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Found 36319 matches. Displaying 11-20
Poston D, Weisblum Y, Wise H, Templeton K, Jenks S, Hatziioannou T, Bieniasz P
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Absence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Neutralizing Activity in Prepandemic Sera From Individuals With Recent Seasonal Coronavirus Infection

Cross-reactive immune responses elicited by seasonal coronaviruses might affect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility and disease outcomes. We measured neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 in prepandemic sera from patients with prior polymerase chain reaction scan-confirmed seasonal coronavirus infection. Although neutralizing activity against seasonal coronaviruses was detected in nearly all sera, cross-reactive neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 was undetectable.
De Gasparo R, Pedotti M, Simonelli L, Nickl P, Muecksch F, Cassaniti I, Percivalle E, Lorenzi JCC, Mazzola F, Magri D, Michalcikova T, Haviernik J, Honig V, Mrazkova B, Polakova N, Fortova A, Tureckova J, Iatsiuk V, Di Girolamo S, Palus M, Zudova D, Bednar P, Bukova I, Bianchini F, Mehn D, Nencka R, Strakova P, Pavlis O, Rozman J, Gioria S, Sammartino JC, Giardina F, Gaiarsa S, Pan-Hammarstrom Q, Barnes CO, Bjorkman PJ, Calzolai L, Piralla A, Baldanti F, Nussenzweig MC, Bieniasz PD, Hatziioannou T, Prochazka J, Sedlacek R, Robbiani DF, Ruzek D, Varani L
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Publisher Correction: Bispecific IgG neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants and prevents escape in mice (vol 593, pg 424, 2021)

NATURE 2021 SEP 2; 597(7874):E2-E2
Navrazhina K, Garcet S, Gonzalez J, Grand D, Frew JW, Krueger JG
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In-Depth Analysis of the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Serum Proteome Identifies Distinct Inflammatory Subtypes

Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis with presentations ranging from painful nodules and abscesses to draining tunnels. Using an unbiased proteomics approach, we assessed cardiovascular-, cardiometabolic-, and inflammation-related biomarkers in the serum of patients with moderate-to-severe hidradenitis suppurativa. The serum of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa clustered separately from that of healthy controls and had an upregulation of neutrophil-related markers (Cathepsin D, IL-17A, CXCL1). Patients with histologically diagnosed dermal tunnels had higher serum lipocalin-2 levels compared with those without tunnels. Consistent with this, patients with tunnels had a more neutrophilic-rich serum signature, marked by Cathepsin D, IL-17A, and IL-17D alterations. There was a significant correlation between proteins in the serum and the corresponding mRNA expression in skin biopsies, with healthy-appearing perilesional skin demonstrating a significant correlation with neutrophil-related proteins in the serum. CSF3 mRNA levels in lesional skin significantly correlated with neutrophil-related proteins in the serum, suggesting that CFS3 in the skin may be a driver of neutrophilic inflammation. Clinical significantly correlated with the levels of lipocalin-2 and IL-17A in the serum. Using an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach, we demonstrate that hidradenitis suppurativa is a systemic neutrophilic dermatosis, with a specific molecular signature associated with the presence of dermal tunnels.
Li WH, Wang ZK, Syed S, Lyu C, Lincoln S, O'Neil J, Nguyen AD, Feng I, Young MW
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Chronic social isolation signals starvation and reduces sleep in Drosophila

NATURE 2021 SEP 9; 597(7875):239-244
Social isolation and loneliness have potent effects on public health(1-4). Research in social psychology suggests that compromised sleep quality is a key factor that links persistent loneliness to adverse health conditions(5,6). Although experimental manipulations have been widely applied to studying the control of sleep and wakefulness in animal models, how normal sleep is perturbed by social isolation is unknown. Here we report that chronic, but not acute, social isolation reduces sleep in Drosophila. We use quantitative behavioural analysis and transcriptome profiling to differentiate between brain states associated with acute and chronic social isolation. Although the flies had uninterrupted access to food, chronic social isolation altered the expression of metabolic genes and induced a brain state that signals starvation. Chronically isolated animals exhibit sleep loss accompanied by overconsumption of food, which resonates with anecdotal findings of loneliness-associated hyperphagia in humans. Chronic social isolation reduces sleep and promotes feeding through neural activities in the peptidergic fan-shaped body columnar neurons of the fly. Artificial activation of these neurons causes misperception of acute social isolation as chronic social isolation and thereby results in sleep loss and increased feeding. These results present a mechanistic link between chronic social isolation, metabolism, and sleep, addressing a long-standing call for animal models focused on loneliness(7).
Alciatore G, Ugelvig LV, Frank E, Bidaux J, Gal A, Schmitt T, Kronauer DJC, Ulrich Y
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Immune challenges increase network centrality in a queenless ant

