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Phase III+: The University is open for expanded research operations; only authorized personnel will be admitted on campus. More info here.
Phase III+: The University is open for expanded research operations; only authorized personnel will be admitted on campus. More info here.
Phase III+: The University is open for expanded research operations; only authorized personnel will be admitted on campus. More info here.

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Found 36604 matches. Displaying 11-20
Sharma SK, Mack KN, Piersigilli A, Pourat J, Edwards KJ, Keinanen O, Jiao MS, Zhao HY, White B, Brooks CL, de Stanchina E, Madiyalakan MR, Hollingsworth MA, Radhakrishnan P, Lewis JS, Zeglis BM
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ImmunoPET of Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancer with AR9.6, a Novel MUC16-Targeted Therapeutic Antibody

CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH 2022 MAR 1; 28(5):948-959
Purpose: Advances in our understanding of the contribution of aberrant glycosylation to the pro-oncogenic signaling and metastasis of tumor cells have reinvigorated the development of mucin-targeted therapies. Here, we validate the tumor-targeting ability of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), AR9.6, that binds MUC16 and abrogates downstream oncogenic signaling to confer a therapeutic response. Experimental Design: The in vitro and ex vivo validation of the binding of AR9.6 to MUC16 was achieved via flow cytometry, radioligand binding assay (RBA), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The in vivo MUC16 targeting of AR9.6 was validated by creating a Zr-89-labeled radioimmunoconjugate of the mAb and utilizing immunoPET and ex vivo biodistribution studies in xenograft models of human ovarian and pancreatic cancer. Results: Flow cytometry, RBA, and IHC revealed that AR9.6 binds to ovarian and pancreatic cancer cells in an MUC16-dependent manner. The in vivo radiopharmacologic profile of Zr-89-labeled AR9.6 in mice bearing ovarian and pancreatic cancer xenografts confirmed the MUC16-dependent tumor targeting by the radioimmunoconjugate. Radioactivity uptake was also observed in the distant lymph nodes (LNs) of mice bearing xenografts with high levels of MUC16 expression (i.e., OVCAR3 and Capan-2). IHC analyses of these PET-positive LNs highlighted the presence of shed antigen as well as necrotic, phagocytized, and actively infiltrating neoplastic cells. The humanization of AR9.6 did not compromise its ability to target MUC16-expressing tumors. Conclusions: The unique therapeutic mechanism of AR9.6 combined with its excellent in vivo tumor targeting makes it a highly promising theranostic agent. huAR9.6 is poised for clinical translation to impact the management of metastatic ovarian and pancreatic cancers.
Zhang Q, Bastard P, Cobat A, Casanova JL
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Human genetic and immunological determinants of critical COVID-19 pneumonia

NATURE 2022 MAR 24; 603(7902):587-598
SARS-CoV-2 infection is benign in most individuals but, in around 10% of cases, it triggers hypoxaemic COVID-19 pneumonia, which leads to critical illness in around 3% of cases. The ensuing risk of death (approximately 1% across age and gender) doubles every five years from childhood onwards and is around 1.5 times greater in men than in women. Here we review the molecular and cellular determinants of critical COVID-19 pneumonia. Inborn errors of type I interferons (IFNs), including autosomal TLR3 and X-chromosome-linked TLR7 deficiencies, are found in around 1-5% of patients with critical pneumonia under 60 years old, and a lower proportion in older patients. Pre-existing auto-antibodies neutralizing IFN alpha, IFN beta and/or IFN omega, which are more common in men than in women, are found in approximately 15-20% of patients with critical pneumonia over 70 years old, and a lower proportion in younger patients. Thus, at least 15% of cases of critical COVID-19 pneumonia can be explained. The TLR3- and TLR7-dependent production of type I IFNs by respiratory epithelial cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, respectively, is essential for host defence against SARS-CoV-2. In ways that can depend on age and sex, insufficient type I IFN immunity in the respiratory tract during the first few days of infection may account for the spread of the virus, leading to pulmonary and systemic inflammation.
Bellone S, Roque DM, Siegel ER, Buza N, Hui P, Bonazzoli E, Guglielmi A, Zammataro L, Nagarkatti N, Zaidi S, Lee J, Silasi DA, Huang GS, Andikyan V, Damast S, Clark M, Azodi M, Schwartz PE, Tymon-Rosario JR, Harold JA, Mauricio D, Zeybek B, Menderes G, Altwerger G, Ratner E, Alexandrov LB, Iwasaki A, Kong Y, Song E, Dong WL, Elvin JA, Choi J, Santin AD
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A phase 2 evaluation of pembrolizumab for recurrent Lynch-like versus sporadic endometrial cancers with microsatellite instability

