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Found 35038 matches. Displaying 61-70
About F, Bibert S, Jouanguy E, Nalpas B, Lorenzo L, Rattina V, Zarhrate M, Hanein S, Munteanu M, Mullhaupt B, Semela D, Semmo N, Casanova JL, Theodorou I, Sultanik P, Poynard T, Pol S, Bochud PY, Cobat A, Abel L, Negro F, Hadengue A, Kaiser L, Rubbia-Brandt L, Moradpour D, Cellerai C, Rickenbach M, Cerny A, Martinetti G, Dufour JF, Gorgievski M, Spicher VM, Heim M, Hirsch H, Helbling B, Regenass S, Malinverni R, Dollenmaier G, Cathomas G, Bousquet L, Ngo Y, Lebray P, Moussalli J, Benhamou Y, Thabut D, Vallet-Pichard A, Fontaine H, Mallet V, Sogni P, Trabut JB, Bourliere M, Delfraissy JF
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Identification of an Endoglin Variant Associated With HCV-Related Liver Fibrosis Progression by Next-Generation Sequencing

FRONTIERS IN GENETICS 2019 NOV 4; 10(?):? Article 1024
Despite the astonishing progress in treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct-acting antiviral agents, liver fibrosis remains a major health concern in HCV infected patients, in particular due to the treatment cost and insufficient HCV screening in many countries. Only a fraction of patients with chronic HCV infection develop liver fibrosis. While there is evidence that host genetic factors are involved in the development of liver fibrosis, the common variants identified so far, in particular by genome-wide association studies, were found to have limited effects. Here, we conducted an exome association study in 88 highly selected HCV-infected patients with and without fibrosis. A strategy focusing on TGF-beta pathway genes revealed an enrichment in rare variants of the endoglin gene (ENG) in fibrosis patients. Replication studies in additional cohorts (617 patients) identified one specific ENG variant, Thr5Met, with an overall odds ratio for fibrosis development in carriers of 3.04 (1.39-6.69). Our results suggest that endoglin, a key player in TGF-beta signaling, is involved in HCV-related liver fibrogenesis.
Seifert LL, Si C, Saha D, Sadic M, de Vries M, Ballentine S, Briley A, Wang G, Valero-Jimenez AM, Mohamed A, Schaefer U, Moulton HM, Garcia-Sastre A, Tripathi S, Rosenberg BR, Dittmann M
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The ETS transcription factor ELF1 regulates a broadly antiviral program distinct from the type I interferon response

PLOS PATHOGENS 2019 NOV; 15(11):? Article e1007634
Induction of vast transcriptional programs is a central event of innate host responses to viral infections. Here we report a transcriptional program with potent antiviral activity, driven by E74-like ETS transcription factor 1 (ELF1). Using microscopy to quantify viral infection over time, we found that ELF1 inhibits eight diverse RNA and DNA viruses after multi-cycle replication. Elf1 deficiency results in enhanced susceptibility to influenza A virus infections in mice. ELF1 does not feed-forward to induce interferons, and ELF1's antiviral effect is not abolished by the absence of STAT1 or by inhibition of JAK phosphorylation. Accordingly, comparative expression analyses by RNA-seq revealed that the ELF1 transcriptional program is distinct from interferon signatures. Thus, ELF1 provides an additional layer of the innate host response, independent from the action of type I interferons.
Zhu XG, Birsoy K
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Deciphering cellular heterogeneity of pancreatic tumours

NATURE CELL BIOLOGY 2019 NOV; 21(11):1305-1306
Meagher JL, Takata M, Goncalves-Carneiro D, Keane SC, Rebendenne A, Ong H, Orr VK, MacDonald MR, Stuckey JA, Bieniasz PD, Smith JL
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Structure of the zinc-finger antiviral protein in complex with RNA reveals a mechanism for selective targeting of CG-rich viral sequences

