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Found 35955 matches. Displaying 11-20
Cai BL, Li ZH, Ma MT, Zhang J, Kong SF, Abdalla BA, Xu HP, Jebessa E, Zhang XQ, Lawal RA, Nie QH
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Long noncoding RNA SMUL suppresses SMURF2 production-mediated muscle atrophy via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

As the world population grows, muscle atrophy leading to muscle wasting could become a bigger risk. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to play important roles in muscle growth and muscle atrophy. Meanwhile, it has recently come to light that many putative small open reading frames (sORFs) are hidden in lncRNAs; however, their translational capabilities and functions remain unclear. In this study, we uncovered 104 myogenic-associated lncRNAs translated, in at least a small peptide, by integrated transcriptome and proteomic analyses. Furthermore, an upstream ORF (uORF) regulatory network was constructed, and a novel muscle atrophy-associated lncRNA named SMUL (Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 [SMURF2] upstream lncRNA) was identified. SMUL was highly expressed in skeletal muscle, and its expression level was down regulated during myoblast differentiation. SMUL promoted myoblast proliferation and suppressed differentiation in vitro. In vivo, SMUL induced skeletal muscle atrophy and promoted a switch from slow-twitch to fast-twitch fibers. In the meantime, translation of the SMUL sORF disrupted the stability of SMURF2 mRNA. Mechanistically, SMUL restrained SMURF2 production via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), participating in the regulation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)/SMAD pathway and further regulating myogenesis and muscle atrophy. Taken together, these results suggest that SMUL could be a novel therapeutic target for muscle atrophy.
Gaebler C, Wang ZJ, Lorenzi JCC, Muecksch F, Finkin S, Tokuyama M, Cho A, Jankovic M, Schaefer-Babajew D, Oliveira TY, Cipolla M, Viant C, Barnes CO, Bram Y, Breton G, Hagglof T, Mendoza P, Hurley A, Turroja M, Gordon K, Millard KG, Ramos V, Schmidt F, Weisblum Y, Jha D, Tankelevich M, Martinez-Delgado G, Yee J, Patel R, Dizon J, Unson-O'Brien C, Shimeliovich I, Robbiani DF, Zhao Z, Gazumyan A, Schwartz RE, Hatziioannou T, Bjorkman PJ, Mehandru S, Bieniasz PD, Caskey M, Nussenzweig MC
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Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2

NATURE 2021 MAR 25; 591(7851):639-644
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 78 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.7 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with the development of variable levels of antibodies with neutralizing activity, which can protect against infection in animal models(1,2). Antibody levels decrease with time, but, to our knowledge, the nature and quality of the memory B cells that would be required to produce antibodies upon reinfection has not been examined. Here we report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We find that titres of IgM and IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 decrease significantly over this time period, with IgA being less affected. Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by fivefold in pseudotype virus assays. By contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remains unchanged at 6.2 months after infection. Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies that they express have greater somatic hypermutation, resistance to RBD mutations and increased potency, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response. Immunofluorescence and PCR analyses of intestinal biopsies obtained from asymptomatic individuals at 4 months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revealed the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids and immunoreactivity in the small bowel of 7 out of 14 individuals. We conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.
Krueger JG, Murrell DF, Garcet S, Navrazhina K, Lee PC, Muscianisi E, Blauvelt A
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Secukinumab lowers expression of ACE2 in affected skin of patients with psoriasis

Liu J, Wang ZJ, Li J, Xu LH, Liu JQ, Feng SH, Guo CX, Chen SC, Ren ZJ, Rao JP, Wei K, Chen YZ, Jarvis ED, Zhang GJ, Zhou Q
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A new emu genome illuminates the evolution of genome configuration and nuclear architecture of avian chromosomes

GENOME RESEARCH 2021 MAR; 31(3):497-511
Emu and other ratites are more informative than any other birds in reconstructing the evolution of the ancestral avian or vertebrate karyotype because of their much slower rate of genome evolution. Here, we generated a new chromosome-level genome assembly of a female emu, and estimated the tempo of chromosome evolution across major avian phylogenetic branches, by comparing it to chromosome-level genome assemblies of 11 other bird and one turtle species. We found ratites exhibited the lowest numbers of intraand inter-chromosomal changes among birds since their divergence with turtles. The small-sized and gene-rich emu microchromosomes have frequent inter-chromosomal contacts that are associated with housekeeping genes, which appears to be driven by clustering their centromeres in the nuclear interior, away from the macrochromosomes in the nuclear periphery. Unlike nonratite birds, only less than one-third of the emu W Chromosome regions have lost homologous recombination and diverged between the sexes. The emu W is demarcated into a highly heterochromatic region (WS0) and another recently evolved region (WS1) with only moderate sequence divergence with the Z Chromosome. WS1 has expanded its inactive chromatin compartment, increased chromatin contacts within the region, and decreased contacts with the nearby regions, possibly influenced by the spreading of heterochromatin from WS0. These patterns suggest that alteration of chromatin conformation comprises an important early step of sex chromosome evolution. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the evolution of avian genome structure and sex chromosomes in three-dimensional space.
Wang YD, Niu YM, Zhang Z, Gable K, Gupta SD, Somashekarappa N, Han GS, Zhao HT, Myasnikov AG, Kalathur RC, Dunn TM, Lee CH
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Structural insights into the regulation of human serine palmitoyltransferase complexes

