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Found 36319 matches. Displaying 61-70
Miura S, Garcet S, Salud-Gnilo C, Gonzalez J, Li X, Murai-Yamamura M, Yamamura K, Rambhia D, Kunjravia N, Guttman-Yassky E, Krueger JG
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IL-36 and IL-17A Cooperatively Induce a Psoriasis-Like Gene Expression Response in Human Keratinocytes

Witt E, Shao ZT, Hu C, Krause HM, Zhao L
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Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals pre-meiotic X-chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila testis

PLOS GENETICS 2021 AUG; 17(8):? Article e1009728
Dosage compensation equalizes X-linked expression between XY males and XX females. In male fruit flies, expression levels of the X-chromosome are increased approximately two-fold to compensate for their single X chromosome. In testis, dosage compensation is thought to cease during meiosis; however, the timing and degree of the resulting transcriptional suppression is difficult to separate from global meiotic downregulation of each chromosome. To address this, we analyzed testis single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data from two Drosophila melanogaster strains. We found evidence that the X chromosome is equally transcriptionally active as autosomes in somatic and pre-meiotic cells, and less transcriptionally active than autosomes in meiotic and post-meiotic cells. In cells experiencing dosage compensation, close proximity to MSL (male-specific lethal) chromatin entry sites (CES) correlates with increased X chromosome transcription. We found low or undetectable levels of germline expression of most msl genes, mle, roX1 and roX2 via scRNA-seq and RNA-FISH, and no evidence of germline nuclear roX1/2 localization. Our results suggest that, although dosage compensation occurs in somatic and pre-meiotic germ cells in Drosophila testis, there might be non-canonical factors involved in the dosage compensation mechanism. The single-cell expression patterns and enrichment statistics of detected genes can be explored interactively in our database: . Author summary Male flies need to boost gene expression from their single X chromosome to equal that of females, which have two X chromosomes. In this process, called dosage compensation, the dosage compensation complex binds to genomic chromatin entry sites and upregulates gene expression nearby. This process was thought to be restricted to somatic cells. Using single-cell RNA-seq data, we found that certain germ cell types in the Drosophila testis show X chromosome expression similar to that of the autosomes, implying dosage compensation activity. In these cell types, we found evidence that genes near a chromatin entry site are more highly expressed than genes farther away, which is additional evidence of dosage compensation. In cell types without evidence of dosage compensation, we saw no evidence of chromatin entry site activity. Interestingly, we found little evidence of expression of most genes from the dosage compensation complex using both RNA-FISH and scRNA-seq. This suggests that our observed pre-meiotic dosage compensation is likely to be mediated by a noncanonical mechanism. These findings add new insight into our understanding of sex chromosomes.
Choppakatla P, Dekker B, Cutts EE, Vannini A, Dekker J, Funabiki H
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Linker histone H1.8 inhibits chromatin binding of condensins and DNA topoisomerase II to tune chromosome length and individualization

ELIFE 2021 AUG 18; 10(?):? Article e68918
DNA loop extrusion by condensins and decatenation by DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) are thought to drive mitotic chromosome compaction and individualization. Here, we reveal that the linker histone H1.8 antagonizes condensins and topo II to shape mitotic chromosome organization. In vitro chromatin reconstitution experiments demonstrate that H1.8 inhibits binding of condensins and topo II to nucleosome arrays. Accordingly, H1.8 depletion in Xenopus egg extracts increased condensins and topo II levels on mitotic chromatin. Chromosome morphology and Hi-C analyses suggest that H1.8 depletion makes chromosomes thinner and longer through shortening the average loop size and reducing the DNA amount in each layer of mitotic loops. Furthermore, excess loading of condensins and topo II to chromosomes by H1.8 depletion causes hyper-chromosome individualization and dispersion. We propose that condensins and topo II are essential for chromosome individualization, but their functions are tuned by the linker histone to keep chromosomes together until anaphase.
Basu J, Reis BS, Peri S, Zha JK, Hua X, Ge L, Ferchen K, Nicolas E, Czyzewicz P, Cai KQ, Tan YF, Bass JIF, Walhout AJM, Grimes HL, Grivennikov SI, Mucida D, Kappes DJ
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Essential role of a ThPOK autoregulatory loop in the maintenance of mature CD4(+) T cell identity and function

