CRISPR-Cas9 domain screen, we found instead that the LSD1 Tower domain was critical for dependence on LSD1 in GC-derived B cells. These results indicate an essential role for LSD1 in the humoral immune response, where it modulates enhancer function by forming repression complexes with BCL6.
Csanady L, Vergani P, Gadsby DC
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STRUCTURE, GATING, AND REGULATION OF THE CFTR ANION CHANNEL

PHYSIOLOGICAL REVIEWS 2019 JAN; 99(1):707-738
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) belongs to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily but functions as an anion channel crucial for salt and water transport across epithelial cells. CFTR dysfunction, because of mutations, causes cystic fibrosis (CF). The anion-selective pore of the CFTR protein is formed by its two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and regulated by its cytosolic domains: two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and a regulatory (R) domain. Channel activation requires phosphorylation of the R domain by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and pore opening and closing (gating) of phosphorylated channels is driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the NBDs. This review summarizes available information on structure and mechanism of the CFTR protein, with a particular focus on atomic-level insight gained from recent cryo-electron microscopic structures and on the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and its regulation. The pharmacological mechanisms of small molecules targeting CFTR's ion channel function, aimed at treating patients suffering from CF and other diseases, are briefly discussed.