Cryo-EM structures of the enzyme complexes catalyzing the rate-limiting step in sphingolipid synthesis reveal mechanisms of substrate recognition and modulation by regulatory subunits. Sphingolipids are essential lipids in eukaryotic membranes. In humans, the first and rate-limiting step of sphingolipid synthesis is catalyzed by the serine palmitoyltransferase holocomplex, which consists of catalytic components (SPTLC1 and SPTLC2) and regulatory components (ssSPTa and ORMDL3). However, the assembly, substrate processing and regulation of the complex are unclear. Here, we present 8 cryo-electron microscopy structures of the human serine palmitoyltransferase holocomplex in various functional states at resolutions of 2.6-3.4 angstrom. The structures reveal not only how catalytic components recognize the substrate, but also how regulatory components modulate the substrate-binding tunnel to control enzyme activity: ssSPTa engages SPTLC2 and shapes the tunnel to determine substrate specificity. ORMDL3 blocks the tunnel and competes with substrate binding through its amino terminus. These findings provide mechanistic insights into sphingolipid biogenesis governed by the serine palmitoyltransferase complex.
Coscia EC, Abutaleb NS, Hostetter B, Seleem MN, Breur GJ, McCain RR, Crain CJ, Slaby O, Capoor MN, McDowell A, Ahmed FS, Vijayanpillai V, Narayanan SK, Coscia MF
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Sheep as a Potential Model of Intradiscal Infection by the Bacterium Cutibacterium acnes

VETERINARY SCIENCES 2021 MAR; 8(3):? Article 48
The anaerobic bacterium Cutibacterium acnes has been increasingly linked to the development of degenerative disc disease (DDD), although causality is yet to be conclusively proven. To better study how this organism could contribute to the aetiology of DDD, improved animal models that are more reflective of human disc anatomy, biology and mechanical properties are required. Against this background, our proof-of concept study aimed to be the first demonstration that C. acnes could be safely administered percutaneously into sheep intervertebral discs (IVDs) for in vivo study. Following our protocol, two sheep were successfully injected with a strain of C. acnes (8.3 x 10(6) CFU/disc) previously recovered from a human degenerative disc. No adverse reactions were noted, and at one-month post inoculation all triplicate infected discs in our first animal grew C. acnes, albeit at a reduced load (5.12 x 10(4) to 6.67 x 10(4) CFU/disc). At six months, no growth was detected in discs from our second animal indicating bacterial clearance. This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of safe percutaneous injection of C. acnes into sheep IVDs under fluoroscopic guidance. The design of follow-up sheep studies to investigate the potential of C. acnes to drive pathological changes within infected discs should now be pursued.
Hitchman TD, Bayshtok G, Ceraudo E, Moore AR, Lee C, Jia RB, Wang NT, Pachai MR, Shoushtari AN, Francis JH, Guan YX, Chen J, Chang MT, Taylor BS, Sakmar TP, Huber T, Chi P, Chen Y
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Combined Inhibition of G alpha(q) and MEK Enhances Therapeutic Efficacy in Uveal Melanoma

CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH 2021 MAR 1; 27(5):1476-1490
Purpose: All uveal melanoma and a fraction of other melanoma subtypes are driven by activation of the G-protein alpha-q (G alpha(q)) pathway. Targeting these melanomas has proven difficult despite advances in the molecular understanding of key driver signaling pathways in the disease pathogenesis. Inhibitors of G alpha(q) have shown promising preclinical results, but their therapeutic activity in distinct G alpha(q) mutational contexts and in vivo have remained elusive. Experimental Design: We used an isogenic melanocytic cellular system to systematically examine hotspot mutations in GNAQ (e.g., G48V, R183Q, Q209L) and CYSLTR2 (L129Q) found in human uveal melanoma. This cellular system and human uveal melanoma cell lines were used in vitro and in in vivo xenograft studies to assess the efficacy of G alpha(q) inhibition as a single agent and in combination with MEK inhibition. Results: We demonstrate that the G alpha(q) inhibitor YM-254890 inhibited downstream signaling and in vitro growth in all mutants. In vivo, YM-254890 slowed tumor growth but did not cause regression in human uveal melanoma xenografts. Through comprehensive transcriptome analysis, we observed that YM-254890 caused inhibition of the MAPK signaling with evidence of rebound by 24 hours and combination treatment of YM-254890 and a MEK inhibitor led to sustained MAPK inhibition. We further demonstrated that the combination caused synergistic growth inhibition in vitro and tumor shrinkage in vivo. Conclusions: These data suggest that the combination of G alpha(q) and MEK inhibition provides a promising therapeutic strategy and improved therapeutic window of broadly targeting G alpha(q) in uveal melanoma. See related commentary by Neelature Sriramareddy and Smalley, p. 1217
Tehlirian C, Peeva E, Kieras E, Scaramozza M, Roberts ES, Singh RSP, Pradhan V, Banerjee A, Garcet S, Xi L, Gale JD, Vincent MS, Krueger J
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Safety, tolerability, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the oral TYK2 inhibitor PF-06826647 in participants with plaque psoriasis: a phase 1, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

