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Found 35555 matches. Displaying 61-70
Fins JJ, Wright MS, Bagenstos SR
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Disorders of Consciousness and Disability Law

MAYO CLINIC PROCEEDINGS 2020 AUG; 95(8):1732-1739
In 2018, the American Academy of Neurology, the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine, and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research published a systematic evidence-based review and an associated practice guideline for improved assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with disorders of consciousness. Patients with disorders of consciousness include individuals in the vegetative and minimally conscious states, as well as others with covert consciousness and cognitive motor dissociation. These landmark publications (concurrently published in Neurology and Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation) supplant the 1994 New England Journal of Medicine Multi-Society Task Force report on the vegetative state and the 2002 criteria establishing minimally conscious states. The guideline re-designates the permanent vegetative state as chronic. In our article, we consider the legal and ethical implications of the practice guideline for clinical practice and explain the vulnerability of these patients who suffer from high rates of misdiagnosis, inadequate medical surveillance, undertreatment of pain, inadequate rehabilitation, and segregation in chronic care. We argue that these deficiencies in medical care are inconsistent with our growing appreciation of the dynamic nature of these brain states and an emerging standard of care as articulated by the national guideline. These deficiencies also violate domestic and international disability law. To substantiate this latter claim, we apply disability law to this population, focusing on key Americans with Disabilities Act mandates, the relevance of the 1999 Supreme Court, Olmstead v. L.C., and the utility of Olmstead enforcement actions to integrate the care of these individuals into the medical mainstream. (C) 2020 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
Page KM, Suarez-Farinas M, Suprun M, Zhang WD, Garcet S, Fuentes-Duculan J, Li X, Scaramozza M, Kieras E, Banfield C, Clark JD, Fensome A, Krueger JG, Peeva E
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Molecular and Cellular Responses to the TYK2/JAK1 Inhibitor PF-06700841 Reveal Reduction of Skin Inflammation in Plaque Psoriasis

The IL-23/T helper type 17 cell axis is a target for psoriasis. The TYK2/Janus kinase 1 inhibitor PF-06700841 will directly suppress TYK2-dependent IL-12 and IL-23 signaling and Janus kinase 1-dependent signaling in cells expressing these signaling molecules, including T cells and keratinocytes. This clinical study sought to define the inflammatory gene and cellular pathways through which PF-06700841 improves the clinical manifestations of psoriasis. Patients (n = 30) with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were randomized to once-daily 30 mg (n = 14) or 100 mg (n = 7) PF-06700841 or placebo (n = 9) for 28 days. Biopsies were taken from nonlesional and lesional skin at baseline and weeks 2 and 4. Changes in the psoriasis transcriptome and genes induced by IL-17 in keratinocytes were evaluated with microarray profiling and reverse transcriptase-PCR. Reductions in IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-12B mRNA were observed as early as 2 weeks and approximately 70% normalization of lesional gene expression after 4 weeks. Immunohistochemistry showed significant decreases in markers of keratinocyte activation, epidermal thickness, KRT16 and Ki-67 expression, and immune cell infiltrates CD3(+)/CD8(+) (T cells) and CD11c (dendritic cells) after 2 weeks of treatment, corresponding with improvement in histologic score. PF-06700841 improves clinical symptoms of chronic plaque psoriasis by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines that require TYK2 and Janus kinase 1 for signal transduction.
Barnes CO, West AP, Huey-Tubman KE, Hoffmann MAG, Sharaf NG, Hoffman PR, Koranda N, Gristick HB, Gaebler C, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JCC, Finkin S, Hagglof T, Hurley A, Millard KG, Weisblum Y, Schmidt F, Hatziioannou T, Bieniasz PD, Caskey M, Robbiani DF, Nussenzweig MC, Bjorkman PJ
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Structures of Human Antibodies Bound to SARS-CoV-2 Spike Reveal Common Epitopes and Recurrent Features of Antibodies

