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Found 36144 matches. Displaying 11-20
Savage KT, Singh V, Patel ZS, Yannuzzi CA, McKenzie-Brown AM, Lowes MA, Orenstein LAV
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Pain management in hidradenitis suppurativa and a proposed treatment algorithm

Pain contributes substantially to reduced quality of life in individuals living with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Although improved understanding of HS pathogenesis and treatment has resulted in improved evidence-based HS management guidelines, comprehensive pain management guidelines have yet to be developed. Few HS-specific data exist to guide pharmacologic analgesia; however, recognizing HS pain as either acute or chronic and predominantly nociceptive (aching and gnawing pain due to tissue damage) versus neuropathic (burning-type pain due to somatosensory nervous system dysfunction) provides a conceptual framework for applying outside pain management practices to HS management. This article incorporates the best available evidence from the HS and pain literature to propose an HS pain algorithm that integrates psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary and alternative treatment modalities.
Xu JL, Xu K, Jung S, Conte A, Lieberman J, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JCC, Park S, Schmidt F, Wang ZJ, Huang YX, Luo Y, Nair MS, Wang PF, Schulz JE, Tessarollo L, Bylund T, Chuang GY, Olia AS, Stephens T, Teng IT, Tsybovsky Y, Zhou TQ, Munster V, Ho DD, Hatziioannou T, Bieniasz PD, Nussenzweig MC, Kwong PD, Casellas R
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Nanobodies from camelid mice and llamas neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants

NATURE 2021 JUL 8; 595(7866):278-282
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of deaths worldwide. Although a number of vaccines have been deployed, the continual evolution of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus has challenged their efficacy. In particular, the emerging variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1 (first detected in the UK, South Africa and Brazil, respectively) have compromised the efficacy of sera from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 and immunotherapies that have received emergency use authorization(1-3). One potential alternative to avert viral escape is the use of camelid VHHs (variable heavy chain domains of heavy chain antibody (also known as nanobodies)), which can recognize epitopes that are often inaccessible to conventional antibodies(4). Here, we isolate anti-RBD nanobodies from llamas and from mice that we engineered to produce VHHs cloned from alpacas, dromedaries and Bactrian camels. We identified two groups of highly neutralizing nanobodies. Group 1 circumvents antigenic drift by recognizing an RBD region that is highly conserved in coronaviruses but rarely targeted by human antibodies. Group 2 is almost exclusively focused to the RBD-ACE2 interface and does not neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants that carry E484K or N501Y substitutions. However, nanobodies in group 2 retain full neutralization activity against these variants when expressed as homotrimers, and-to our knowledge-rival the most potent antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 that have been produced to date. These findings suggest that multivalent nanobodies overcome SARS-CoV-2 mutations through two separate mechanisms: enhanced avidity for the ACE2-binding domain and recognition of conserved epitopes that are largely inaccessible to human antibodies. Therefore, although new SARS-CoV-2 mutants will continue to emerge, nanobodies represent promising tools to prevent COVID-19 mortality when vaccines are compromised.
Reed B, Kreek MJ
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Genetic Vulnerability to Opioid Addiction

Opioid addiction, also referred to as opioid use disorder, continues to be a devastating problem throughout the world. Familial relation and twin studies have revealed opioid addiction, like other addictive diseases, to be profoundly influenced by genetics. Genetics studies of opioid addiction have affirmed the importance of genetics contributors in susceptibility to develop opioid addiction, and also have important implications on treatment for opioid addiction. But the complexity of the interactions of multiple genetic variants across diverse genes, as well as substantial differences in allelic frequencies across populations, thus far limits the predictive value of individual genetics variants.
Lovell-Badge R, Anthony E, Barker RA, Bubela T, Brivanlou AH, Carpenter M, Charo RA, Clark A, Clayton E, Cong YL, Daley GQ, Fu JP, Fujita M, Greenfield A, Goldman SA, Hill L, Hyun I, Isasi R, Kahn J, Kato K, Kim JS, Kimmelman J, Knoblich JA, Mathews D, Montserrat N, Mosher J, Munsie M, Nakauchi H, Naldini L, Naughton G, Niakan K, Ogbogu U, Pedersen R, Rivron N, Rooke H, Rossant J, Round J, Saitou M, Sipp D, Steffann J, Sugarman J, Surani A, Takahashi J, Tang FC, Turner L, Zettler PJ, Zhai XM
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ISSCR Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2021 update

