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Desharnais RA, Reuman DC, Costantino RF, Cohen JE
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Temporal scale of environmental correlations affects ecological synchrony

ECOLOGY LETTERS 2018 DEC; 21(12):1800-1811
Population densities of a species measured in different locations are often correlated over time, a phenomenon referred to as synchrony. Synchrony results from dispersal of individuals among locations and spatially correlated environmental variation, among other causes. Synchrony is often measured by a correlation coefficient. However, synchrony can vary with timescale. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the timescale-specificity of environmental correlation affects the overall magnitude and timescale-specificity of synchrony, and that these effects are modified by population dispersal. Our laboratory experiments linked populations of flour beetles by changes in habitat size and dispersal. Linear filter theory, applied to a metapopulation model for the experimental system, predicted the observed timescale-specific effects. The timescales at which environmental covariation occurs can affect the population dynamics of species in fragmented habitats.
Arterburn D, Wellman R, Emiliano A, Smith SR, Odegaard AO, Murali S, Williams N, Coleman KJ, Courcoulas A, Coley RY, Anau J, Pardee R, Toh S, Janning C, Cook A, Sturtevant J, Horgan C, McTigue KM
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Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Bariatric Procedures for Weight Loss A PCORnet Cohort Study

Background: There has been a dramatic shift in use of bariatric procedures, but little is known about their long-term comparative effectiveness. Objective: To compare weight loss and safety among bariatric procedures. Design: Retrospective observational cohort study, January 2005 to September 2015. ( NCT02741674) Setting: 41 health systems in the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. Participants: 65 093 patients aged 20 to 79 years with body mass index (BMI) of 35 kg/m(2) or greater who had bariatric procedures. Intervention: 32 208 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 29 693 sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and 3192 adjustable gastric banding (AGB) procedures. Measurements: Estimated percent total weight loss (TWL) at 1, 3, and 5 years; 30-day rates of major adverse events. Results: Total numbers of eligible patients with weight measures at 1, 3, and 5 years were 44 978 (84%), 20 783 (68%), and 7159 (69%), respectively. Thirty-day rates of major adverse events were 5.0% for RYGB, 2.6% for SG, and 2.9% for AGB. One- year mean TWLs were 31.2% (95% CI, 31.1% to 31.3%) for RYGB, 25.2% (CI, 25.1% to 25.4%) for SG, and 13.7% (CI, 13.3% to 14.0%) for AGB. At 1 year, RYGB patients lost 5.9 (CI, 5.8 to 6.1) percentage points more weight than SG patients and 17.7 (CI, 17.3 to 18.1) percentage points more than AGB patients, and SG patients lost 12.0 (CI, 11.6 to 12.5) percentage points more than AGB patients. Five-year mean TWLs were 25.5% (CI, 25.1% to 25.9%) for RYGB, 18.8% (CI, 18.0% to 19.6%) for SG, and 11.7% (CI, 10.2% to 13.1%) for AGB. Patients with diabetes, those with BMI less than 50 kg/m(2), those aged 65 years or older, African American patients, and Hispanic patients lost less weight than patients without those characteristics. Limitation: Potential unobserved confounding due to nonrandomized design; electronic health record databases had missing outcome data. Conclusion: Adults lost more weight with RYGB than with SG or AGB at 1, 3, and 5 years; however, RYGB had the highest 30-day rate of major adverse events. Small subgroup differences in weight loss outcomes were observed.
Lu CL, Pai JA, Nogueira L, Mendoza P, Gruell H, Oliveira TY, Barton J, Lorenzi JCC, Cohen YZ, Cohn LB, Klein F, Caskey M, Nussenzweig MC, Jankovic M
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Relationship between intact HIV-1 proviruses in circulating CD4(+) T cells and rebound viruses emerging during treatment interruption

Combination antiretroviral therapy controls but does not cure HIV-1 infection because a small fraction of cells harbor latent viruses that can produce rebound viremia when therapy is interrupted. The circulating latent virus reservoir has been documented by a variety of methods, most prominently by viral outgrowth assays (VOAs) in which CD4(+) T cells are activated to produce virus in vitro, or more recently by amplifying proviral near full-length (NFL) sequences from DNA. Analysis of samples obtained in clinical studies in which individuals underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI), showed little if any overlap between circulating latent viruses obtained from outgrowth cultures and rebound viruses from plasma. To determine whether intact proviruses amplified from DNA are more closely related to rebound viruses than those obtained from VOAs, we assayed 12 individuals who underwent ATI after infusion of a combination of two monoclonal anti-HIV-1 antibodies. A total of 435 intact proviruses obtained by NFL sequencing were compared with 650 latent viruses from VOAs and 246 plasma rebound viruses. Although, intact NFL and outgrowth culture sequences showed similar levels of stability and diversity with 39% overlap, the size of the reservoir estimated from NFL sequencing was larger than and did not correlate with VOAs. Finally, intact proviruses documented by NFL sequencing showed no sequence overlap with rebound viruses; however, they appear to contribute to recombinant viruses found in plasma during rebound.
Zhang ML, Wen B, Anton OM, Yao ZS, Dubois S, Ju W, Sato N, DiLillo DJ, Bamford RN, Ravetch JV, Waldmann TA
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IL-15 enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells and macrophages