Infection of animal cells by numerous viruses is detected and countered by a variety of means, including recognition of nonself nucleic acids. The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) depletes cytoplasmic RNA that is recognized as foreign in mammalian cells by virtue of its elevated CG dinucleotide content compared with endogenous mRNAs. Here, we determined a crystal structure of a protein-RNA complex containing the N-terminal, 4-zinc finger human (h) ZAP RNA-binding domain (RBD) and a CG dinucleotide-containing RNA target. The structure reveals in molecular detail how hZAP is able to bind selectively to CG-rich RNA. Specifically, the 4 zinc fingers create a basic patch on the hZAP RBD surface. The highly basic second zinc finger contains a pocket that selectively accommodates CG dinucleotide bases. Structure guided mutagenesis, cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing assays, and RNA affinity assays show that the structurally defined CG-binding pocket is not required for RNA binding per se in human cells. However, the pocket is a crucial determinant of high-affinity, specific binding to CG dinucleotide-containing RNA. Moreover, variations in RNA-binding specificity among a panel of CG-binding pocket mutants quantitatively predict their selective antiviral activity against a CG-enriched HIV-1 strain. Overall, the hZAP RBD RNA structure provides an atomic-level explanation for how ZAP selectively targets foreign, CG-rich RNA.
Steinig EJ, Duchene S, Robinson DA, Monecke S, Yokoyama M, Laabei M, Slickers P, Andersson P, Williamson D, Kearns A, Goering RV, Dickson E, Ehricht R, Ip M, O'Sullivan MVN, Coombs GW, Petersen A, Brennan G, Shore AC, Coleman DC, Pantosti A, de Lencastre H, Westh H, Kobayashi N, Heffernan H, Strommenger B, Layer F, Weber S, Aamot HV, Skakni L, Peacock SJ, Sarovich D, Harris S, Parkhill J, Massey RC, Holden MTG, Bentley SD, Tong SYC
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Evolution and Global Transmission of a Multidrug-Resistant, Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lineage from the Indian Subcontinent

MBIO 2019 NOV-DEC; 10(6):? Article e01105-19
The evolution and global transmission of antimicrobial resistance have been well documented for Gram-negative bacteria and health care-associated epidemic pathogens, often emerging from regions with heavy antimicrobial use. However, the degree to which similar processes occur with Gram-positive bacteria in the community setting is less well understood. In this study, we traced the recent origins and global spread of a multidrug-resistant, community-associated Staphylococcus aureus lineage from the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal Bay clone (ST772). We generated whole-genome sequence data of 340 isolates from 14 countries, including the first isolates from Bangladesh and India, to reconstruct the evolutionary history and genomic epidemiology of the lineage. Our data show that the clone emerged on the Indian subcontinent in the early 1960s and disseminated rapidly in the 1990s. Short-term outbreaks in community and health care settings occurred following intercontinental transmission, typically associated with travel and family contacts on the subcontinent, but ongoing endemic transmission was uncommon. Acquisition of a multidrug resistance integrated plasmid was instrumental in the emergence of a single dominant and globally disseminated clade in the early 1990s. Phenotypic data on biofilm, growth, and toxicity point to antimicrobial resistance as the driving force in the evolution of ST772. The Bengal Bay clone therefore combines the multidrug resistance of traditional health care-associated clones with the epidemiological transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Our study demonstrates the importance of whole-genome sequencing for tracking the evolution of emerging and resistant pathogens. It provides a critical framework for ongoing surveillance of the clone on the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere. IMPORTANCE The Bengal Bay clone (ST772) is a community-associated and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus lineage first isolated from Bangladesh and India in 2004. In this study, we showed that the Bengal Bay clone emerged from a virulent progenitor circulating on the Indian subcontinent. Its subsequent global transmission was associated with travel or family contact in the region. ST772 progressively acquired specific resistance elements at limited cost to its fitness and continues to be exported globally, resulting in small-scale community and health care outbreaks. The Bengal Bay clone therefore combines the virulence potential and epidemiology of community-associated clones with the multidrug resistance of health care-associated S. aureus lineages. This study demonstrates the importance of whole-genome sequencing for the surveillance of highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens, which may emerge in the community setting of regions with poor antibiotic stewardship and rapidly spread into hospitals and communities across the world.
Galea S, Vaughan RD
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Galea and Vaughan Comment

Zhou Y, Liang YP, Low MJ, Kreek MJ
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Nuclear transcriptional changes in hypothalamus of Pomc enhancer knockout mice after excessive alcohol drinking

