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Phase III+: The University is open for expanded research operations; only authorized personnel will be admitted on campus. More info here.
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Phase III+: The University is open for expanded research operations; only authorized personnel will be admitted on campus. More info here.

Publications search

Found 37003 matches. Displaying 11-20
Wolfisberg R, Thorselius CE, Salinas E, Elrod E, Trivedi S, Nielsen L, Fahnoe U, Kapoor A, Grakoui A, Rice CM, Bukh J, Holmbeck K, Scheel TKH
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Neutralization and receptor use of infectious culture-derived rat hepacivirus as a model for HCV

HEPATOLOGY 2022 NOV; 76(5):1506-1519
Background and Aims Lack of tractable immunocompetent animal models amenable to robust experimental challenge impedes vaccine efforts for HCV. Infection with rodent hepacivirus from Rattus norvegicus (RHV-rn1) in rats shares HCV-defining characteristics, including liver tropism, chronicity, and pathology. RHV in vitro cultivation would facilitate genetic studies on particle production, host factor interactions, and evaluation of antibody neutralization guiding HCV vaccine approaches. Approach and Results We report an infectious reverse genetic cell culture system for RHV-rn1 using highly permissive rat hepatoma cells and adaptive mutations in the E2, NS4B, and NS5A viral proteins. Cell culture-derived RHV-rn1 particles (RHVcc) share hallmark biophysical characteristics of HCV and are infectious in mice and rats. Culture adaptive mutations attenuated RHVcc in immunocompetent rats, and the mutations reverted following prolonged infection, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, suggesting that adaptive immune pressure is a primary driver of reversion. Accordingly, sera from RHVcc-infected SCID mice or the early acute phase of immunocompetent mice and rats were infectious in culture. We further established an in vitro RHVcc neutralization assay, and observed neutralizing activity of rat sera specifically from the chronic phase of infection. Finally, we found that scavenger receptor class B type I promoted RHV-rn1 entry in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions The RHV-rn1 infectious cell culture system enables studies of humoral immune responses against hepacivirus infection. Moreover, recapitulation of the entire RHV-rn1 infectious cycle in cell culture will facilitate reverse genetic studies and the exploration of tropism and virus-host interactions.
Shih T, De D, Daveluy SD, Hogeling M, Lowes MA, Sayed C, Shi VY, Hsiao JL
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Real-World Considerations of Candidacy for Biologics in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL DERMATOLOGY 2022 NOV; 23(6):749-753 Article s40257-022-00711-1
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, progressive inflammatory skin disease that is often recalcitrant to multiple treatments. In determining biologic candidacy for patients with HS, we propose a paradigm shift away from Hurley staging and towards consideration of other variables. Biologics represent a long-term treatment option for HS that may serve as a disease-modifying agent. These medications are typically initiated in patients with moderate to severe disease, which, based on inclusion criteria in clinical trials, is often defined as Hurley stage II or III disease, at which point irreversible tissue damage has already occurred. In real-world clinical settings, these considerations include treatments tried and failed, predicted disease trajectory, disease characteristics beyond lesion type, impact of disease on patients' functional status and quality of life, and patient comorbidities, venturing away from the limitations of Hurley stage designations. Future clinical trials may benefit from inclusion of recalcitrant Hurley stage I patients, which may then re-shape treatment guidelines and insurance coverage and improve patient access to biologic treatments.
Hashemi-Arend A, Vasquez KS, Guishard D, Naji M, Ronning A, George-Alexander G, Vasquez D, Sylvester C, Pagano W, Khalida C, Coffran C, Ezeonu T, Fofana K, Bielopolski D, Vaughan R, Qureshi A, Tobin JN, Kost RG
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Implementing DASH-Aligned Meals and Self-Measured Blood Pressure to Reduce Hypertension at Senior Centers: A RE-AIM Analysis

NUTRIENTS 2022 NOV; 14(22):? Article 4890
Low-income, minority seniors face high rates of hypertension that increase cardiovascular risk. Senior centers offer services, including congregate meals, that can be a valuable platform to reach older adults in underserved communities. We implemented two evidence-based interventions not previously tested in this setting: DASH-aligned congregate meals and Self-Measured Blood Pressure (SMBP), to lower blood pressure (BP) at two senior centers serving low-income, racially diverse communities. The study enrolled congregate meal program participants, provided training and support for SMPB, and nutrition and BP education. DASH-aligned meals delivered 40% (lunch) or 70% (breakfast and lunch) of DASH requirements/day. Primary outcomes were change in BP, and BP control, at Month 1. Implementation data collected included client characteristics, menu fidelity, meal attendance, SMBP adherence, meal satisfaction, input from partner organizations and stakeholders, effort, and food costs. We used the RE-AIM framework to analyze implementation. Study Reach included 94 older, racially diverse participants reflecting neighborhood characteristics. Effectiveness: change in systolic BP at Month 1 trended towards significance (-4 mmHg, p = 0.07); change in SMBP reached significance at Month 6 (-6.9 mmHg, p = 0.004). We leveraged existing community-academic partnerships, leading to Adoption at both target sites. The COVID pandemic interrupted Implementation and Maintenance and may have attenuated BP effectiveness. DASH meals served were largely aligned with planned menus. Meal attendance remained consistent; meal satisfaction was high. Food costs increased by 10%. This RE-AIM analysis highlights the acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of this DASH/SMBP health intervention to lower BP at senior centers. It encourages future research and offers important lessons for organizations delivering services to older adults and addressing cardiovascular risk among vulnerable populations.
Reynolds MJ, Hachicho C, Carl AG, Gong R, Alushin GM
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Bending forces and nucleotide state jointly regulate F-actin structure