Background Blockade of tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) signalling has previously shown therapeutic potential in the treatment of psoriasis. The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability of the TYK2 inhibitor PF-06826647. Methods This phase 1, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study assessed once daily oral dosing of PF-06826647 in participants with plaque psoriasis, at a single clinical research site in the USA. Eligible participants (aged 18-65 years) had plaque psoriasis covering at least 15% of total body surface area and a psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score of at least 12 at baseline. Participants received PF-06826647 (100 mg or 400 mg), or placebo once daily for 28 days. Using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with a block size of 3, participants were sequentially randomly assigned into two cohorts by the investigator; in the first cohort, participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either oral PF-06826647 400 mg or placebo once daily, whereas participants in the second cohort were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either oral PF-06826647 100 mg or placebo once daily. Site, investigator, Pfizer personnel, and participants, were masked to treatment. The primary endpoint was the safety of multiple-dose PF-06826647 in participants with plaque psoriasis. Secondary endpoints were the characterisation of the pharmacokinetics of multiple-dose PF-06826647 in plasma and the change in PASI score at day 28. Safety analysis was done in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. Efficacy analysis was done in all participants who received at least one dose of randomised study drug, and had a baseline and at least one post-baseline measurement. This study is registered as a randomised, controlled trial with, NCT03210961 and is completed. Findings The trial was done between July 14, 2017, and Jan 25, 2019. Overall from 91 participants assessed, 40 participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were randomly assigned to treatment (placebo 14 [35%] of 40; PF-06826647 100 mg, 11 [28%] of 40; PF-06826647 400 mg, 15 [38%] of 40). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported in 12 (80%) of 15 participants in the PF-06826647 400 mg group, seven (50%) of 14 in the placebo group and five (45%) of 11 in the 100 mg group. All TEAEs were mild in severity, except one moderate TEAE of vomiting reported in the placebo group. There were no deaths, serious TEAEs, severe TEAEs, dose reductions, or temporary discontinuations. Compared with placebo, the change from baseline in PASI score at day 28 showed a significant reduction in least squares mean difference for the PF-06826647 400 mg group (-13.05; 90% CI -18.76 to -7.35; p=0.00077) but not for the PF-06826647 100 mg group (-3.49; -9.48 to 2.50; p=0.33). Both the area under the concentration-time curve over the dosing interval and the maximum concentration increased in a less than dose proportional manner with increasing dose from 100 mg to 400 mg PF-06826647. Interpretation PF-06826647 showed significant improvement in disease activity within 4 weeks of dosing with an acceptable safety profile. PF-06826647 holds promise over conventional oral treatments for psoriasis that have shown limited efficacy or unfavourable safety profiles. Copyright (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mann N, Mzoughi S, Schneider R, Kuhl SJ, Schanze D, Klambt V, Lovric S, Mao YY, Shi SS, Tan WZ, Kuhl M, Onuchic-Whitford AC, Treimer E, Kitzler TM, Kause F, Schumann S, Nakayama M, Buerger F, Shril S, van der Ven AT, Majmundar AJ, Holton KM, Kolb A, Braun DA, Rao J, Jobst-Schwan T, Mildenberger E, Lennert T, Kuechler A, Wieczorek D, Gross O, Ermisch-Omran B, Werberger A, Skalej M, Janecke AR, Soliman NA, Mane SM, Lifton RP, Kadlec J, Guccione E, Schmeisser MJ, Zenker M, Hildebrandt F
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Mutations in PRDM15 Are a Novel Cause of Galloway-Mowat Syndrome

Background Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is characterized by neurodevelopmental defects and a progressive nephropathy, which typically manifests as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The prognosis of GAMOS is poor, and the majority of children progress to renal failure. The discovery of monogenic causes of GAMOS has uncovered molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disease. Methods Homozygosity mapping, whole-exome sequencing, and linkage analysis were used to identify mutations in four families with a GAMOS-like phenotype, and high-throughput PCR technology was applied to 91 individuals with GAMOS and 816 individuals with isolated nephrotic syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies determined the functional significance of the mutations identified. Results Three biallelic variants of the transcriptional regulator PRDM15 were detected in six families with proteinuric kidney disease. Four families with a variant in the protein's zinc-finger (ZNF) domain have additional GAMOS-like features, including brain anomalies, cardiac defects, and skeletal defects. All variants destabilize the PRDM15 protein, and the ZNF variant additionally interferes with transcriptional activation. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Prdm15 in Xenopus embryos disrupted pronephric development. Human wild-type PRDM15 RNA rescued the disruption, but the three PRDM15 variants did not. Finally, CRISPR-mediated knockout of PRDM15 in human podocytes led to dysregulation of several renal developmental genes. Conclusions Variants in PRDM15 can cause either isolated nephrotic syndrome or a GAMOS-type syndrome on an allelic basis. PRDM15 regulates multiple developmental kidney genes, and is likely to play an essential role in renal development in humans.