Social animals display a wide range of behavioural defences against infectious diseases, some of which increase social contacts with infectious individuals (e.g. mutual grooming), while others decrease them (e.g. social exclusion). These defences often rely on the detection of infectious individuals, but this can be achieved in several ways that are difficult to differentiate. Here, we combine non-pathogenic immune challenges with automated tracking in colonies of the clonal raider ant to ask whether ants can detect the immune status of their social partners and to quantify their behavioural responses to this perceived infection risk. We first show that a key behavioural response elicited by live pathogens (allogrooming) can be qualitatively recapitulated by immune challenges alone. Automated scoring of interactions between all colony members reveals that this behavioural response increases the network centrality of immune-challenged individuals through a general increase in physical contacts. These results show that ants can detect the immune status of their nest-mates and respond with a general 'caring' strategy, rather than avoidance, towards social partners that are perceived to be infectious. Finally, we find no evidence that changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles drive these behavioural effects.
Butelman ER, Chen CY, Brown KG, Lake KJ, Kreek MJ
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Age of onset of heaviest use of cannabis or alcohol in persons with severe opioid or cocaine use disorders

DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE 2021 SEP 1; 226(?):? Article 108834
Background: Persons with severe opioid or cocaine use disorders are particularly vulnerable to morbidity and mortality. Heaviest use of mu-opioid receptor agonists and cocaine typically commences in early adulthood and is preceded by substantial adolescent exposure to cannabis and/or alcohol. Little information exists on the age trajectories of exposure to cannabis or alcohol in persons diagnosed with severe opioid or cocaine use disorders, compared to persons diagnosed with other substance use disorders (unrelated to opioids or cocaine). Method: This observational study had n = 854 volunteers (male = 581, female = 273; >= 18 years of age at the time of interview) and examined the ages of onset of heaviest use of cannabis and alcohol in persons diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria with opioid dependence (OD), both opioid and cocaine dependence (OD + CD) and cocaine dependence (CD). These age trajectory measures were compared to persons with other substance use disorders (primarily cannabis and alcohol use disorders, termed "Any Other Diagnoses"). Results: Unadjusted survival analyses showed persons diagnosed with either OD + CD or CD had earlier onset of heaviest use of cannabis (mean ages of 16.2 and 17.8, respectively) compared to the "Any Other Diagnoses" reference group (mean age = 19.5). A multivariate logistic regression showed that later onset of heaviest use of cannabis was associated with lower odds of being in the OD + CD or CD groups, when compared to the reference group. Conclusions: Persons diagnosed with severe cocaine use disorders or dual opioid and cocaine use disorders exhibit a pattern of heavy and especially early adolescent exposure to cannabis, compared to persons with other substance use disorders.
Hedrick SL, Luo D, Kaska S, Niloy KK, Jackson K, Sarma R, Horn J, Baynard C, Leggas M, Butelman ER, Kreek MJ, Prisinzano TE
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Design, synthesis, and preliminary evaluation of a potential synthetic opioid rescue agent

JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE 2021 SEP 9; 28(1):? Article 62
Background: One of the most prominent opioid analgesics in the United States is the high potency agonist fentanyl. It is used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain and as an anesthetic adjuvant. When used inappropriately, however, ingestion of just a few milligrams of fentanyl or other synthetic opioid can cause opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD), often leading to death. Currently, the treatment of choice for OIRD is the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Recent reports, however, suggest that higher doses or repeated dosing of naloxone (due to recurrence of respiratory depression) may be required to reverse fully fentanyl-induced respiratory depression, rendering this treatment inadequate. To combat this synthetic opioid overdose crisis, this research aims at identifying a novel opioid reversal agent with enhanced efficacy towards fentanyl and other synthetic opioids. Methods: A series of naltrexone analogues were characterized for their ability to antagonize the effects of fentanyl in vitro utilizing a modified forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation assay. Lead analogue 29 was chosen to undergo further PK studies, followed by in vivo pharmacological analysis to determine its ability to antagonize opioid-induced antinociception in the hot plate assay. Results: A series of potent MOR antagonists were identified, including the highly potent analogue 29 (IC50 =2.06 nM). Follow-up PK studies revealed 29 to possess near 100% bioavailability following IP administration. Brain concentrations of 29 surpassed plasma concentrations, with an apparent terminal half-life of similar to 80 min in mice. In the hot plate assay, 29 dose-dependently (0.01-0.1 mg/kg; IP) and fully antagonized the antinociception induced by oxycodone (5.6 mg/kg; IP). Furthermore, the dose of 29 that is fully effective in preventing oxycodone-induced antinociception (0.1 mg/kg) was ineffective against locomotor deficits caused by the KOR agonist U50,488. Conclusions: Methods have been developed that have utility to identify enhanced rescue agents for the treatment of OIRD. Analogue 29, possessing potent MOR antagonist activity in vitro and in vivo, provides a promising lead in our search for an enhanced synthetic opioid rescue agent.
Yang ZL, Wu XLS, Wei YL, Polyanskaya SA, Iyer SV, Jung M, Lach FP, Adelman ER, Klingbeil O, Milazzo JP, Kramer M, Demerdash OE, Chang K, Goodwin S, Hodges E, McCombie WR, Figueroa ME, Smogorzewska A, Vakoc CR
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Transcriptional Silencing of ALDH2 Confers a Dependency on Fanconi Anemia Proteins in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

