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Found 36604 matches. Displaying 61-70
Marodi L
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COVID-19 in patients with primary immunodeficiency

ORVOSI HETILAP 2022 JAN; 163(5):166-170
The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in tremendous challenges to the management of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) representing a wide range of immunological and genetic entities. Preliminary data suggest that patients with PID would be at increased risk of severe disease and mortality from this newly emerged coronavirus. However, morbidity and mortality by SARS-CoV-2 may depend only partly on specific defect of immunity. Most of disease morbidity and mortality has been published to be related to previous damage of organs and tissues that had developed on the bases of PID before contracting SARS-CoV-2 or other, PID-independent disorders. In a small fraction of patients, impaired type I interferon immunity was found to predispose PID patients to severe coronavirus disease. In this review, we provide an update on published data about SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 in various PIDs.
Krueger J, Puig L, Thaci D
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Treatment Options and Goals for Patients with Generalized Pustular Psoriasis

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare, severe neutrophilic skin disorder characterized by sudden widespread eruption of superficial sterile pustules with or without systemic inflammation. GPP flares can be life-threatening if untreated due to potential severe complications such as cardiovascular failure and serious infections. Currently, there are no GPP-specific therapies approved in the USA or Europe. Retinoids, cyclosporine, and methotrexate are the most commonly used non-biologic therapies for GPP. The evidence that supports the currently available treatment options is mainly based on case reports and small, open-label, single-arm studies. However, recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of GPP and the identification of gene mutations linked to the disease have paved the way for the development of specific targeted therapies that selectively suppress the autoinflammatory and autoimmune mechanisms induced during GPP flares. Several biologic agents that target key cytokines involved in the activation of inflammatory pathways, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers and interleukin (IL)-17, IL-23, and IL-12 inhibitors, have emerged as potential treatments for GPP, with several being approved in Japan. The evidence supporting the efficacy of these agents is mainly derived from small, uncontrolled trials. A notable recent advance is the discovery of IL36RN mutations and the central role of IL-36 receptor ligands in the pathogenesis of GPP, which has defined key therapeutic targets for the disease. Biologic agents that target the IL-36 pathway have demonstrated promising efficacy in patients with GPP, marking the beginning of a new era of targeted therapy for GPP.
Yao NY, Zhang D, Yurieva O, O'Donnell ME
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CMG helicase can use ATP gamma S to unwind DNA Implications for the rate-limiting step in the reaction mechanism

The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analog ATP gamma S often greatly slows or prevents enzymatic ATP hydrolysis. The eukaryotic CMG (Cdc45, Mcm2 to 7, GINS) replicative helicase is presumed unable to hydrolyze ATP gamma S and thus unable to perform DNA unwinding, as documented for certain other helicases. Consequently, ATP gamma S is often used to "preload" CMG onto forked DNA substrates without unwinding before adding ATP to initiate helicase activity. We find here that CMG does hydrolyze ATP gamma S and couples it to DNA unwinding. Indeed, the rate of unwinding of a 20- and 30-mer duplex fork of different sequences by CMG is only reduced 1- to 1.5-fold using ATP gamma S compared with ATP. These findings imply that a conformational change is the rate-limiting step during CMG unwinding, not hydrolysis. Instead of using ATP gamma S for loading CMG onto DNA, we demonstrate here that nonhydrolyzable adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) can be used to preload CMG onto a forked DNA substrate without unwinding.
Hon-Balla B, Erdos M
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Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

ORVOSI HETILAP 2022 JAN; 163(5):171-180
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, which are characterised by chronic or recurrent non-invasive skin, nail and mucous membrane infections caused by Candida. The increased susceptibility to Candida infections is due to a Th17-cell mediated immune detect with different gene mutations in the background. The isolated form of the disorder, referred to as chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, presents primarily or only with mucocutaneous candidiasis. In contrast, the syndromic form of the disorder is characterised, besides the non-invasive Candida infections, by autoimmune disorders, which most commonly affect the endocrine system. Genetic tests are important in confirming the diagnosis, which in affected families would provide the opportunity for prenatal genetic testing. The authors present the main types of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, exploring the clinical aspects, diagnostic methods, and available therapies. Furthermore, the authors conclude the molecular genetic background and the currently known pathomechanism of the disorder.
Kaczmarek E, Nanayakkara J, Sedghi A, Pesteie M, Tuschl T, Renwick N, Mousavi P
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Topology preserving stratification of tissue neoplasticity using Deep Neural Maps and microRNA signatures

