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Found 35417 matches. Displaying 11-20
Zhang SY, Zhang Q, Casanova JL, Su HLC
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Severe COVID-19 in the young and healthy: monogenic inborn errors of immunity?

Why do some young and previously healthy individuals develop severe COVID-19? In this Comment, Casanova and colleagues suggest that monogenic inborn errors of immunity may be responsible based on lessons from other viral infections. Severe COVID-19 is rare in previously healthy individuals who are less than 50 years of age, affecting probably no more than 1 in 1,000 such infected individuals. We suggest that these patients may become critically ill because of monogenic inborn errors that disrupt protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2.
Mahdaviani SA, Mansouri D, Jamee M, Zaki-Dizaji M, Aghdam KR, Mortaz E, Khorasanizadeh M, Eskian M, Movahedi M, Ghaffaripour H, Baghaie N, Hassanzad M, Chavoshzadeh Z, Mansouri M, Mesdaghi M, Ghaini M, Noori F, Eskandarzadeh S, Kahkooi S, Poorabdolah M, Tabarsi P, Moniri A, Farnia P, Karimi A, Boisson-Dupuis S, Rezaei N, Marjani M, Casanova JL, Bustamante J, Velayati AA
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Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD): Clinical and Genetic Features of 32 Iranian Patients

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare congenital condition characterized by a selective predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria and other types of intra-macrophagic pathogens. The 16 genes associated with MSMD display a considerable level of allelic heterogeneity, accounting for 31 distinct disorders with variable clinical presentations and prognosis. Most of MSMD deficiencies are isolated, referred to as selective susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. However, other deficiencies are syndromic MSMD, defined by the combination of the mycobacterial infection with another, equally common, infectious, specific phenotypes. Herein, we described a series of 32 Iranian MSMD cases identified with seven distinct types of molecular defects, all of which are involved in the interferon gamma (IFN gamma) immunity, including interleukin IL-12 receptor-beta 1 (IL-12R beta 1) deficiency (fifteen cases), IL-12p40 deficiency (ten cases), and IL-23R deficiency (three cases), as well as IFN gamma receptor 1 (IFN gamma R1) deficiency, IFN gamma receptor 2 (IFN gamma R2) deficiency, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deficiency, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) deficiency each in one case. Since the first report of two MSMD patients in our center, we identified 30 other affected patients with similar clinical manifestations. As the number of reported Iranian cases with MSMD diagnosis has increased in recent years and according to the national vaccination protocol, all Iranian newborns receive BCG vaccination at birth, early diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention which are required for a better outcome and also prevention of similar birth defects. Therefore, we investigated the clinical and molecular features of these 32 patients. The current report also defined novel classes of pathological mutations, further expanding our knowledge of the MSMD molecular basis and associated clinical manifestations.
Bal S, Landau HJ, Shah GL, Scordo M, Dahi P, Lahoud OB, Hassoun H, Hultcrantz M, Korde N, Lendvai N, Lesokhin AM, Mailankody S, Shah UA, Smith E, Devlin SM, Avecilla S, Dogan A, Roshal M, Landgren O, Giralt SA, Chung DJ
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Stem Cell Mobilization and Autograft Minimal Residual Disease Negativity with Novel Induction Regimens in Multiple Myeloma

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the standard of care for transplantation-eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (VRD) is the most common triplet regimen for newly diagnosed MM in the United States. Carfilzomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRD) has shown promising efficacy and may supplant VRD. We compared stem cell yields and autograft minimal residual disease (MRD)-negativity after VRD and KRD induction. Deeper responses (ie, very good partial response or better) were more common with KRD. Precollection bone marrow (BM) cellularity, interval from the end of induction therapy to start of stem cell collection, and method of stem cell mobilization were similar for the 2 cohorts. Days to complete collection was greater with KRD (2.2 days, versus 1.81 days with VRD), which more often required >= 3 days of apheresis. Precollection viable CD34(+) cell content was greater with VRD, as was collection yield (11.11 x 10(6), versus 9.19 x 10(6) with KRD). Collection failure (defined as <2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg) was more frequent with KRD (5.4% versus .7% with VRD). The difference in stem cell yield between VRD and KRD is associated with the degree of lenalidomide exposure. Age >= 70 years predicted poorer collection for both cohorts. Stem cell autograft purity/MRD-negativity was higher with KRD (81.4%, versus 57.1% with VRD). For both cohorts, MRD-negativity was attained in a larger fraction of autografts than in precollection BM. For patients proceeding to ASCT, the time to neutrophil/platelet engraftment was comparable in the 2 study arms. In summary, our data demonstrate that KRD induces deeper clinical responses and greater autograft purity than VRD without compromising stem cell yield or post-transplantation engraftment kinetics. (C) 2020 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Morganstern I, Gulati G, Leibowitz SF
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Role of melanin-concentrating hormone in drug use disorders