CELL 2020 AUG 20; 182(4):828-842.e16
Neutralizing antibody responses to coronaviruses mainly target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the trimeric spike. Here, we characterized polyclonal immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) and Fabs from COVID-19 convalescent individuals for recognition of coronavirus spikes. Plasma IgGs differed in their focus on RBD epitopes, recognition of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, and contributions of avidity to increased binding/neutralization of IgGs over Fabs. Using electron microscopy, we examined specificities of polyclonal plasma Fabs, revealing recognition of both S1(A) and RBD epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike. Moreover, a 3.4 A cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a neutralizing monoclonal Fab-spike complex revealed an epitope that blocks ACE2 receptor binding. Modeling based on these structures suggested different potentials for inter-spike crosslinking by IgGs on viruses, and characterized IgGs would not be affected by identified SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations. Overall, our studies structurally define a recurrent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody class derived from VH3-53/VH3-66 and similarity to a SARS-CoV VH3-30 antibody, providing criteria for evaluating vaccine-elicited antibodies.
Kazak L, Cohen P
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Creatine metabolism: energy homeostasis, immunity and cancer biology

Perturbations in metabolic processes are associated with diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, certain infections and some cancers. A resurgence of interest in creatine biology is developing, with new insights into a diverse set of regulatory functions for creatine. This resurgence is primarily driven by technological advances in genetic engineering and metabolism as well as by the realization that this metabolite has key roles in cells beyond the muscle and brain. Herein, we highlight the latest advances in creatine biology in tissues and cell types that have historically received little attention in the field. In adipose tissue, creatine controls thermogenic respiration and loss of this metabolite impairs whole-body energy expenditure, leading to obesity. We also cover the various roles that creatine metabolism has in cancer cell survival and the function of the immune system. Renewed interest in this area has begun to showcase the therapeutic potential that lies in understanding how changes in creatine metabolism lead to metabolic disease. Creatine is well known to have a key role in energy buffering; however, new work is showing that creatine also has roles in diverse cell types and physiological conditions that are distinct from this classic role. This Review discusses the role of creatine in adipocyte thermogenesis, immunity and cancer cell survival.
Yang SD, Arrode-Bruses G, Frank I, Grasperge B, Blanchard J, Gettie A, Martinelli E, Ho EA
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Anti-alpha(4)beta(7) monoclonal antibody-conjugated nanoparticles block integrin alpha(4)beta(7) on intravaginal T cells in rhesus macaques

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2020 AUG; 6(34):? Article eabb9853
Intravenous administration of anti-alpha(4)beta(7) monoclonal antibody in macaques decreases simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaginal infection and reduces gut SIV loads. Because of potential side effects of systemic administration, a prophylactic strategy based on mucosal administration of anti-alpha(4)beta(7) antibody may be safer and more effective. With this in mind, we developed a novel intravaginal formulation consisting of anti-alpha(4)beta(7) monoclonal antibody-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) loaded in a 1% hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel (NP-alpha(4)beta(7) gel). When intravaginally administered as a single dose in a rhesus macaque model, the formulation preferentially bound to CD4(+) or CD3(+) T cells expressing high levels of alpha(4)beta(7), and occupied similar to 40% of alpha(4)beta(7)expressed by these subsets and similar to 25% of all cells expressing alpha(4)beta(7). Blocking of the alpha(4)beta(7) was restricted to the vaginal tract without any changes detected systemically.
Robbiani DF, Gaebler C, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JCC, Wang ZJ, Cho A, Agudelo M, Barnes CO, Gazumyan A, Finkin S, Hagglof T, Oliveira TY, Viant C, Hurley A, Hoffmann HH, Millard KG, Kost RG, Cipolla M, Gordon K, Bianchini F, Chen ST, Ramos V, Patel R, Dizon J, Shimeliovich I, Mendoza P, Hartweger H, Nogueira L, Pack M, Horowitz J, Schmidt F, Weisblum Y, Michailidis E, Ashbrook AW, Waltari E, Pak JE, Huey-Tubman KE, Koranda N, Hoffman PR, West AP, Rice CM, Hatziioannou T, Bjorkman PJ, Bieniasz PD, Caskey M, Nussenzweig MC
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Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals

NATURE 2020 AUG 20; 584(7821):437–442
During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the infection of millions of people and has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The entry of the virus into cells depends on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Although there is currently no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection. However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-2(1-5). Here we report on 149 COVID-19-convalescent individuals. Plasma samples collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal pseudovirus neutralizing titres; titres were less than 50 in 33% of samples, below 1,000 in 79% of samples and only 1% of samples had titres above 5,000. Antibody sequencing revealed the expansion of clones of RBD-specific memory B cells that expressed closely related antibodies in different individuals. Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on the RBD neutralized the virus with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as 2 ng ml(-1). In conclusion, most convalescent plasma samples obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective.
Fadlallah J, Chentout L, Boisson B, Pouliet A, Masson C, Morin F, Durandy A, Casanova JL, Oksenhendler E, Kracker S
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From Dysgammaglobulinemia to Autosomal-Dominant Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Deficiency: Unraveling an Inherited Immunodeficiency after 50 Years

JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS 2020 AUG; 223(?):207-211.e1
The genetic investigation of a family presenting with a dominant form of hyper IgM syndrome published in 1963 and 1975 revealed a R190X nonsense mutation in activation-induced cytidine deaminase. This report illustrates the progress made over 6 decades in the characterization of primary immunodeficiencies, from immunochemistry to whole-exome sequencing.
Zhou Y, Liang YP, Kreek MJ
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mTORC1 pathway is involved in the kappa opioid receptor activation-induced increase in excessive alcohol drinking in mice

KOP-r agonist U50,488H produces strong aversion and anxiety/depression-like behaviors that enhance alcohol intake and promote alcohol seeking and relapse-like drinking in rodents. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in mouse striatum is highly involved in excessive alcohol intake and seeking, and in the U50,488H-induced conditioned place aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized that KOP-r activation increases alcohol consumption through the mTORC1 activation. This study focuses on: (1) how chronic excessive alcohol drinking (4-day drinking-in-the-dark paradigm followed by 3-week chronic intermittent access drinking paradigm [two-bottle choice, 24-h access every other day]) affected nuclear transcript levels of the mTORC1 pathway genes in mouse nucleus accumbens shell (NAcs), using transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis; and (2) whether selective mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin could alter excessive alcohol drinking and prevent U50,488H-promoted alcohol intake. Thirteen nuclear transcripts of mTORC1 pathway genes showed significant up-regulation in the NAcs, with two genes down-regulated, after excessive alcohol drinking, suggesting the mTORC1 pathway was profoundly disrupted. Single administration of rapamycin decreased alcohol drinking in a dose-dependent manner. U50,488H increased alcohol drinking, and pretreatment with rapamycin, at a dose lower than effective doses, blocked the U50,488H-promoted alcohol intake in a dose-dependent manner, indicating a mTORC1-mediated mechanism. Our results provide supportive and direct evidence relevant to the transcriptional profiling of the critical mTORC1 genes in mouse NAc shell: with functional and pharmacological effects of rapamycin, altered nuclear transcripts in the mTORC1 signaling pathway after excessive alcohol drinking may contribute to increased alcohol intake triggered by KOP-r activation.
Lucas C, Wong P, Klein J, Castro TBR, Silva J, Sundaram M, Ellingson MK, Mao TY, Oh JE, Israelow B, Takahashi T, Tokuyama M, Lu PW, Venkataraman A, Park A, Mohanty S, Wang HW, Wyllie AL, Vogels CBF, Earnest R, Lapidus S, Ott IM, Moore AJ, Muenker MC, Fournier JB, Campbell M, Odio CD, Casanovas-Massana A, Herbst R, Shaw AC, Medzhitov R, Schulz WL, Grubaugh ND, Dela Cruz C, Farhadian S, Ko AI, Omer SB, Iwasaki A, Obaid A, Lu-Culligan A, Nelson A, Brito A, Nunez A, Martin A, Watkins A, Geng B, Kalinich C, Harden C, Todeasa C, Jensen C, Kim D, McDonald D, Shepard D, Courchaine E, White EB, Song E, Silva E, Kudo E, DeIuliis G, Rahming H, Park HJ, Matos I, Nouws J, Valdez J, Fauver J, Lim J, Rose KA, Anastasio K, Brower K, Glick L, Sharma L, Sewanan L, Knaggs L, Minasyan M, Batsu M, Petrone M, Kuang M, Nakahata M, Campbell M, Linehan M, Askenase MH, Simonov M, Smolgovsky M, Sonnert N, Naushad N, Vijayakumar P, Martinello R, Datta R, Handoko R, Bermejo S, Prophet S, Bickerton S, Velazquez S, Alpert T, Rice T, Khoury-Hanold W, Peng XH, Yang YX, Cao YY, Strong Y
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Longitudinal analyses reveal immunological misfiring in severe COVID-19