NATURE 2022 NOV 10; 611(7935):380-+
ATP-hydrolysis-coupled actin polymerization is a fundamental mechanism of cellular force generation(1-3). In turn, force(4,5) and actin filament (F-actin) nucleotide state(6) regulate actin dynamics by tuning F-actin's engagement of actin-binding proteins through mechanisms that are unclear. Here we show that the nucleotide state of actin modulates F-actin structural transitions evoked by bending forces. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of ADP-F-actin and ADP-P-i-F-actin with sufficient resolution to visualize bound solvent reveal intersubunit interfaces bridged by water molecules that could mediate filament lattice flexibility. Despite extensive ordered solvent differences in the nucleotide cleft, these structures feature nearly identical lattices and essentially indistinguishable protein backbone conformations that are unlikely to be discriminable by actin-binding proteins. We next introduce a machine-learning-enabled pipeline for reconstructing bent filaments, enabling us to visualize both continuous structural variability and side-chain-level detail. Bent F-actin structures reveal rearrangements at intersubunit interfaces characterized by substantial alterations of helical twist and deformations in individual protomers, transitions that are distinct in ADP-F-actin and ADP-P-i-F-actin. This suggests that phosphate rigidifies actin subunits to alter the bending structural landscape of F-actin. As bending forces evoke nucleotide-state dependent conformational transitions of sufficient magnitude to be detected by actin-binding proteins, we propose that actin nucleotide state can serve as a co-regulator of F-actin mechanical regulation.
Brady B, Ramos EA, May-Collado L, Landrau-Giovannetti N, Lace N, Arreola MR, Santos GM, da Silva VMF, Sousa-Lima RS
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Manatee calf call contour and acoustic structure varies by species and body size

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2022 NOV 15; 12(1):? Article 19597
Vocal activity and signal characteristics of mammals are driven by several factors that result in both stability and plasticity over multiple time scales. All three extant species of manatee communicate with several calls that are especially important for maintaining contact between cows and calves. Determining if calf calls differ across manatee species will provide insights into the evolution of species-specific acoustic communication traits. We investigated the interspecific differences in the vocalizations of calves of Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) and the two subspecies of the West Indian manatee (T. manatus). Vocalizations of individual calves were recorded in rehabilitation centers in Brazil, Puerto Rico, the United States, and Mexico. The acoustic structure of calls produced by manatee calves varied between species and with body size. Amazonian manatee calves produced shorter calls with multiple notes at higher frequency while West Indian calves produced modulated calls that were lower in frequency and longer in duration. Smaller West Indian calves produced frequency modulated, hill-shaped calls that flattened with an increase in body length. Our results provide evidence for divergence in the ontogeny of vocalizations across T. manatus and T. inunguis and suggest variation in body size contributed to the evolution of differences in the characteristics of their calls.
Xi L, Garcet S, Ye Z, Hung K, Hassan-Zahraee M, Kieras E, Krueger JG, Hyde C, Peeva E
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A shared tissue transcriptome signature and pathways in psoriasis and ulcerative colitis

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2022 NOV 17; 12(1):? Article 19740
Despite multiple efficacious therapies in common between psoriasis (PS) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), mechanisms underlying their common pathophysiology remain largely unclear. Here we sought to establish a link by evaluating expression differences and pathway alterations in diseased tissues. We identified two sets of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lesional and nonlesional tissues in meta-analyses of data collected from baseline samples in 3 UC and then 3 PS available clinical studies from Pfizer. A shared gene signature was defined by 190 DEGs common to both diseases. Commonly dysregulated pathways identified via enrichment analysis include interferon signaling, partly driven by genes IFI6, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, which may attract chemotaxis of Th1 cells to inflammatory sites; IL-23 pathway (IL-23A, CCL20, PI3, CXCL1, LCN2); and Th17 pathway except IL-17A. Elevated expression of costimulatory molecules ICOS and CTLA4 suggests ongoing T-cell activation in both diseases. The clinical value of the shared signature is demonstrated by a gene set improvement score reflecting post-treatment molecular improvement for each disease. This is the first study using transcriptomic meta-analysis to define a tissue gene signature and pathways dysregulated in both PS and UC. These findings suggest immune mechanisms may initiate and sustain inflammation similarly in the two diseases.
Schneeberger M, Brice NL, Pellegrino K, Parolari L, Shaked JT, Page KJ, Marchildon F, Barrows DW, Carroll TS, Tolpiko T, Mulligan VM, Newman R, Doyle K, Burli R, Barker DF, Glen A, Ortuno MJ, Nectow AR, Renier N, Cohen P, Carlton M, Heintz N, Friedman JM
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Pharmacological targeting of glutamatergic neurons within the brainstem for weight reduction