BRAIN RESEARCH 2020 AUG 15; 1741(?):? Article 146872
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide primarily transcribed in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), with vast projections to many areas throughout the central nervous system that play an important role in motivated behaviors and drug use. Anatomical, pharmacological and genetic studies implicate MCH in mediating the intake and reinforcement of commonly abused substances, acting by influencing several systems including the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, glutamatergic as well as GABAergic signaling and being modulated by inflammatory neuroimmune pathways. Further support for the role of MCH in controlling behavior related to drug use will be discussed as it relates to cerebral ventricular volume transmission and intracellular molecules including cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa. The primary goal of this review is to introduce and summarize current literature surrounding the role of MCH in mediating the intake and reinforcement of commonly abused drugs, such as alcohol, cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine and opiates.
Liu XS, Zhao XL, Wang Y, Hong JB, Shi M, Pfaff D, Guo LX, Tang HW
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Triphenyl phosphate permeates the blood brain barrier and induces neurotoxicity in mouse brain

CHEMOSPHERE 2020 AUG; 252(?):? Article 126470
Concerns have been raised over the neurotoxicity of triphenyl phosphate (TPP), but there have been few studies of the neurotoxic effects of TPP on mammals and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, weaned male mice (C57/BL6) were used and exposed to 0, 50, or 150 mg/kg TPP daily by oral gavage for 30 days. The blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability of TPP and its metabolite diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in the brain, and TPP induced metabolomic and transcriptomic changes of the brain were investigated. The results showed that TPP and DPP can cross the BBB of mice. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed abnormalities in the hippocampus, cortex and thalamus, and mice treated with high doses showed a potential inflammation in the thalamus and hippocampus. Untargeted metabolomic results revealed that the changed level of glutamic acid, N-acetyl CoA metabolites, and organic acid in the brain of treated mice, suggest that amino acid and lipid metabolism was interfered. RNA-seq data indicated that neuronal transcription processes and cell apoptosis pathway (forkhead box (FOXO), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways) were significantly affected by TPP exposure. RT-PCR showed proinflammation cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNIF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) levels were increased, while antioxidant genes including nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) decreased. These results suggest that TPP could cause a degree of neurotoxicity by inducing neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis, which are related to oxidative stress. The potential implications for neurophysiology and behavioral regulation cannot be ignored. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tanmoy D
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When the jokes aren't funny

SCIENCE 2020 JUL 17; 369(6501):342-342
Chottekalapanda RU, Kalik S, Gresack J, Ayala A, Gao M, Wang W, Meller S, Aly A, Schaefer A, Greengard P
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AP-1 controls the p11-dependent antidepressant response

MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY 2020 JUL; 25(7):1364-1381
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed drugs for mood disorders. While the mechanism of SSRI action is still unknown, SSRIs are thought to exert therapeutic effects by elevating extracellular serotonin levels in the brain, and remodel the structural and functional alterations dysregulated during depression. To determine their precise mode of action, we tested whether such neuroadaptive processes are modulated by regulation of specific gene expression programs. Here we identify a transcriptional program regulated by activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, formed by c-Fos and c-Jun that is selectively activated prior to the onset of the chronic SSRI response. The AP-1 transcriptional program modulates the expression of key neuronal remodeling genes, including S100a10 (p11), linking neuronal plasticity to the antidepressant response. We find that AP-1 function is required for the antidepressant effect in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate how neurochemical pathways of BDNF and FGF2, through the MAPK, PI3K, and JNK cascades, regulate AP-1 function to mediate the beneficial effects of the antidepressant response. Here we put forth a sequential molecular network to track the antidepressant response and provide a new avenue that could be used to accelerate or potentiate antidepressant responses by triggering neuroplasticity.
Tomlinson JE, Wolfisberg R, Fahnoe U, Sharma H, Renshaw RW, Nielsen L, Nishiuchi E, Holm C, Dubovi E, Rosenberg BR, Tennant BC, Bukh J, Kapoor A, Divers TJ, Rice CM, Van de Walle GR, Scheel TKH
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Equine pegiviruses cause persistent infection of bone marrow and are not associated with hepatitis