NATURE 2020 AUG 20; 584(7821):463–469
Recent studies have provided insights into the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)(1-4). However, the longitudinal immunological correlates of disease outcome remain unclear. Here we serially analysed immune responses in 113 patients with moderate or severe COVID-19. Immune profiling revealed an overall increase in innate cell lineages, with a concomitant reduction in T cell number. An early elevation in cytokine levels was associated with worse disease outcomes. Following an early increase in cytokines, patients with moderate COVID-19 displayed a progressive reduction in type 1 (antiviral) and type 3 (antifungal) responses. By contrast, patients with severe COVID-19 maintained these elevated responses throughout the course of the disease. Moreover, severe COVID-19 was accompanied by an increase in multiple type 2 (anti-helminths) effectors, including interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, immunoglobulin E and eosinophils. Unsupervised clustering analysis identified four immune signatures, representing growth factors (A), type-2/3 cytokines (B), mixed type-1/2/3 cytokines (C), and chemokines (D) that correlated with three distinct disease trajectories. The immune profiles of patients who recovered from moderate COVID-19 were enriched in tissue reparative growth factor signature A, whereas the profiles of those with who developed severe disease had elevated levels of all four signatures. Thus, we have identified a maladapted immune response profile associated with severe COVID-19 and poor clinical outcome, as well as early immune signatures that correlate with divergent disease trajectories.
Huang J, Zhou J, Ghinnagow R, Seki T, Iketani S, Soulard D, Paczkowski P, Tsuji Y, MacKay S, Cruz LJ, Trottein F, Tsuji M
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Targeted Co-delivery of Tumor Antigen and alpha-Galactosylceramide to CD141(+) Dendritic Cells Induces a Potent Tumor Antigen-Specific Human CD8(+) T Cell Response in Human Immune System Mice

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 2020 AUG 18; 11(?):? Article 2043
Active co-delivery of tumor antigens (Ag) and alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer), a potent agonist for invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells, to cross-priming CD8 alpha(+) dendritic cells (DCs) was previously shown to promote strong anti-tumor responses in mice. Here, we designed a nanoparticle-based vaccine able to target human CD141(+) (BDCA3(+)) DCs - the equivalent of murine CD8 alpha(+) DCs - and deliver both tumor Ag (Melan A) and alpha-GalCer. This nanovaccine was inoculated into humanized mice that mimic the human immune system (HIS) and possess functionaliNKT cells and CD8(+) T cells, called HIS-CD8/NKT mice. We found that multiple immunizations of HIS-CD8/NKT mice with the nanovaccine resulted in the activation and/or expansion of human CD141(+) DCs andiNKT cells and ultimately elicited a potent Melan-A-specific CD8(+) T cell response, as determined by tetramer staining and ELISpot assay. Single-cell proteomics further detailed the highly polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells induced by the nanovaccine and revealed their predictive potential for vaccine potency. This finding demonstrates for the first time the unique ability of humaniNKT cells to license cross-priming DCsin vivoand adds a new dimension to the current strategy of cancer vaccine development.