STEM CELL REPORTS 2021 JUN 8; 16(6):1398-1408
The International Society for Stem Cell Research has updated its Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation in order to address advances in stem cell science and other relevant fields, together with the associated ethical, social, and policy issues that have arisen since the last update in 2016. While growing to encompass the evolving science, clinical applications of stem cells, and the increasingly complex implications of stem cell research for society, the basic principles underlying the Guidelines remain unchanged, and they will continue to serve as the standard for the field and as a resource for scientists, regulators, funders, physicians, and members of the public, including patients. A summary of the key updates and issues is presented here.
De Santis R, Brivanlou AH
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The treasure inside human naive pluripotency, generation of trophectoderm and blastoids

CELL STEM CELL 2021 JUN 3; 28(6):985-987
Recent advances in human naive pluripotent stem cell culture have demonstrated their ability to generate trophectoderm and descendant trophoblast cell types. Moreover, the same cells when cultured in three-dimensional configurations self-organize to generate blastocyst-like structures called blastoids. These discoveries represent a major step forward in modeling early human embryonic development.
Combalia M, Garcia S, Malvehy J, Puig S, Mulberger AG, Browning J, Garcet S, Krueger JG, Lish SR, Lax R, Ren J, Stevenson M, Doudican N, Carucci JA, Jain M, White K, Rakos J, Gareau DS
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Deep learning automated pathology in ex vivo microscopy

BIOMEDICAL OPTICS EXPRESS 2021 JUN 1; 12(6):3103-3116
Standard histopathology is currently the gold standard for assessment of margin status in Mohs surgical removal of skin cancer. Ex vivo confocal microscopy (XVM) is potentially faster, less costly and inherently 3D/digital compared to standard histopathology. Despite these advantages, XVM use is not widespread due, in part, to the need for pathologists to retrain to interpret XVM images. We developed artificial intelligence (AI)-driven XVM pathology by implementing algorithms that render intuitive XVM pathology images identical to standard histopathology and produce automated tumor positivity maps. XVM images have fluorescence labeling of cellular and nuclear biology on the background of endogenous (unstained) reflectance contrast as a grounding counter-contrast. XVM images of 26 surgical excision specimens discarded after Mohs micrographic surgery were used to develop an XVM data pipeline with 4 stages: flattening, colorizing, enhancement and automated diagnosis. The first two stages were novel, deterministic image processing algorithms, and the second two were AI algorithms. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated for basal cell carcinoma detection as proof of principal for the XVM image processing pipeline. The resulting diagnostic readouts mimicked the appearance of histopathology and found tumor positivity that required first collapsing the confocal stack to a 2D image optimized for cellular fluorescence contrast, then a dark field-to-bright field colorizing transformation, then either an AI image transformation for visual inspection or an AI diagnostic binary image segmentation of tumor obtaining a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 91% respectively. These results show that video-assisted micrographic XVM pathology could feasibly aid margin status determination in micrographic surgery of skin cancer.
Patterson JO, Basu S, Rees P, Nurse P
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CDK control pathways integrate cell size and ploidy information to control cell division

ELIFE 2021 JUN 11; 10(?):? Article e64592
Maintenance of cell size homeostasis is a property that is conserved throughout eukaryotes. Cell size homeostasis is brought about by the co-ordination of cell division with cell growth and requires restriction of smaller cells from undergoing mitosis and cell division, whilst allowing larger cells to do so. Cyclin-CDK is the fundamental driver of mitosis and therefore ultimately ensures size homeostasis. Here we dissect determinants of CDK activity in vivo to investigate how cell size information is processed by the cell cycle network in fission yeast. We develop a high-throughput single-cell assay system of CDK activity in vivo and show that inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK encodes cell size information, with the phosphatase PP2A aiding to set a size threshold for division. CDK inhibitory phosphorylation works synergistically with PP2A to prevent mitosis in smaller cells. Finally, we find that diploid cells of equivalent size to haploid cells exhibit lower CDK activity in response to equal cyclin-CDK enzyme concentrations, suggesting that CDK activity is reduced by increased DNA levels. Therefore, scaling of cyclin-CDK levels with cell size, CDK inhibitory phosphorylation, PP2A, and DNA-dependent inhibition of CDK activity, all inform the cell cycle network of cell size, thus contributing to cell size homeostasis.
Goodroe A, Wachtman L, Benedict W, Allen-Worthington K, Bakker J, Burns M, Diaz LL, Dick E, Dickerson M, Eliades SJ, Gonzalez O, Graf DJ, Haroush K, Inoue T, Izzi J, Laudano A, Layne-Colon D, Leblanc M, Ludwig B, Mejia A, Miller C, Sarfaty A, Sosa M, Vallender E, Brown C, Forney L, Schultz-Darken N, Colman R, Power M, Capuano S, Ross C, Tardif S
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Current practices in nutrition management and disease incidence of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