NATURE IMMUNOLOGY 2021 AUG; 22(8):969-982
The transcription factor ThPOK (encoded by the Zbtb7b gene) controls homeostasis and differentiation of mature helper T cells, while opposing their differentiation to CD4(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in the intestinal mucosa. Thus CD4 IEL differentiation requires ThPOK transcriptional repression via reactivation of the ThPOK transcriptional silencer element (Sil(ThPOK)). In the present study, we describe a new autoregulatory loop whereby ThPOK binds to the Sil(ThPOK) to maintain its own long-term expression in CD4 T cells. Disruption of this loop in vivo prevents persistent ThPOK expression, leads to genome-wide changes in chromatin accessibility and derepresses the colonic regulatory T (T-reg) cell gene expression signature. This promotes selective differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into GITR(lo)PD-1(lo)CD25(lo) (Triple(lo)) T-reg cells and conversion to CD4(+) IELs in the gut, thereby providing dominant protection from colitis. Hence, the ThPOK autoregulatory loop represents a key mechanism to physiologically control ThPOK expression and T cell differentiation in the gut, with potential therapeutic relevance. The transcription factor ThPOK is critical for homeostasis and differentiation of mature helper T cells. Here, Kappes and colleagues describe a ThPOK-mediated positive autoregulatory loop that is crucial for tissue-specific T-reg cell differentiation, maintenance of intestinal T-reg cell integrity and conversion of these cells into CD4(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes.
Kaustio M, Nayebzadeh N, Hinttala R, Tapiainen T, Astrom P, Mamia K, Pernaa N, Lehtonen J, Glumoff V, Rahikkala E, Honkila M, Olsen P, Hassinen A, Polso M, Al Sukaiti N, Al Shekaili J, Al Kindi M, Al Hashmi N, Almusa H, Bulanova D, Haapaniemi E, Chen P, Suo-Palosaari M, Vieira P, Tuominen H, Kokkonen H, Al Macki N, Al Habsi H, Lopponen T, Rantala H, Pietiainen V, Zhang SY, Renko M, Hautala T, Al Farsi T, Uusimaa J, Saarela J
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Loss of DIAPH1 causes SCBMS, combined immunodeficiency, and mitochondrial dysfunction

Background: Homozygous loss of DIAPH1 results in seizures, cortical blindness, and microcephaly syndrome (SCBMS). We studied 5 Finnish and 2 Omani patients with loss of DIAPH1 presenting with SCBMS, mitochondrial dysfunction, and immunodeficiency. Objective: We sought to further characterize phenotypes and disease mechanisms associated with loss of DIAPH1. Methods: Exome sequencing, genotyping and haplotype analysis, B- and T-cell phenotyping, in vitro lymphocyte stimulation assays, analyses of mitochondrial function, immunofluorescence staining for cytoskeletal proteins and mitochondria, and CRISPR-Cas9 DIAPH1 knockout in heathy donor PBMCs were used. Results: Genetic analyses found all Finnish patients homozygous for a rare DIAPH1 splice-variant (NM_005219:c.68411G>A) enriched in the Finnish population, and Omani patients homozygous for a previously described pathogenic DIAPH1 frameshift-variant (NM_005219:c.2769delT;p.F923fs). In addition to microcephaly, epilepsy, and cortical blindness characteristic to SCBMS, the patients presented with infection susceptibility due to defective lymphocyte maturation and 3 patients developed B-cell lymphoma. Patients' immunophenotype was characterized by poor lymphocyte activation and proliferation, defective B-cell maturation, and lack of naive T cells. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of DIAPH1 in PBMCs from healthy donors replicated the T-cell activation defect. Patient-derived peripheral blood T cells exhibited impaired adhesion and inefficient microtubule-organizing center repositioning to the immunologic synapse. The clinical symptoms and laboratory tests also suggested mitochondrial dysfunction. Experiments with immortalized, patient-derived fibroblasts indicated that DIAPH1 affects the amount of complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that individuals with SCBMS can have combined immune deficiency and implicate defective cytoskeletal organization and mitochondrial dysfunction in SCBMS pathogenesis.
Johnson DS, Deneau T, Toledo-Crow R, Simon SM
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Microscope Enclosure for Temperature Regulation and Light Isolation

APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL 2021 AUG; 11(15):? Article 6812
Featured Application Here we present the design of a temperature regulation and light isolation microscope enclosure. This design can be readily adapted to the specific configurations of a custom imaging system. Light isolation and temperature regulation are often required for microscopic imaging. Commercial enclosures are available to satisfy these requirements, but they are often not flexible to the variety of custom systems found in research laboratories. We present the design for an affordable enclosure which utilizes aluminum t-slot profiles to support opaque expanded PVC panels. Temperature is regulated by exchanging the enclosure air with an external heater. In addition, we demonstrate baffles integrated into the enclosure improve temperature uniformity. Example designs for both upright and inverted microscopes are given, providing a starting point for creating a system-specific custom enclosure.
Mak T, Jones AW, Nurse P
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The TOR-dependent phosphoproteome and regulation of cellular protein synthesis