NATURE METABOLISM 2022 NOV; 4(11):1495-+
Food intake and body weight are tightly regulated by neurons within specific brain regions, including the brainstem, where acute activation of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) glutamatergic neurons expressing the glutamate transporter Vglut3 (DRNVglut3) drive a robust suppression of food intake and enhance locomotion. Activating Vglut3 neurons in DRN suppresses food intake and increases locomotion, suggesting that modulating the activity of these neurons might alter body weight. Here, we show that DRNVglut3 neurons project to the lateral hypothalamus (LHA), a canonical feeding center that also reduces food intake. Moreover, chronic DRNVglut3 activation reduces weight in both leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and leptin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) male mice. Molecular profiling revealed that the orexin 1 receptor (Hcrtr1) is highly enriched in DRN Vglut3 neurons, with limited expression elsewhere in the brain. Finally, an orally bioavailable, highly selective Hcrtr1 antagonist (CVN45502) significantly reduces feeding and body weight in DIO. Hcrtr1 is also co-expressed with Vglut3 in the human DRN, suggesting that there might be a similar effect in human. These results identify a potential therapy for obesity by targeting DRNVglut3 neurons while also establishing a general strategy for developing drugs for central nervous system disorders. Schneeberger et al. show that glutamatergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus of the brainstem are enriched with the orexin 1 receptor Hcrtr1, which can be pharmacologically targeted to treat obesity in mice.
Collier AD, Yasmin N, Chang GQ, Karatayev O, Khalizova N, Fam M, Abdulai AR, Yu BY, Leibowitz SF
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Embryonic ethanol exposure induces ectopic Hcrt and MCH neurons outside hypothalamus in rats and zebrafish: Role in ethanol-induced behavioural disturbances

ADDICTION BIOLOGY 2022 NOV; 27(6):? Article e13238
Embryonic exposure to ethanol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder in humans and stimulates alcohol-related behaviours in different animal models. Evidence in rats and zebrafish suggests that this phenomenon induced by ethanol at low-moderate concentrations involves a stimulatory effect on neurogenesis and density of hypothalamic neurons expressing the peptides, hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), known to promote alcohol consumption. Building on our report in zebrafish showing that ethanol induces ectopic expression of Hcrt neurons outside the hypothalamus, we investigated here whether embryonic ethanol exposure also induces ectopic peptide neurons in rats similar to zebrafish and affects their morphological characteristics and if these ectopic neurons are functional and have a role in the ethanol-induced disturbances in behaviour. We demonstrate in rats that ethanol at a low-moderate dose, in addition to increasing Hcrt and MCH neurons in the lateral hypothalamus where they are normally concentrated, induces ectopic expression of these peptide neurons further anterior in the nucleus accumbens core and ventromedial caudate putamen where they have not been previously observed and causes morphological changes relative to normally located hypothalamic neurons. Similar to rats, embryonic ethanol exposure at a low-moderate dose in zebrafish induces ectopic Hcrt neurons anterior to the hypothalamus and alters their morphology. Notably, laser ablation of these ectopic Hcrt neurons blocks the behavioural effects induced by ethanol exposure, including increased anxiety and locomotor activity. These findings suggest that the ectopic peptide neurons are functional and contribute to the ethanol-induced behavioural disturbances related to the overconsumption of alcohol.
de Castro MV, Silva MVR, Naslavsky MS, Scliar MO, Nunes K, Passos-Bueno MR, Castelli EC, Magawa JY, Adami FL, Moretti AIS, de Oliveira VL, Boscardin SB, Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J, Jouanguy E, Bastard P, Casanova JL, Quinones-Vega M, Sosa-Acosta P, de Guedes JS, de Almeida NP, Nogueira FCS, Domont GB, Santos KS, Zatz M
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The oldest unvaccinated Covid-19 survivors in South America

IMMUNITY & AGEING 2022 NOV 16; 19(1):? Article 57
Background Although older adults are at a high risk of severe or critical Covid-19, there are many cases of unvaccinated centenarians who had a silent infection or recovered from mild or moderate Covid-19. We studied three Brazilian supercentenarians, older than 110 years, who survived Covid-19 in 2020 before being vaccinated. Results Despite their advanced age, humoral immune response analysis showed that these individuals displayed robust levels of IgG and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2. Enrichment of plasma proteins and metabolites related to innate immune response and host defense was also observed. None presented autoantibodies (auto-Abs) to type I interferon (IFN). Furthermore, these supercentenarians do not carry rare variants in genes underlying the known inborn errors of immunity, including particular inborn errors of type I IFN. Conclusion These observations suggest that their Covid-19 resilience might be a combination of their genetic background and their innate and adaptive immunity.
Renert-Yuval Y, Pavel AB, Bose S, Gomez-Arias PJ, Rangel SM, Estrada YD, Paller AS, Guttman-Yassky E
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Tape strips capture atopic dermatitis-related changes in nonlesional skin throughout maturation

ALLERGY 2022 NOV; 77(11):3445-3447