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Found 35934 matches. Displaying 61-70
Lagresle-Peyrou C, Olichon A, Sadek H, Roche P, Tardy C, Da Silva C, Garrigue A, Fischer A, Moshous D, Collette Y, Picard C, Casanova JL, Andre I, Cavazzana M
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A gain-of-function RAC2 mutation is associated with bone marrow hypoplasia and an autosomal dominant form of severe combined immunodeficiency

HAEMATOLOGICA 2021 FEB; 106(2):404-411
Svere combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) constitute a heterogeneous group of life-threatening genetic disorders that typically present in the first year of life. They are defined by the absence of autologous T cells and the presence of an intrinsic or extrinsic defect in the B-cell compartment. In three newborns presenting with frequent infections and profound leukopenia, we identified a private, heterozygous mutation in the RAC2 gene (p.G12R). This mutation was de novo in the index case, who had been cured by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but had transmitted the mutation to her sick daughter. Biochemical assays showed that the mutation was associated with a gain of function. The results of in vitro differentiation assays showed that RAC2 is essential for the survival and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, screening for RAC2 gain-of-function mutations should be considered in patients with a SCID phenotype and who lack a molecular diagnosis.
Phelps JS, Hildebrand DGC, Graham BJ, Kuan AT, Thomas LA, Nguyen TM, Buhmann J, Azevedo AW, Sustar A, Agrawal S, Liu MG, Shanny BL, Funke J, Tuthill JC, Lee WCA
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Reconstruction of motor control circuits in adult Drosophila using automated transmission electron microscopy

CELL 2021 FEB 4; 184(3):759-774.e18
To investigate circuit mechanisms underlying locomotor behavior, we used serial-section electron microscopy (EM) to acquire a synapse-resolution dataset containing the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of an adult female Drosophila melanogaster. To generate this dataset, we developed GridTape, a technology that combines automated serial-section collection with automated high-throughput transmission EM. Using this dataset, we studied neuronal networks that control leg and wing movements by reconstructing all 507 motor neurons that control the limbs. We show that a specific class of leg sensory neurons synapses directly onto motor neurons with the largest-caliber axons on both sides of the body, representing a unique pathway for fast limb control. We provide open access to the dataset and reconstructions registered to a standard atlas to permit matching of cells between EM and light microscopy data. We also provide GridTape instrumentation designs and software to make large-scale EM more accessible and affordable to the scientific community.
Showalter K, Spiera R, Magro C, Agius P, Martyanov V, Franks JM, Sharma R, Geiger H, Wood TA, Zhang YX, Hale CR, Finik J, Whitfield ML, Orange DE, Gordon JK
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Machine learning integration of scleroderma histology and gene expression identifies fibroblast polarisation as a hallmark of clinical severity and improvement

Objective We sought to determine histologic and gene expression features of clinical improvement in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc; scleroderma). Methods Fifty-eight forearm biopsies were evaluated from 26 individuals with dcSSc in two clinical trials. Histologic/immunophenotypic assessments of global severity, alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA), CD34, collagen, inflammatory infiltrate, follicles and thickness were compared with gene expression and clinical data. Support vector machine learning was performed using scleroderma gene expression subset (normal-like, fibroproliferative, inflammatory) as classifiers and histology scores as inputs. Comparison of w-vector mean absolute weights was used to identify histologic features most predictive of gene expression subset. We then tested for differential gene expression according to histologic severity and compared those with clinical improvement (according to the Combined Response Index in Systemic Sclerosis). Results aSMA was highest and CD34 lowest in samples with highest local Modified Rodnan Skin Score. CD34 and aSMA changed significantly from baseline to 52 weeks in clinical improvers. CD34 and aSMA were the strongest predictors of gene expression subset, with highest CD34 staining in the normal-like subset (p<0.001) and highest aSMA staining in the inflammatory subset (p=0.016). Analysis of gene expression according to CD34 and aSMA binarised scores identified a 47-gene fibroblast polarisation signature that decreases over time only in improvers (vs non-improvers). Pathway analysis of these genes identified gene expression signatures of inflammatory fibroblasts. Conclusion CD34 and aSMA stains describe distinct fibroblast polarisation states, are associated with gene expression subsets and clinical assessments, and may be useful biomarkers of clinical severity and improvement in dcSSc.
Lee YL, Ito K, Pi WC, Lin IH, Chu CS, Malik S, Cheng IH, Chen WY, Roeder RG
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Mediator subunit MED1 is required for E2A-PBX1-mediated oncogenic transcription and leukemic cell growth

The chimeric transcription factor E2A-PBX1, containing the N-terminal activation domains of E2A fused to the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of PBX1, results in 5% of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL). We recently have reported a mechanism for RUNX1-dependent recruitment of E2A-PBX1 to chromatin in pre-B leukemic cells; but the subsequent E2A-PBX1 functions through various coactivators and the general transcriptional machinery remain unclear. The Mediator complex plays a critical role in cell-specific gene activation by serving as a key coactivator for gene-specific transcription factors that facilitates their function through the RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery, but whether Mediator contributes to aberrant expression of E2A-PBX1 target genes remains largely unexplored. Here we show that Mediator interacts directly with E2A-PBX1 through an interaction of the MED1 subunit with an E2A activation domain. Results of MED1 depletion by CRISPR/Cas9 further indicate that MED1 is specifically required for E2A-PBX1-dependent gene activation and leukemic cell growth. Integrated transcriptome and cistrome analyses identify pre-B cell receptor and cell cycle regulatory genes as direct cotargets of MED1 and E2A-PBX1. Notably, complementary biochemical analyses also demonstrate that recruitment of E2A-PBX1 to a target DNA template involves a direct interaction with DNA-bound RUNX1 that can be further stabilized by EBF1. These findings suggest that E2A-PBX1 interactions with RUNX1 and MED1/Mediator are of functional importance for both gene-specific transcriptional activation and maintenance of E2A-PBX1-driven leukemia. The MED1 dependency for E2A-PBX1-mediated gene activation and leukemogenesis may provide a potential therapeutic opportunity by targeting MED1 in E2A-PBX1(+) pre-B leukemia.
Shonkoff JP, Boyce WT, Levitt P, Martinez FD, McEwen B
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Leveraging the Biology of Adversity and Resilience to Transform Pediatric Practice