BMC BIOINFORMATICS 2022 JAN 13; 23(1):? Article 38
Background Accurate cancer classification is essential for correct treatment selection and better prognostication. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, and their dyresgulation is a common disease mechanism in many cancers. Through a clearer understanding of miRNA dysregulation in cancer, improved mechanistic knowledge and better treatments can be sought. Results We present a topology-preserving deep learning framework to study miRNA dysregulation in cancer. Our study comprises miRNA expression profiles from 3685 cancer and non-cancer tissue samples and hierarchical annotations on organ and neoplasticity status. Using unsupervised learning, a two-dimensional topological map is trained to cluster similar tissue samples. Labelled samples are used after training to identify clustering accuracy in terms of tissue-of-origin and neoplasticity status. In addition, an approach using activation gradients is developed to determine the attention of the networks to miRNAs that drive the clustering. Using this deep learning framework, we classify the neoplasticity status of held-out test samples with an accuracy of 91.07%, the tissue-of-origin with 86.36%, and combined neoplasticity status and tissue-of-origin with an accuracy of 84.28%. The topological maps display the ability of miRNAs to recognize tissue types and neoplasticity status. Importantly, when our approach identifies samples that do not cluster well with their respective classes, activation gradients provide further insight in cancer subtypes or grades. Conclusions An unsupervised deep learning approach is developed for cancer classification and interpretation. This work provides an intuitive approach for understanding molecular properties of cancer and has significant potential for cancer classification and treatment selection.
Kieuvongngam V, Chen J
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Structures of the peptidase-containing ABC transporter PCAT1 under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous molecular pumps that transport a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Although the structure and function of ABC transporters has been studied extensively, our understanding of their energetics and dynamics remains limited. Here, we present studies of the peptidase-containing ABC transporter 1 (PCAT1), a polypeptide processing and secretion ABC transporter that functions via the classic alternating access mechanism. PCAT1 is a homodimer containing two peptidase (PEP) domains, two transmembrane domains, and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Using cryoelectron microscopy, we analyzed the structures of wild-type PCAT1 under conditions that either prevent or permit ATP hydrolysis and observed two completely different conformational distributions. In the presence of ATP but absence of Mg2+, PCAT1 adopts an NBD-dimerized, outward-facing conformation. The two PEP domains are dissociated from the transporter core, preventing uncoupled substrate cleavage. The addition of Mg2+ to promote ATP hydrolysis shifts the majority of the particles into NBDseparated, inward-facing conformations. Under this ATP turnover condition, only a small fraction of PCAT1 adopts the NBDdimerized conformation. These data give rise to two mechanistic conclusions: 1) the ATP-bound, NBD-dimerized conformation is the lowest energy state, and 2) the rate-limiting step in the PCAT1 transport cycle is the formation of the NBD dimer. The thermodynamic conclusion is likely a general property shared by many ABC transporters. The kinetic bottleneck, however, varies from transporter to transporter.
Naik HB, Alhusayen R, Frew J, Guilbault S, Hills NK, Ingram JR, Kudlinski MV, Lowes MA, Marzano AV, Paul M, Villumsen B, Yannuzzi CA
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Biologic therapy is not associated with increased COVID-19 severity in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa: Initial findings from the Global Hidradenitis Suppurativa COVID-19 Registry

Yuferov V, Butelman ER, Randesi M, Ott J, Kreek MJ
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Analyses of polymorphisms of intron 2 of OPRK1 (kappa-opioid receptor gene) in association with opioid and cocaine dependence diagnoses in an African-American population

NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS 2022 JAN 18; 768(?):? Article 136364
Rationale: The dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system (encoded by PDYN and OPRK1 genes respectively) is highly regulated by repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, including mu-opioid agonists and cocaine. These changes in the dynorphin/KOR system can then influence the rewarding effects of these drugs of abuse. Activation of the dynorphin/KOR system is also thought to have a role in the pro-addictive effects of stress. Recent in vitro assays showed that the OPRK1 intron 2 may function as a genomic enhancer in the regulation KOR expression, and contains a glucocorticiod-responsive sequence site. We hypothesize that SNPs in intron 2 of OPRK1 are associated with categorical opioid or cocaine dependence diagnoses, as well as with dimensional aspects of drug use (i.e., magnitude of drug exposure). Methods: This study includes 577 subjects >= 18 years old, with African ancestry (AA) from the USA. They were divided into three groups: 152 control subjects, 142 persons with lifetime opioid dependence diagnosis (OD), and 283 subjects with lifetime cocaine dependence diagnosis (CD). Five SNPs (rs16918909, rs7016778, rs997917, rs6473797, rs10111937) that span 10 Kb nucleotides in intron 2 of OPRK1 were used for the association analyses. Genotyping was performed with the Smokescreen (R) array or sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA fragments. Association analyses for OD and CD diagnoses and the OPRK1 intron 2 alleles were carried out with Fisher's exact test. The Kreek-McHugh-Schluger-Kellogg (KMSK) scales were used for dimensional measure of maximum exposure to specific drugs, using Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Two SNPs, rs997917 and rs10111937 showed point-wise significant allelic association (p < 0.05) with CD diagnosis, and rs10111937 showed a point-wise significance in association with OD. None of these single SNP associations with categorical diagnoses were significant after correction for multiple testing (p(corr) > 0.05). However, significant associations of several genotype patterns (diplotypes) were found with cocaine dependence, but none for opioid dependence. The most significant genotype pattern with cocaine dependence diagnosis occurred for rs6473797 and rs10111937 (p(corr) = 0.036, odds ratio = 1.92, FDR < 0.05), and survived correction for multiple testing. Dimensional analyses with KMSK scores show that persons with either rs997917 or rs10111937 variants had greater exposure to cocaine, compared to those with prototype allele (Mann-Whitney tests, point-wise). Conclusions: This study provides additional support of potential importance of regulatory regions of intron 2 of the OPRK1 gene in development of cocaine and opioid dependence diagnoses, in a population with African-American ancestry.
Krueger JG, McInnes IB, Blauvelt A
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Tyrosine kinase 2 and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling and inhibition in plaque psoriasis

Plaque psoriasis is a common, chronic, systemic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway plays a major role in intracellular cytokine signaling in inflammatory processes involved in psoriasis. Although Janus kinase (JAK) 1-3 inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, safety concerns persist and no JAK inhibitor has received regulatory approval to treat psoriasis. Thus, an opportunity exists for novel oral therapies that are safe and efficacious in psoriasis. Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a member of the JAK family of kinases and regulates signaling and functional responses downstream of the interleukin 12, interleukin 23, and type I interferon receptors. Deucravacitinib, which is an oral, selective inhibitor that binds to the regulatory domain of TYK2, and brepocitinib (PF-06700841) and PF-06826647, which are topical and oral TYK2 inhibitors, respectively, that bind to the active (adenosine triphosphate-binding) site in the catalytic domain, are in development for psoriasis. Selective, allosteric inhibition of TYK2 signaling may reduce the potential for toxicities associated with pan-JAK inhibitors. This article reviews Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription and TYK2 signaling and the efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors in psoriasis to date, focusing specifically on TYK2 inhibitors.
Shenhav L, Azad MB
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Using Community Ecology Theory and Computational Microbiome Methods To Study Human Milk as a Biological System

MSYSTEMS 2022 JAN-FEB; 7(1):? Article e01132-21
Human milk is a complex and dynamic biological system that has evolved to optimally nourish and protect human infants. Yet, according to a recent priority -setting review, "our current understanding of human milk composition and its individual components and their functions fails to fully recognize the importance of the chronobiology and systems biology of human milk in the context of milk synthesis, optimal timing and duration of feeding, and period of lactation" (P. Christian et al., Am J Clin Nutr 113:1063-1072, 2021, We attribute this critical knowledge gap to three major reasons as follows. (i) Studies have typically examined each subsystem of the mother-milk-infant "triad" in isolation and often focus on a single element or component (e.g., maternal lactation physiology or milk microbiome or milk oligosaccharides or infant microbiome or infant gut physiology). This undermines our ability to develop comprehensive representations of the interactions between these elements and study their response to external perturbations. (ii) Multiomics studies are often cross-sectional, presenting a snapshot of milk composition, largely ignoring the temporal variability during lactation. The lack of temporal resolution precludes the characterization and inference of robust interactions between the dynamic subsystems of the triad. (iii) We lack computational methods to represent and decipher the complex ecosystem of the mother-milk-infant triad and its environment. In this review, we advocate for longitudinal multiomics data collection and demonstrate how incorporating knowledge gleaned from microbial community ecology and computational methods developed for microbiome research can serve as an anchor to advance the study of human milk and its many components as a "system within a system."