EMBO JOURNAL 2021 AUG 16; 40(16):? Article e107911
Cell growth is orchestrated by a number of interlinking cellular processes. Components of the TOR pathway have been proposed as potential regulators of cell growth, but little is known about their immediate effects on protein synthesis in response to TOR-dependent growth inhibition. Here, we present a resource providing an in-depth characterisation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe phosphoproteome in relation to changes observed in global cellular protein synthesis upon TOR inhibition. We find that after TOR inhibition, the rate of protein synthesis is rapidly reduced and that notable phosphorylation changes are observed in proteins involved in a range of cellular processes. We show that this reduction in protein synthesis rates upon TOR inhibition is not dependent on S6K activity, but is partially dependent on the S. pombe homologue of eIF4G, Tif471. Our study demonstrates the impact of TOR-dependent phospho-regulation on the rate of protein synthesis and establishes a foundational resource for further investigation of additional TOR-regulated targets both in fission yeast and other eukaryotes.
Zhou W, Melamed D, Banyai G, Meyer C, Tuschl T, Wickens M, Cao JY, Fields S
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Expanding the binding specificity for RNA recognition by a PUF domain

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2021 AUG 24; 12(1):? Article 5107
The PUF RNAbinding domain has an eight-repeat structure with the ability to bind an eight-base RNA sequence. Here the authors generate a comprehensive library of variants of a PUF domain to find an RNA binding code and design PUF domains that recognize an arbitrary RNA sequence. The ability to design a protein to bind specifically to a target RNA enables numerous applications, with the modular architecture of the PUF domain lending itself to new RNA-binding specificities. For each repeat of the Pumilio-1 PUF domain, we generate a library that contains the 8,000 possible combinations of amino acid substitutions at residues critical for RNA contact. We carry out yeast three-hybrid selections with each library against the RNA recognition sequence for Pumilio-1, with any possible base present at the position recognized by the randomized repeat. We use sequencing to score the binding of each variant, identifying many variants with highly repeat-specific interactions. From these data, we generate an RNA binding code specific to each repeat and base. We use this code to design PUF domains against 16 RNAs, and find that some of these domains recognize RNAs with two, three or four changes from the wild type sequence.
Hu JJ, Molinari E, Darmon S, Zhang L, Patrizio P, Barad DH, Gleicher N
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Valor predictivo de los patrones de granulacion del citoplasma durante Fecundacion in vitro en ovocitos en metafase II: Parte I, pacientes con mal pronostico

FERTILITY AND STERILITY 2021 AUG; 116(2):431-443
Objective: To determine whether 4 cytoplasmic granulation patterns of human metaphase II oocytes have a predictive value for in vitro fertilization outcomes. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Setting: An academically affiliated private clinical infertility and research center. Patient(s): A total of 2,690 consecutive fresh autologous oocytes collected from women aged 41.2 + 5.0 years between 2017 and 2019. Intervention(s): Determination of granulation pattern in every oocyte during intracytoplasmic sperm injection as fine, central, dispersed, and newly introduced uneven granulations. Main Outcome Measure(s): Fertilization outcomes (2 pronuclei [2PN], <2PN, and >2PN rates), pregnancy, and live birth rates for different granulation patterns at different ages. Result(s): Fine granulation produced the highest 2PN rate, followed by central, uneven, and dispersed granulation (91.8%, 83.9%, 77.9%, and 54.8%, respectively). Differences in fertilization were surprisingly relatively independent of age and other variables. Overall, compared with fine granulation, dispersed granulation resulted in lower pregnancy rates (4.6% vs. 10.7%) and known-outcome analysis (1.3% vs. 5.6%) as well as lower live birth rates (3.0% vs. 8.9%) and known-outcome analysis (0.6% vs. 5.6%). The known-outcome analysis demonstrated that uneven granulation had lower live birth rates than fine granulation (2.3% vs. 5.6%). Unexpectedly, the ooplasm granulation patterns were largely disassociated from embryo morphologic grades. Conclusion(s): We, for the first time, demonstrated that 4 distinct cytoplasmic granulation patterns in metaphase II oocytes had, largely independent of age and other variables, a predictive value for fertilization, pregnancy, and live birth outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles of poor-prognosis patients. These data suggest that upstream ooplasm granulation patterns deserve closer attention in terms of embryo selection.
Niu YM, Tao X, Vaisey G, Olinares PDB, Alwaseem H, Chait BT, MacKinnon R
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Analysis of the mechanosensor channel functionality of TACAN

ELIFE 2021 AUG 10; 10(?):? Article e71188
Mechanosensitive ion channels mediate transmembrane ion currents activated by mechanical forces. A mechanosensitive ion channel called TACAN was recently reported. We began to study TACAN with the intent to understand how it senses mechanical forces and functions as an ion channel. Using cellular patch-recording methods, we failed to identify mechanosensitive ion channel activity. Using membrane reconstitution methods, we found that TACAN, at high protein concentrations, produces heterogeneous conduction levels that are not mechanosensitive and are most consistent with disruptions of the lipid bilayer. We determined the structure of TACAN using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and observed that it is a symmetrical dimeric transmembrane protein. Each protomer contains an intracellular-facing cleft with a coenzyme A cofactor, confirmed by mass spectrometry. The TACAN protomer is related in three-dimensional structure to a fatty acid elongase, ELOVL7. Whilst its physiological function remains unclear, we anticipate that TACAN is not a mechanosensitive ion channel.