CANCER 2022 MAR 15; 128(6):1206-1218
Background Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H)/mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) is a biomarker for responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Whether mechanisms underlying microsatellite instability alter responses to ICIs is unclear. This article reports data from a prospective phase 2 pilot study of pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent MSI-H endometrial cancer (EC) analyzed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and potential mechanisms of primary/secondary ICI resistance (NCT02899793). Methods Patients with measurable MSI-H/dMMR EC confirmed by polymerase chain reaction/immunohistochemistry were evaluated by WES and received 200 mg of pembrolizumab every 3 weeks for <= 2 years. The primary end point was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Twenty-five patients (24 evaluable) were treated. Six patients (25%) harbored Lynch/Lynch-like tumors, whereas 18 (75%) had sporadic EC. The tumor mutation burden was higher in Lynch-like tumors (median, 2939 mutations/megabase [Mut/Mb]; interquartile range [IQR], 867-5108 Mut/Mb) than sporadic tumors (median, 604 Mut/Mb; IQR, 411-798 Mut/Mb; P = .0076). The ORR was 100% in Lynch/Lynch-like patients but only 44% in sporadic patients (P = .024). The 3-year PFS and OS proportions were 100% versus 30% (P = .017) and 100% versus 43% (P = .043), respectively. Conclusions This study suggests prognostic significance of Lynch-like cancers versus sporadic MSI-H/dMMR ECs for ORR, PFS, and OS when patients are treated with pembrolizumab. Larger confirmatory studies in ECs and other MSI-H/dMMR tumors are necessary. Defective antigen processing/presentation and deranged induction in interferon responses serve as mechanisms of resistance in sporadic MSI-H ECs. Oligoprogression in MSI-H/dMMR patients appears salvageable with surgical resection and/or local treatment and the continuation of pembrolizumab off study. Clinical studies evaluating separate MSI-H/dMMR EC subtypes treated with ICIs are warranted.
Wang J, Yu XF, Gong WD, Liu XJ, Park KS, Ma AQ, Tsai YH, Shen YD, Onikubo T, Pi WC, Allison DF, Liu J, Chen WY, Cai L, Roeder RG, Jin J, Wang GG
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EZH2 noncanonically binds cMyc and p300 through a cryptic transactivation domain to mediate gene activation and promote oncogenesis

NATURE CELL BIOLOGY 2022 MAR; 24(3):384-+
Canonically, EZH2 serves as the catalytic subunit of PRC2, which mediates H3K27me3 deposition and transcriptional repression. Here, we report that in acute leukaemias, EZH2 has additional noncanonical functions by binding cMyc at non-PRC2 targets and uses a hidden transactivation domain (TAD) for (co)activator recruitment and gene activation. Both canonical (EZH2-PRC2) and noncanonical (EZH2-TAD-cMyc-coactivators) activities of EZH2 promote oncogenesis, which explains the slow and ineffective antitumour effect of inhibitors of the catalytic function of EZH2. To suppress the multifaceted activities of EZH2, we used proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) to develop a degrader, MS177, which achieved effective, on-target depletion of EZH2 and interacting partners (that is, both canonical EZH2-PRC2 and noncanonical EZH2-cMyc complexes). Compared with inhibitors of the enzymatic function of EZH2, MS177 is fast-acting and more potent in suppressing cancer growth. This study reveals noncanonical oncogenic roles of EZH2, reports a PROTAC for targeting the multifaceted tumorigenic functions of EZH2 and presents an attractive strategy for treating EZH2-dependent cancers.
Valet M, Siggia ED, Brivanlou AH
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Mechanical regulation of early vertebrate embryogenesis

