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Found 35038 matches. Displaying 21-30
Frew JW, Navrazhina K, Byrd AS, Garg A, Ingram JR, Kirby JS, Lowes MA, Naik H, Piguet V, Prens EP
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Defining lesional, perilesional and unaffected skin in hidradenitis suppurativa: proposed recommendations for clinical trials and translational research studies

Gupta MP, Tandalam S, Ostrager S, Lever AS, Fung AR, Hurley DD, Alegre GB, Espinal JE, Remmel HL, Mukherjee S, Levine BM, Robins RP, Molina H, Dill BD, Kenific CM, Tuschl T, Lyden D, D'Amico DJ, Pena JTG
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Non-reversible tissue fixation retains extracellular vesicles for in situ imaging

NATURE METHODS 2019 DEC; 16(12):1269-1273
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted nanosized particles with many biological functions and pathological associations. The inability to image EVs in fixed tissues has been a major limitation to understanding their role in healthy and diseased tissue microenvironments. Here, we show that crosslinking mammalian tissues with formaldehyde results in significant EV loss, which can be prevented by additional fixation with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) for visualization of EVs in a range of normal and cancer tissues.
Ahrends T, Busselaar J, Severson TM, Babala N, de Vries E, Bovens A, Wessels L, van Leeuwen F, Borst J
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CD4(+) T cell help creates memory CD8(+) T cells with innate and help-independent recall capacities

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2019 DEC 4; 10(?):? Article 5531
CD4(+) T cell help is required for the generation of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) memory. Here, we use genome-wide analyses to show how CD4(+) T cell help delivered during priming promotes memory differentiation of CTLs. Help signals enhance IL-15-dependent maintenance of central memory T (T-CM) cells. More importantly, help signals regulate the size and function of the effector memory T (T-EM ) cell pool. Helped T-EM cells produce Granzyme B and IFN gamma upon antigen-independent, innate-like recall by IL-12 and IL-18. In addition, helped memory CTLs express the effector program characteristic of helped primary CTLs upon recall with MHC class I-restricted antigens, likely due to epigenetic imprinting and sustained mRNA expression of effector genes. Our data thus indicate that during priming, CD4(+) T cell help optimizes CTL memory by creating T-EM cells with innate and helpindependent antigen-specific recall capacities.
Sawicka K, Hale CR, Park CY, Fak JJ, Gresack JE, Van Driesche SJ, Kang JJ, Darnell JC, Darnell RB
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FMRP has a cell-type-specific role in CA1 pyramidal neurons to regulate autism-related transcripts and circadian memory

ELIFE 2019 DEC 20; 8(?):? Article e46919
Loss of the RNA binding protein FMRP causes Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, yet it is unknown how FMRP function varies across brain regions and cell types and how this contributes to disease pathophysiology. Here we use conditional tagging of FMRP and CLIP (FMRP cTag CLIP) to examine FMRP mRNA targets in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, a critical cell type for learning and memory relevant to FXS phenotypes. Integrating these data with analysis of ribosome-bound transcripts in these neurons revealed CA1-enriched binding of autism-relevant mRNAs, and CA1-specific regulation of transcripts encoding circadian proteins. This contrasted with different targets in cerebellar granule neurons, and was consistent with circadian defects in hippocampus-dependent memory in Fmr1 knockout mice. These findings demonstrate differential FMRP-dependent regulation of mRNAs across neuronal cell types that may contribute to phenotypes such as memory defects and sleep disturbance associated with FXS.
Alcohol relapse is a treatment goal for alcohol dependence and the target for medications' development. Clinically utilized nalfurafine (NFF) is a potent and selective kappa- opioid receptor (KOP-r) agonist, with fewer side effects (e.g., sedation or anhedonia) than classic KOP-r full agonists. We have recently found that NFF reduces excessive alcohol drinking in mice via a KOP-r-mediated mechanism. Here, we further investigated whether NFF alone (1-10 mu g/kg) or in combination with naltrexone (NTX, mu-opioid receptor [MOP-r] antagonist) altered alcohol relapse-like drinking using a mouse alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) paradigm to mimic the relapse episodes in human alcoholics. Nalmefene (NMF, clinically utilized KOP-r partial agonist with MOP-r antagonism) was used as a reference compound for the effects on mouse ADE of new NFF + NTX combination. After exposed to 3-week intermittent- access alcohol drinking (two-bottle choice, 24-h access every other day), both male and female mice displayed excessive alcohol intake and then pronounced ADE after 1-week abstinence. NFF prevented the ADE in a dose-dependent manner in both male and female mice. A combination of NFF with NTX reduced the ADE without sex differences at doses lower than those individual effective ones, suggesting synergistic effects between the two compounds. NMF prevented the ADE in both sexes, while selective KOP-r antagonist nor-BNI had no effect. Our new study suggests that a combination of clinically-utilized, potent KOP-r agonist NFF with low-dose NTX has therapeutic potential in alcohol "relapse" treatment.
Herre M, Korb E
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The chromatin landscape of neuronal plasticity