PLOS PATHOGENS 2020 JUL; 16(7):? Article e1008677
Pegiviruses frequently cause persistent infection (as defined by >6 months), but unlike most other Flaviviridae members, no apparent clinical disease. Human pegivirus (HPgV, previously GBV-C) is detectable in 1-4% of healthy individuals and another 5-13% are seropositive. Some evidence for infection of bone marrow and spleen exists. Equine pegivirus 1 (EPgV-1) is not linked to disease, whereas another pegivirus, Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV), was identified in an outbreak of acute serum hepatitis (Theiler's disease) in horses. Although no subsequent reports link TDAV to disease, any association with hepatitis has not been formally examined. Here, we characterized EPgV-1 and TDAV tropism, sequence diversity, persistence and association with liver disease in horses. Among more than 20 tissue types, we consistently detected high viral loads only in serum, bone marrow and spleen, and viral RNA replication was consistently identified in bone marrow. PBMCs and lymph nodes, but not liver, were sporadically positive. To exclude potential effects of co-infecting agents in experimental infections, we constructed full-length consensus cDNA clones; this was enabled by determination of the complete viral genomes, including a novel TDAV 3' terminus. Clone derived RNA transcripts were used for direct intrasplenic inoculation of healthy horses. This led to productive infection detectable from week 2-3 and persisting beyond the 28 weeks of study. We did not observe any clinical signs of illness or elevation of circulating liver enzymes. The polyprotein consensus sequences did not change, suggesting that both clones were fully functional. To our knowledge, this is the first successful extrahepatic viral RNA launch and the first robust reverse genetics system for a pegivirus. In conclusion, equine pegiviruses are bone marrow tropic, cause persistent infection in horses, and are not associated with hepatitis. Based on these findings, it may be appropriate to rename the group of TDAV and related viruses as EPgV-2. Author summary Transmissible hepatitis in horses (Theiler's disease) has been known for 100 years without knowledge of causative infectious agents. Recently, two novel equine pegiviruses (EPgV) were discovered. Whereas EPgV-1 was not associated to disease, the other was identified in an outbreak of acute serum hepatitis and therefore named Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV). This finding was surprising since human and monkey pegiviruses typically cause long-term infection without associated clinical disease. Whereas no subsequent reports link TDAV to disease, the original association to hepatitis has not been formally examined. Here, we studied EPgV-1 and TDAV and found that their natural history of infection in horses were remarkably similar. Examination of various tissues identified the bone marrow as the primary site of replication for both viruses with no evidence of replication in the liver. To exclude potential effects of other infectious agents, we developed molecular full-length clones for EPgV-1 and TDAV and were able to initiate infection in horses using derived synthetic viral genetic material. This demonstrated long-term infection, but no association with hepatitis. These findings call into question the connection between TDAV, liver infection, and hepatitis in horses.
Chiou CC, Wang CL, Luo JD, Liu CY, Ko HW, Yang CT
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Targeted Sequencing of Circulating Cell Free DNA Can Be Used to Monitor Therapeutic Efficacy of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

Background/Aim: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) bears specific mutations derived from tumor cells. The amount of mutant ctDNA may reflect tumor burden. In this study, we detected epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in ctDNA as a monitoring marker for the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients and Methods: Serial plasma samples from eight NSCLC patients during TKI treatment were collected. Libraries with barcoded aliapters were constructed from ctDNA of these plasma samples using a PCR-based targeted DNA panel. The libraries were then sequenced for measuring EGFR mutations. In addition, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was also measured in these patients. Results: In six patients who suffered disease progression (PD), five had elevated EGFR mutation reads before PD. In the two patients who did not develop PD, EGFR mutations remained undetectable in their plasma. The CEA levels were higher than the cutoff value in most samples and had a poor correlation with disease status. Conclusion: The mutation count of tumor-specific mutations can be a monitoring marker of TKI treatment in NSCLC patients.
Meeske AJ, Jia N, Cassel AK, Kozlova A, Liao JQ, Wiedmann M, Patel DJ, Marraffini LA
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A phage-encoded anti-CRISPR enables complete evasion of type VI-A CRISPR-Cas immunity

SCIENCE 2020 JUL 3; 369(6499):54-59
The CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided nuclease Cas13 recognizes complementary viral transcripts to trigger the degradation of both host and viral RNA during the type VI CRISPR-Cas antiviral response. However, how viruses can counteract this immunity is not known. We describe a listeriaphage (phi LS46) encoding an anti-CRISPR protein (AcrVIA1) that inactivates the type VI-A CRISPR system of Listeria seeligeri. Using genetics, biochemistry, and structural biology, we found that AcrVIA1 interacts with the guide-exposed face of Cas13a, preventing access to the target RNA and the conformational changes required for nuclease activation. Unlike inhibitors of DNA-cleaving Cas nucleases, which cause limited immunosuppression and require multiple infections to bypass CRISPR defenses, a single dose of AcrVIA1 delivered by an individual virion completely dismantles type VI-A CRISPR-mediated immunity.