Embryonic cells grow in environments that provide a plethora of physical cues, including mechanical forces that shape the development of the entire embryo. Despite their prevalence, the role of these forces in embryonic development and their integration with chemical signals have been mostly neglected, and scrutiny in modern molecular embryology tilted, instead, towards the dissection of molecular pathways involved in cell fate determination and patterning. It is now possible to investigate how mechanical signals induce downstream genetic regulatory networks to regulate key developmental processes in the embryo. Here, we review the insights into mechanical control of early vertebrate development, including the role of forces in tissue patterning and embryonic axis formation. We also highlight recent in vitro approaches using individual embryonic stem cells and self-organizing multicellular models of human embryos, which have been instrumental in expanding our understanding of how mechanics tune cell fate and cellular rearrangements during human embryonic development. Cells in the embryo are subject to autonomous and external mechanical forces that help steer embryonic tissue patterning. Technical developments, such as in vitro models of early embryos, allow probing of the roles of mechanical forces in animal and human embryonic development.
Ebenezer TE, Muigai AWT, Nouala S, Badaoui B, Blaxter M, Buddie AG, Jarvis ED, Korlach J, Kuja JO, Lewin HA, Majewska R, Mapholi N, Maslamoney S, Mbo'o-Tchouawou M, Osuji JO, Seehausen O, Shorinola O, Tiambo CK, Mulder N, Ziyomo C, Djikeng A
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Africa: sequence 100,000 species to safeguard biodiversity

NATURE 2022 MAR 17; 603(7901):388-392
Park SH, Koyano KW, Russ BE, Waidmann EN, McMahon DBT, Leopold DA
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Parallel functional subnetworks embedded in the macaque face patch system

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2022 MAR; 8(10):? Article eabm2054
During normal vision, our eyes provide the brain with a continuous stream of useful information about the world. How visually specialized areas of the cortex, such as face-selective patches, operate under natural modes of behavior is poorly understood. Here we report that, during the free viewing of movies, cohorts of face-selective neurons in the macaque cortex fractionate into distributed and parallel subnetworks that carry distinct information. We classified neurons into functional groups on the basis of their movie-driven coupling with functional magnetic resonance imaging time courses across the brain. Neurons from each group were distributed across multiple face patches but intermixed locally with other groups at each recording site. These findings challenge prevailing views about functional segregation in the cortex and underscore the importance of naturalistic paradigms for cognitive neuroscience.
Eisner NL, Johnston C, Toonen S, Frost AJ, Janssens S, Lintott CJ, Aigrain S, Sana H, Abdul-Masih M, Arellano-Cordova KZ, Beck PG, Bordier E, Cannon E, Escorza A, Fabry M, Hermansson L, Howell SB, Miller G, Sheyte S, Alhassan S, Baeten EML, Barnet F, Bean SJ, Bernau M, Bundy DM, Di Fraia MZ, Emralino FM, Goodwin BL, Hermes P, Hoffman T, Huten M, Janicek R, Lee S, Mazzucato MT, Rogers DJ, Rout MP, Sejpka J, Tanner C, Terentev IA, Urvoy D
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Planet Hunters TESS IV: a massive, compact hierarchical triple star system TIC 470710327

We report the discovery and analysis of a massive, compact, hierarchical triple system (TIC 470710327) initially identified by citizen scientists in data obtained by NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Spectroscopic follow-up observations obtained with the hermes spectrograph, combined with eclipse-timing variations (ETVs), confirm that the system is comprised of three OB stars, with a compact 1.10 d eclipsing binary and a non-eclipsing tertiary on a 52.04 d orbit. Dynamical modelling of the system (from radial velocity and ETVs) reveal a rare configuration wherein the tertiary star (O9.5-B0.5V; 14-17 M-circle dot) is more massive than the combined mass of the inner binary (10.9-13.2 M-circle dot). Given the high mass of the tertiary, we predict that this system will undergo multiple phases of mass transfer in the future, and likely end up as a double neutron star gravitational wave progenitor or an exotic Thorne-Zytkow object. Further observational characterization of this system promises constraints on both formation scenarios of massive stars as well as their exotic evolutionary end-products.
Dolgetta A, Johnson M, Fruitman K, Siegel L, Zhou Y, McEwen BS, Kreek MJ, Milner TA
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Sex and chronic stress alter the distribution of glutamate receptors within rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells following oxycodone conditioned place preference