Examining the links between neuronal activity, transcriptional output, and synaptic function offers unique insights into how neurons adapt to changing environments and form memories. Epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, have been implicated in the formation of not only cellular memories such as cell fate, but also memories of experience at the organismal level. Here, we review recent advances in chromatin regulation that contribute to synaptic plasticity and drive adaptive behaviors through dynamic and precise regulation of transcription output in neurons. We discuss chromatin-associated proteins, histone variant proteins, the contribution of cis-regulatory elements and their interaction with histone modifications, and how these mechanisms are integrated into distinct behavior and environmental response paradigms.
Ardeljan D, Wang XY, Oghbaie M, Taylor MS, Husband D, Deshpande V, Steranka JP, Gorbounov M, Yang WR, Sie B, Larman HB, Jiang H, Molloy KR, Altukhov I, Li Z, McKerrow W, Fenyo D, Burns KH, LaCava J
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LINE-1 ORF2p expression is nearly imperceptible in human cancers

MOBILE DNA 2019 DEC 31; 11(1):? Article 1
Background Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1, L1) is the major driver of mobile DNA activity in modern humans. When expressed, LINE-1 loci produce bicistronic transcripts encoding two proteins essential for retrotransposition, ORF1p and ORF2p. Many types of human cancers are characterized by L1 promoter hypomethylation, L1 transcription, L1 ORF1p protein expression, and somatic L1 retrotransposition. ORF2p encodes the endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities required for L1 retrotransposition. Its expression is poorly characterized in human tissues and cell lines. Results We report mass spectrometry-based tumor proteome profiling studies wherein ORF2p eludes detection. To test whether ORF2p could be detected with specific reagents, we developed and validated five rabbit monoclonal antibodies with immunoreactivity for specific epitopes on the protein. These reagents readily detect ectopic ORF2p expressed from bicistronic L1 constructs. However, endogenous ORF2p is not detected in human tumor samples or cell lines by western blot, immunoprecipitation, or immunohistochemistry despite high levels of ORF1p expression. Moreover, we report endogenous ORF1p-associated interactomes, affinity isolated from colorectal cancers, wherein we similarly fail to detect ORF2p. These samples include primary tumors harboring hundreds of somatically acquired L1 insertions. The new data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD013743. Conclusions Although somatic retrotransposition provides unequivocal genetic evidence for the expression of ORF2p in human cancers, we are unable to directly measure its presence using several standard methods. Experimental systems have previously indicated an unequal stoichiometry between ORF1p and ORF2p, but in vivo, the expression of these two proteins may be more strikingly uncoupled. These findings are consistent with observations that ORF2p is not tolerable for cell growth.
Ovalles AC, Contoregoi NH, Marques-Lopes J, Van Kempen TA, Iadecola C, Waters EM, Glass MJ, Milner TA
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Plasma Membrane Affiliated AMPA GluA1 in Estrogen Receptor beta-containing Paraventricular Hypothalamic Neurons Increases Following Hypertension in a Mouse Model of Post-menopause