GENES BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR 2019 NOV; 18(8):? Article UNSP e12600
Persistent alterations of proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) and mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) activity and stress responses after alcohol are critically involved in vulnerability to alcohol dependency. Gene transcriptional regulation altered by alcohol may play important roles. Mice with genome-wide deletion of neuronal Pomc enhancer1 (nPE1(-/-)), had hypothalamic-specific partial reductions of beta-endorphin and displayed lower alcohol consumption, compared to wildtype littermates (nPE1(+/+)). We used RNA-Seq to measure steady-state nuclear mRNA transcripts of opioid and stress genes in hypothalamus of nPE1(+/+) and nPE1(-/-) mice after 1-day acute withdrawal from chronic excessive alcohol drinking or after water. nPE1(-/-) had lower basal Pomc and Pdyn (prodynorphin) levels compared to nPE1(+/+), coupled with increased basal Oprm1 and Oprk1 (kappa-opioid receptor) levels, and low alcohol drinking increased Pomc and Pdyn to the basal levels of nPE1(+/+) in the water group, without significant effects on Oprm1 and Oprk1. In nPE1(+/+), excessive alcohol intake increased Pomc and Oprm1, with no effect on Pdyn or Oprk1. For stress genes, nPE1(-/-) had lowered basal Oxt (oxytocin) and Avp (arginine vasopressin) that were restored by low alcohol intake to basal levels of nPE1(+/+). In nPE1(+/+), excessive alcohol intake decreased Oxt and Avpi1 (AVP-induced protein1). Functionally examining the effect of pharmacological blockade of mu-opioid receptor, we found that naltrexone reduced excessive alcohol intake in nPE1(+/+), but not nPE1(-/-). Our results provide evidence relevant to the transcriptional profiling of the critical genes in mouse hypothalamus: enhanced opioid and reduced stress gene transcripts after acute withdrawal from excessive alcohol may contribute to altered reward and stress responses.
Grand D, Navrazhina K, Frew JW
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A Scoping Review of Non-invasive Imaging Modalities in Dermatological Disease: Potential Novel Biomarkers in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE 2019 NOV 6; 6(?):? Article 253
Background: The development of imaging-based biomarkers has the potential to overcome major challenges in the accurate and reproducible assessment of disease severity and response to novel therapies in Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS). Understanding the advantages and limitations of existing non-invasive imaging modalities in dermatological disease will aid in the development of hypotheses and inform the design of future studies. Methods: A scoping review was performed using Medline, Embase, Web of Science Databases and evaluation of "gray literature" until June 30, 2019. Citations were examined according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Citations were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Narrative Synthesis was used to summarize data, structured by imaging modality. Results: Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, MRI, RCM, EIS, OCT, and MIT, were identified. Only ultrasound, MRI and MIT have been used in HS. Image modalities vary in image depth, resolution, cost, accessibility and correlation with known aspects of disease activity in HS. Discussion and Conclusion: The benefits and limitations of each imaging modality are products of cost, accessibility, validity and reliability. An additional hurdle to the development of image-based biomarkers in HS is a lack of established analytical benchmarks that can be correlated with existing biological, inflammatory and clinical parameters. This review has identified potential imaging biomarkers, as well as relevant analytical benchmarks that reflect the presence or absence of disease. Further investigation work is needed to analytically and clinically validate these imaging variables in order to identify potential imaging biomarkers in HS.
Holtzman SH, Cohen R, Levin JM, Maraganore J, Albers J, Aoun JE, Audia JE, Bailey MP, Barrett P, Bartel D, Bienamie JJ, Blum RI, Boger J, Bollenbacher J, Bonney MW, Booth B, Bradbury DM, Brandicourt O, Braunwald E, Carpenter AE, Chang HE, Cheruvu P, Christensen G, Church G, Clayman MD, Cooney CL, Cox GF, Curley SJ, Dahiyat B, DePinho RA, Diekman J, Doerfler D, Dornbusch D, Douglas RH, Dunsire D, Ebright RH, Eskridge W, Flesher GJ, Fong K, Formela JF, Foster-Cheek K, Francois C, Franken MP, Franklin H, Fu YX, Gage LP, Gardner P, Gardner J, Genead M, Geraghty JA, Gerweck L, Gill S, Gillis S, Goeddel DV, Goldsmith M, Graves K, Gray MA, Grayzel D, Greene B, Gregory RJ, Greve-Philips CA, Gros DA, Hamburg MA, Hammerschmidt M, Hao Y, Hartounian H, Hasnain F, Hastings PJ, Hawkins ES, He WW, He W, Hirzel A, Hong Z, Hoppenot H, Jia W, Kaplan J, Keiper J, King V, Kolchinsky P, Koller D, Laikind P, Lander ES, Langer RS, LaVoie DL, Lawton A, Lee JJ, Leff JS, Lepore J, Leschly N, Li QS, Liang MH, Lieberman J, Lim J, Lindenberg M, Lippard SJ, Liu DR, Liu Y, Liu SL, Lodish H, Loncar B, Lopatin U, Love TW, Lowe D, Lowy I, Lu HB, Luo LQ, Mahanthappa NK, Martin PW, Martini A, Martucci WE, McArthur J, McCann CM, McCarthy S, McLachlan D, Mello C, Mento SJ, Meyers J, Meyers R, Mills K, Moch KI, Moos WH, Narachi M, Nashat A, Newell WJ, Nodelman O, Olle B, Osborn JE, Oyler JV, Pao W, Patel N, Perez R, Peterkin D, Pompino A, Pruzanski M, Quinn D, Qutub AA, Raab MG, Radaelli M, Rakhit A, Ramamoorthi K, Rastetter W, Reed JC, Reinhart H, Rhodes JP, Rieflin WJ, Rong LJ, Rosan DE, Rosenblatt M, Rutter WJ, Samudio I, Samuels C, Sato VL, Saunders B, Scadden D, Scangos G, Scarlett JA, Schegerin M, Schimmel P, Schreiber SL, Schubert CR, Schulman A, Shaff E, Shaffer R, Sharp PA, Sheng M, Sheng GJ, Shenk T, Shi FX, Silos-Santiago A, Simonian N, Slattery W, Smith JA, Stocks C, Stoffel M, Su M, Su LS, Tandon N, Tang CM, Taunton-Rigby A, Tezapsidis N, Theuer C, Thornberry NA, Tolar M, Topol E, Tormos W, Trask A, Truex S, Tuschl T, Varmus HE, Vasconcelles MJ, Vounatsos M, Walbert TP, Walsh CT, Wang J, Wang J, Wang N, Westphal C, Wierenga W, Williams DE, Williams LT, Winningham RE, Wirth P, Witt R, Wood C, Woodhouse DJ, Wright R, Wu YT, Xanthopoulos KG, Xiao C, Xiao TS, Xie JW, Xu Y, Xu ZC, Yakatan GJ, Yuan LJ, Yung WKA, Zamore PD, Zaydman M, Zeng XM, Zerhouni E, Zhang F, Zhang Q, Zhang SG
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Chinese scientists and US leadership in the life sciences

NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY 2019 NOV; 37(11):1261-1263
Stein-Thoeringer CK, Nichols KB, Lazrak A, Docampo MD, Slingerland AE, Slingerland JB, Clurman AG, Armijo G, Gomes ALC, Shono Y, Staffas A, da Silva MB, Devlin SM, Markey KA, Bajic D, Pinedo R, Tsakmaklis A, Littmann ER, Pastore A, Taur Y, Monette S, Arcila ME, Pickard AJ, Maloy M, Wright RJ, Amoretti LA, Fontana E, Pham D, Jamal MA, Weber D, Sung AD, Hashimoto D, Scheid C, Xavier JB, Messina JA, Romero K, Lew M, Bush A, Bohannon L, Hayasaka K, Hasegawa Y, Vehreschild MJGT, Cross JR, Ponce DM, Perales MA, Giralt SA, Jenq RR, Teshima T, Holler E, Chao NJ, Pamer EG, Peled JU, van den Brink MRM
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Lactose drives Enterococcus expansion to promote graft-versus-host disease

SCIENCE 2019 NOV 29; 366(6469):1143-1149
Disruption of intestinal microbial communities appears to underlie many human illnesses, but the mechanisms that promote this dysbiosis and its adverse consequences are poorly understood. In patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), we describe a high incidence of enterococcal expansion, which was associated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and mortality. We found that Enterococcus also expands in the mouse gastrointestinal tract after allo-HCT and exacerbates disease severity in gnotobiotic models. Enterococcus growth is dependent on the disaccharide lactose, and dietary lactose depletion attenuates Enterococcus outgrowth and reduces the severity of GVHD in mice. Allo-HCT patients carrying lactose-nonabsorber genotypes showed compromised clearance of postantibiotic Enterococcus domination. We report lactose as a common nutrient that drives expansion of a commensal bacterium that exacerbates an intestinal and systemic inflammatory disease.