NEUROBIOLOGY OF STRESS 2022 MAR; 17(?):? Article 100431
Glutamate receptors have a key role in the neurobiology of opioid addiction. Using electron microscopic immunocytochemical methods, this project elucidates how sex and chronic immobilization stress (CIS) impact the redistribution of GluN1 and GluA1 within rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells following oxycodone (Oxy) conditioned place preference (CPP). Four groups of female and male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to CPP were used: Saline- (Sal) and Oxy-injected (3 mg/kg, I.P.) naive rats; and Sal- and Oxy-injected CIS rats. GluN1: In both naive and CIS rats, Sal-females compared to Sal-males had elevated cytoplasmic and total dendritic GluN1. Following Oxy CPP, near plasmalemmal, cytoplasmic, and total GluN1 decreased in CA3 dendrites of unstressed females suggesting reduced pools of GluN1 available for ligand binding. Following CIS, Oxy-males (which did not acquire CPP) had increased GluN1 in all compartments of dendrites and spines of CA3 neurons. GluA1: There were no differences in the distribution GluA1 in any cellular compartments of CA3 dendrites in naive females and males following either Sal or Oxy CPP. CIS alone increased the percent of GluA1 in CA3 dendritic spines in males compared to females. CIS Oxy-males compared to CIS Sal-males had an increase in cytoplasmic and total dendritic GluA1. Thus, in CIS Oxy-males increased pools of GluN1 and GluA1 are available for ligand binding in CA3 neurons. Together with our prior experiments, these changes in GluN1 and GluA1 following CIS in males may contribute to an increased sensitivity of CA3 neurons to glutamate excitation and a reduced capacity to acquire Oxy CPP.
Caradonna SG, Einhorn NR, Saudagar V, Khalil H, Petty GH, Lihagen A, LeFloch C, Lee FS, Akil H, Guidotti A, McEwen BS, Gatta E, Marrocco J
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Corticosterone induces discrete epigenetic signatures in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus that depend upon sex and genotype: focus on methylated Nr3c1 gene

TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY 2022 MAR 16; 12(1):? Article 109
The genomic effects of circulating glucocorticoids are particularly relevant in cortico-limbic structures, which express a high concentration of steroid hormone receptors. To date, no studies have investigated genomic differences in hippocampal subregions, namely the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) hippocampus, in preclinical models treated with exogenous glucocorticoids. Chronic oral corticosterone (CORT) in mouse is a pharmacological approach that disrupts the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increases affective behavior, and induces genomic changes after stress in the HPC of wildtype (WT) mice and mice heterozygous for the gene coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor Va166Met (hMet), a variant associated with genetic susceptibility to stress. Using RNA-sequencing, we investigated the genomic signatures of oral CORT in the dHPC and vHPC of WT and hMet male and female mice, and examined sex and genotype differences in response to oral CORT. Males under CORT showed lower glycemia and increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior compared to females that showed instead opposite affective behavior in response to CORT. Rank-rank-hypergeometric overlap (RRHO) was used to identify genes from a continuous gradient of significancy that were concordant across groups. RRHO showed that CORT-induced differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in WT mice and hMet mice converged in the dHPC of males and females, while in the vHPC, DEGs converged in males and diverged in females. The vHPC showed a higher number of DEGs compared to the dHPC and exhibited sex differences related to glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding genes and epigenetic modifiers. Methyl-DNA-immunoprecipitation in the vHPC revealed differential methylation of the exons 1(C) and 1(F) of the GR gene (Nr3c1) in hMet females. Together, we report behavioral and endocrinological sex differences in response to CORT, as well as epigenetic signatures that i) differ in the dHPC and vHPC,ii) are distinct in males and females, and iii) implicate differential methylation of Nr3c1 selectively in hMet females.