PEDIATRICS 2021 FEB; 147(2):? Article e20193845
Advances in science are fundamentally changing the way we understand how inextricable interactions among genetic predispositions, physical and social environments, and developmental timing influence early childhood development and the foundations of health and how significant early adversity can lead to a lifetime of chronic health impairments. This article and companion article illustrate the extent to which differential outcomes are shaped by ongoing interactive adaptations to context that begin at or even before conception and continue throughout life, with increasing evidence pointing to the importance of the prenatal period and early infancy for the developing brain, the immune system, and metabolic regulation. Although new discoveries in the basic sciences are transforming tertiary medical care and producing breakthrough outcomes in treating disease, this knowledge is not being leveraged effectively to inform new approaches to promoting whole-child development and preventing illness. The opportunity for pediatrics to serve as the leading edge of science-based innovation across the early childhood ecosystem has never been more compelling. In this article, we present a framework for leveraging the frontiers of scientific discovery to inform new strategies in pediatric practice and advocacy to protect all developing biological systems from the disruptive effects of excessive early adversity beyond providing information on child development for parents and enriched learning experiences for young children.
Scaplen KM, Talay M, Fisher JD, Cohn R, Sorkac A, Aso Y, Barnea G, Kaun KR
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Transsynaptic mapping of Drosophila mushroom body output neurons

ELIFE 2021 FEB 11; 10(?):? Article e63379
The mushroom body (MB) is a well-characterized associative memory structure within the Drosophila brain. Analyzing MB connectivity using multiple approaches is critical for understanding the functional implications of this structure. Using the genetic anterograde transsynaptic tracing tool, trans-Tango, we identified divergent projections across the brain and convergent downstream targets of the MB output neurons (MBONs). Our analysis revealed at least three separate targets that receive convergent input from MBONs: other MBONs, the fan-shaped body (FSB), and the lateral accessory lobe (LAL). We describe, both anatomically and functionally, a multilayer circuit in which inhibitory and excitatory MBONs converge on the same genetic subset of FSB and LAL neurons. This circuit architecture enables the brain to update and integrate information with previous experience before executing appropriate behavioral responses. Our use of trans-Tango provides a genetically accessible anatomical framework for investigating the functional relevance of components within these complex and interconnected circuits.
Anderson TL, Sheppard LW, Walter JA, Rolley RE, Reuman DC
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Synchronous effects produce cycles in deer populations and deer-vehicle collisions

ECOLOGY LETTERS 2021; 24(2):337-347
Population cycles are fundamentally linked with spatial synchrony, the prevailing paradigm being that populations with cyclic dynamics are easily synchronised. That is, population cycles help give rise to spatial synchrony. Here we demonstrate this process can work in reverse, with synchrony causing population cycles. We show that timescale-specific environmental effects, by synchronising local population dynamics on certain timescales only, cause major population cycles over large areas in white-tailed deer. An important aspect of the new mechanism is specificity of synchronising effects to certain timescales, which causes local dynamics to sum across space to a substantial cycle on those timescales. We also demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that synchrony can be transmitted not only from environmental drivers to populations (deer), but also from there to human systems (deer-vehicle collisions). Because synchrony of drivers may be altered by climate change, changes to population cycles may arise via our mechanism.
Liu FY, Lee J, Chen J
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Molecular structures of the eukaryotic retinal importer ABCA4

ELIFE 2021 FEB 19; 10(?):? Article e63524
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family contains thousands of members with diverse functions. Movement of the substrate, powered by ATP hydrolysis, can be outward (export) or inward (import). ABCA4 is a eukaryotic importer transporting retinal to the cytosol to enter the visual cycle. It also removes toxic retinoids from the disc lumen. Mutations in ABCA4 cause impaired vision or blindness. Despite decades of clinical, biochemical, and animal model studies, the molecular mechanism of ABCA4 is unknown. Here, we report the structures of human ABCA4 in two conformations. In the absence of ATP, ABCA4 adopts an outward-facing conformation, poised to recruit substrate. The presence of ATP induces large conformational changes that could lead to substrate release. These structures provide a molecular basis to understand many disease-causing mutations and a rational guide for new experiments to uncover how ABCA4 recruits, flips, and releases retinoids.
van Straalen KR, Frew JW
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The Importance of Methodological Rigor in Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trials: A Lesson from Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Frew JW, Marzano AV, Wolk K, Join-Lambert O, Alavi A, Lowes MA, Piguet V
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A Systematic Review of Promising Therapeutic Targets in Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Critical Evaluation of Mechanistic and Clinical Relevance

This systematic review identifies and critically evaluates the mechanistic and clinical evidence of new promising therapeutic targets in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Evidence for these targets is largely based on observational data with limited ex vivo and translational data from clinical trials. A number of placebo-controlled studies have been completed or are underway utilizing IL-1, IL-23, IL-17, complement, and Jak inhibition, although there is concern regarding elevated placebo response rates and the questionable validity of clinical scores in some participant subsets. Knowledge gaps are identified suggesting a direction for future mechanistic studies in HS, including more comprehensive inflammatory endotype profiling of disease.