The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to stimulate the host immune system to attack malignant cells. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a pivotal mechanism of antitumor action of clinically employed antitumor antibodies. IL-15 administered to patients with metastatic malignancy by continuous i.v. infusion at 2 mu g/kg/d for 10 days was associated with a 38-fold increase in the number and activation status of circulating natural killer (NK) cells and activation of macrophages which together are ADCC effectors. We investigated combination therapy of IL-15 with rituximab in a syngeneic mouse model of lymphoma transfected with human CD20 and with alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) in a xenograft model of human adult T cell leukemia (ATL). IL-15 greatly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of both rituximab and alemtuzumab in tumor models. The additivity/synergy was shown to be associated with augmented ADCC. Both NK cells and macrophages were critical elements in the chain of interacting effectors involved in optimal therapeutic responses mediated by rituximab with IL-15. We provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that NK cells interact with macrophages to augment the NK-cell activation and expression of Fc gamma RIV and the capacity of these cells to become effectors of ADCC. The present study supports clinical trials of IL-15 combined with tumor-directed monoclonal antibodies.
Guemez-Gamboa A, Caglayan AO, Stanley V, Gregor A, Zaki MS, Saleem SN, Musaev D, McEvoy-Venneri J, Belandres D, Akizu N, Silhavy JL, Schroth J, Rosti RO, Copeland B, Lewis SM, Fang R, Issa MY, Per H, Gumus H, Bayram AK, Kumandas S, Akgumus GT, Erson-Omay EZ, Yasuno K, Bilguvar K, Heimer G, Pillar N, Shomron N, Weissglas-Volkov D, Porat Y, Einhorn Y, Gabriel S, Ben-Zeev B, Gunel M, Gleeson JG
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Loss of Protocadherin-12 Leads to Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia Syndrome

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY 2018 NOV; 84(5):638-647
Objective Methods To identify causes of the autosomal-recessive malformation, diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia (DMJD) syndrome. Eight families with DMJD were studied by whole-exome or targeted sequencing, with detailed clinical and radiological characterization. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were derived into neural precursor and endothelial cells to study gene expression. Results Interpretation All patients showed biallelic mutations in the nonclustered protocadherin-12 (PCDH12) gene. The characteristic clinical presentation included progressive microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, psychomotor disability, epilepsy, and axial hypotonia with variable appendicular spasticity. Brain imaging showed brainstem malformations and with frequent thinned corpus callosum with punctate brain calcifications, reflecting expression of PCDH12 in neural and endothelial cells. These cells showed lack of PCDH12 expression and impaired neurite outgrowth. DMJD patients have biallelic mutations in PCDH12 and lack of protein expression. These patients present with characteristic microcephaly and abnormalities of white matter tracts. Such pathogenic variants predict a poor outcome as a result of brainstem malformation and evidence of white matter tract defects, and should be added to the phenotypic spectrum associated with PCDH12-related conditions. Ann Neurol 2018;84:646-655
Naik S, Larsen SB, Cowley CJ, Fuchs E
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Two to Tango: Dialog between Immunity and Stem Cells in Health and Disease

CELL 2018 NOV 1; 175(4):908-920
Stem cells regenerate tissues in homeostasis and under stress. By taking cues from their microenvironment or "niche,'' they smoothly transition between these states. Immune cells have surfaced as prominent members of stem cell niches across the body. Here, we draw parallels between different stem cell niches to explore the context-specific interactions that stem cells have with tissue-resident and recruited immune cells. We also highlight stem cells' innate ability to sense and respond to stress and the enduring memory that forms from such encounters. This fascinating crosstalk holds great promise for novel therapies in inflammatory diseases and regenerative medicine.
Fuchs E
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Mentoring the Next Generation: Elaine Fuchs