Background A survey was developed to characterize disease incidence, common pathology lesions, environmental characteristics, and nutrition programs within captive research marmoset colonies. Methods Seventeen research facilities completed the electronic survey. Results Nutritional management programs varied amongst research institutions housing marmosets; eight primary base diets were reported. The most common clinical syndromes reported were gastrointestinal disease (i.e. inflammatory bowel disease like disease, chronic lymphocytic enteritis, chronic malabsorption, chronic diarrhea), metabolic bone disease or fracture, infectious diarrhea, and oral disease (tooth root abscesses, gingivitis, tooth root resorption). The five most common pathology morphologic diagnoses were colitis, nephropathy/nephritis, enteritis, chronic lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, and cholecystitis. Obesity was more common (average 20% of a reporting institution's population) than thin body condition (average 5%). Conclusions Through review of current practices, we aim to inspire development of evidence-based practices to standardize husbandry and nutrition practices for marmoset research colonies.
Rosado-Olivieri EA, Brivanlou AH
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Synthetic by design: Exploiting tissue self-organization to explore early human embryology

Recent advances in synthetic human embryology has provided a previously inexistent molecular portrait of human development. Models of synthetic human embryonic tissues capitalize on the self-organizing capabilities of human embryonic stem cells when they are cultured on biomimetic conditions that simulate in vivo human development. In this Review, we discuss these models and how they have shed light on the early stages of human development including amniotic sac development, gastrulation and neurulation. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the molecular logic of embryonic tissue self-organization that have been dissected using synthetic models of human embryology and explore future challenges in the field. Geared with technological advances in bioengineering, high resolution gene expression and imaging tools, these models are set to transform our understanding of the mechanistic basis of embryonic tissue self-organization during human development and how they may go awry in disease.
Fischer RS, Sun XY, Baird MA, Hourwitz MJ, Seo BR, Pasapera AM, Mehta SB, Losert W, Fischbach C, Fourkas JT, Waterman CM
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Contractility, focal adhesion orientation, and stress fiber orientation drive cancer cell polarity and migration along wavy ECM substrates

Contact guidance is a powerful topographical cue that induces persistent directional cell migration. Healthy tissue stroma is characterized by a meshwork of wavy extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber bundles, whereas metastasis-prone stroma exhibit less wavy, more linear fibers. The latter topography correlates with poor prognosis, whereas more wavy bundles correlate with benign tumors. We designed nanotopographic ECM-coated substrates that mimic collagen fibril waveforms seen in tumors and healthy tissues to determine how these nanotopographies may regulate cancer cell polarization and migration machineries. Cell polarization and directional migration were inhibited by fibril-like wave substrates above a threshold amplitude. Although polarity signals and actin nucleation factors were required for polarization and migration on low-amplitude wave substrates, they did not localize to cell leading edges. Instead, these factors localized to wave peaks, creating multiple "cryptic leading edges" within cells. On high amplitude wave substrates, retrograde flow from large cryptic leading edges depolarized stress fibers and focal adhesions and inhibited cell migration. On low-amplitude wave substrates, actomyosin contractility overrode the small cryptic leading edges and drove stress fiber and focal adhesion orientation along the wave axis to mediate directional migration. Cancer cells of different intrinsic contractility depolarized at different wave amplitudes, and cell polarization response to wavy substrates could be tuned by manipulating contractility. We propose that ECM fibril waveforms with sufficiently high amplitude around tumors may serve as "cell polarization barriers," decreasing directional migration of tumor cells, which could be overcome by up-regulation of tumor cell contractility.