CANCER DISCOVERY 2021 SEP; 11(9):2300-2315
Hundreds of genes become aberrantly silenced in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with most of these epigenetic changes being of unknown functional consequence. Here, we demonstrate how gene silencing can lead to an acquired dependency on the DNA repair machinery in AML. We make this observation by profiling the essentiality of the ubiquitination machinery in cancer cell lines using domain-focused CRISPR screening, which revealed Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins UBE2T and FANCL as unique dependencies in AML. We demonstrate that these dependencies are due to a synthetic lethal interaction between FA proteins and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which function in parallel pathways to counteract the genotoxicity of endogenous aldehydes. We show DNA hypermethylation and silencing of ALDH2 occur in a recurrent manner in human AML, which is sufficient to confer FA pathway dependency. Our study suggests that targeting of the ubiquitination reaction catalyzed by FA proteins can eliminate ALDH2-deficient AML. SIGNIFICANCE: Aberrant gene silencing is an epigenetic hallmark of human cancer, but the functional consequences of this process are largely unknown. In this study, we show how an epigenetic alteration leads to an actionable dependency on a DNA repair pathway through the disabling of genetic redundancy.
Racine-Brzostek SE, Karbaschi M, Gaebler C, Klasse PJ, Yee J, Caskey M, Yang HS, Hao Y, Sukhu A, Rand S, Chadburn A, Shi YY, Zuk R, Nussenzweig MC, Cushing MM, Zhao Z
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TOP-Plus Is a Versatile Biosensor Platform for Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Durability

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 2021 SEP; 67(9):1249-1258
BACKGROUND: Low initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody titers dropping to undetectable levels within months after infection have raised concerns about long-term immunity. Both the antibody levels and the avidity of the antibody-antigen interaction should be examined to understand the quality of the antibody response. METHODS: A testing-on-a-probe "plus" panel (TOPPlus) was developed to include a newly developed avidity assay built into the previously described SARS-CoV2 TOP assays that measured total antibody (TAb), surrogate neutralizing antibody (SNAb), IgM, and IgG on a versatile biosensor platform. TAb and SNAb levels were compared with avidity in previously infected individuals at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in paired samples from 80 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sera from individuals vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 were also evaluated for antibody avidity. RESULTS: The newly designed avidity assay in this TOP panel correlated well with a reference Bio-Layer Interferometry avidity assay (r = 0.88). The imprecision of the TOP avidity assay was <10%. Although TAb and neutralization activity (by SNAb) decreased between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection, the antibody avidity increased significantly (P< 0.0001). Antibody avidity in 10 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals (median: 28 days after vaccination) was comparable to the measured antibody avidity in infected individuals (median: 26 days after infection). CONCLUSIONS: This highly precise and versatile TOPPlus panel with the ability to measure SARS-CoV-2 TAb, SNAb, IgG, and IgM antibody levels and avidity of individual sera on one sensor can become a valuable asset in monitoring not only patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 but also the status of individuals' COVID-19 vaccination response.
del Marmol J, Yedlin MA, Ruta V
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The structural basis of odorant recognition in insect olfactory receptors

NATURE 2021 SEP 2; 597(7874):126-131
Olfactory systems must detect and discriminate amongst an enormous variety of odorants(1). To contend with this challenge, diverse species have converged on a common strategy in which odorant identity is encoded through the combinatorial activation of large families of olfactory receptors(1-3), thus allowing a finite number of receptors to detect a vast chemical world. Here we offer structural and mechanistic insight into how an individual olfactory receptor can flexibly recognize diverse odorants. We show that the olfactory receptor MhOR5 from the jumping bristletail(4) Machilis hrabei assembles as a homotetrameric odorant-gated ion channel with broad chemical tuning. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we elucidated the structure of MhOR5 in multiple gating states, alone and in complex with two of its agonists-the odorant eugenol and the insect repellent DEET. Both ligands are recognized through distributed hydrophobic interactions within the same geometrically simple binding pocket located in the transmembrane region of each subunit, suggesting a structural logic for the promiscuous chemical sensitivity of this receptor. Mutation of individual residues lining the binding pocket predictably altered the sensitivity of MhOR5 to eugenol and DEET and broadly reconfigured the receptor's tuning. Together, our data support a model in which diverse odorants share the same structural determinants for binding, shedding light on the molecular recognition mechanisms that ultimately endow the olfactory system with its immense discriminatory capacity.