CELL STEM CELL 2018 NOV 1; 23(5):642-643
Mentor-mentee relationships are essential for professional development, but developing these interpersonal skills is not often highlighted as a priority in scientific endeavors. In a yearlong series, Cell Stem Cell interviews prominent scientists who have prioritized mentorship over the years. Here, we chat with Dr. Elaine Fuchs about her views.
Patel NP, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Suarez-Farinas M, Chambers ES, Sandhu D, Fuentes-Duculan J, Mabbott NA, Rustin MHA, Krueger J, Akbar AN
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Impact of Zostavax Vaccination on T-Cell Accumulation and Cutaneous Gene Expression in the Skin of Older Humans After Varicella Zoster Virus Antigen-Specific Challenge

Background. The live attenuated vaccine Zostavax was developed to prevent varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation that causes herpes zoster (shingles) in older humans. However, the impact of vaccination on the cutaneous response to VZV is not known. Methods. We investigated the response to intradermal VZV antigen challenge before and after Zostavax vaccination in participants >70 years of age by immunohistological and transcriptomic analyses of skin biopsy specimens collected from the challenge site. Results. Vaccination increased the proportion of VZV-specific CD4(+) T cells in the blood and promoted the accumulation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the skin after VZV antigen challenge. However, Zostavax did not alter the proportion of resident memory T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) or CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in unchallenged skin. After vaccination, there was increased cutaneous T-cell proliferation at the challenge site and also increased recruitment of T cells from the blood, as indicated by an elevated T-cell migratory gene signature. CD8(+) T-cell-associated functional genes were also highly induced in the skin after vaccination. Conclusion. Zostavax vaccination does not alter the abundance of cutaneous resident memory T cells but instead increases the recruitment of VZV-specific T cells from the blood and enhances T-cell activation, particularly cells of the CD8(+) subset, in the skin after VZV antigen challenge.
Rusanov T, Kent T, Saeed M, Hoang TM, Thomas C, Rice CM, Pomerantz RT
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Identification of a Small Interface between the Methyltransferase and RNA Polymerase of NS5 that is Essential for Zika Virus Replication

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2018 NOV 26; 8(?):? Article 17384
The spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused an international health emergency due to its ability to cause microcephaly in infants. Yet, our knowledge of how ZIKV replicates at the molecular level is limited. For example, how the non-structural protein 5 (NS5) performs replication, and in particular whether the N-terminal methytransferase (MTase) domain is essential for the function of the C-terminal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) remains unclear. In contrast to previous reports, we find that MTase is absolutely essential for all activities of RdRp in vitro. For instance, the MTase domain confers stability onto the RdRp elongation complex (EC) and and is required for de novo RNA synthesis and nucleotide incorporation by RdRp. Finally, structure function analyses identify key conserved residues at the MTase-RdRp interface that specifically activate RdRp elongation and are essential for ZIKV replication in Huh-7.5 cells. These data demonstrate the requirement for the MTase-RdRp interface in ZIKV replication and identify a specific site within this region as a potential site for therapeutic development.
Linton SS, Abraham T, Liao J, Clawson GA, Butler PJ, Fox T, Kester M, Matters GL
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Tumor-promoting effects of pancreatic cancer cell exosomes on THP-1-derived macrophages

PLOS ONE 2018 NOV 1; 13(11):? Article e0206759
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumor growth is enhanced by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), yet the mechanisms by which tumor cells and TAMs communicate are not fully understood. Here we show that exosomes secreted by PDAC cell lines differed in their surface proteins, lipid composition, and efficiency of fusing with THP-1-derived macrophages in vitro. Exosomes from AsPC-1, an ascites-derived human PDAC cell line, were enriched in ICAM-1, which mediated their docking to macrophages through interactions with surface-exposed CD11c on macrophages. AsPC-1 exosomes also contained much higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA), and they fused at a higher rate with THP-1-derived macrophages than did exosomes from other PDAC cell lines or from an immortalized normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line (HPDE) H6c7. Phospholipase A(2) enzymatic cleavage of arachidonic acid from AsPC-1 exosomes reduced fusion efficiency. PGE(2) secretion was elevated in macrophages treated with AsPC-1 exosomes but not in macrophages treated with exosomes from other cell lines, suggesting a functional role for the AsPC-1 exosome-delivered arachidonic acid in macrophages. Non-polarized (M0) macrophages treated with AsPC-1 exosomes had increased levels of surface markers indicative of polarization to an immunosuppressive M2-like phenotype (CD14(hi) CD163(hi) CD206(hi)). Furthermore, macrophages treated with AsPC-1 exosomes had significantly increased secretion of pro-tumoral, bioactive molecules including VEGF, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-1 beta, MMP-9, and TNF alpha. Together, these results demonstrate that compared to exosomes from other primary tumor-derived PDAC cell lines, AsPC-1 exosomes alter THP-1-derived macrophage phenotype and function. AsPC-1 exosomes mediate communication between tumor cells and TAMs that contributes to tumor progression.