NEUROSCIENCE 2019 DEC 15; 423(?):192-205
Sex and ovarian function contribute to hypertension susceptibility, however, the mechanisms are not well understood. Prior studies show that estrogens and neurogenic factors, including hypothalamic glutamatergic NMDA receptor plasticity, play significant roles in rodent hypertension. Here, we investigated the role of sex and ovarian failure on AMPA receptor plasticity in estrogen-sensitive paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons in naive and angiotensin II (AngII) infused male and female mice and female mice at early and late stages of accelerated ovarian failure (AOF). High-resolution electron microscopy was used to assess the subcellular distribution of AMPA GluA1 in age-matched male and female estrogen receptor beta (ER beta) enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter mice as well as female ER beta-EGFP mice treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide. In the absence of AngII, female mice at a late stage of AOF displayed higher levels of GluA1 on the plasma membrane, indicative of functional protein, in ER beta-expressing PVN dendrites when compared to male, naive female and early stage AOF mice. Following slow-pressor AngII infusion, males, as well as early and late stage AOF females had elevated blood pressure. Significantly, only late stage-AOF female mice infused with AngII had an increase in GluA1 near the plasma membrane in dendrites of ER beta-expressing PVN neurons. In contrast, prior studies reported that plasmalemmal NMDA GluN1 increased in ER beta-expressing PVN dendrites in males and early, but not late stage AOF females. Together, these findings reveal that early and late stage AOF female mice display unique molecular signatures of long-lasting synaptic strength prior to, and following hypertension. (C) 2019 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guttman-Yassky E, Diaz A, Pavel AB, Fernandes M, Lefferdink R, Erickson T, Canter T, Rangel S, Peng XY, Li R, Estrada Y, Xu H, Krueger JG, Paller AS
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Use of Tape Strips to Detect Immune and Barrier Abnormalities in the Skin of Children With Early-Onset Atopic Dermatitis

JAMA DERMATOLOGY 2019 DEC; 155(12):1358-1370
Question Can tape strips serve as a minimally invasive approach to assess biomarkers for early-onset pediatric atopic dermatitis? Findings In this cross-sectional study of 51 children younger than 5 years with and without atopic dermatitis, the use of tape strips, a minimally invasive approach for skin sampling, detected the cutaneous immune and barrier abnormalities of early-onset atopic dermatitis in infants and young children and defined biomarkers that are associated with disease severity, pruritus, and transepidermal water loss. Meaning Minimally invasive tape strips can be used to broadly characterize immune and epidermal barrier biomarkers of the lesional and nonlesional skin of children with early-onset pediatric atopic dermatitis, providing a useful, noninvasive approach for pediatric clinical trials and longitudinal studies. Importance Molecular profiling of skin biopsies is the criterion standard for evaluating the cutaneous atopic dermatitis (AD) phenotype. However, skin biopsies are not always feasible in children. A reproducible minimally invasive approach that can track cutaneous disease in pediatric longitudinal studies or clinical trials is lacking. Objective To assess a minimally invasive approach using tape strips to identify skin biomarkers that may serve as a surrogate to biomarkers identified using whole-tissue biopsies. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study of 51 children younger than 5 years recruited children with moderate to severe AD and children without AD from the dermatology outpatient clinics at a children's hospital. Sixteen tape strips were serially collected from the nonlesional and lesional skin of 21 children who had AD and were less than 6 months from disease initiation and from the normal skin of 30 children who did not have AD between January 22, 2016, and April 20, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures Gene and protein expression were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Results A total of 51 children younger than 5 years were included in the study; 21 children had moderate to severe AD with less than 6 months of disease duration, and 30 children did not have AD. Of the 21 children with AD, the mean (SD) age was 1.7 (1.7) years, and most were male (15 [71.4%] and white (15 [71.4%]). Of the 30 children without AD, the mean (SD) age was 1.8 (2.0) years, and most were female (20 [66.7%]) and white (22 [73.3%]). Seventy-seven of 79 evaluated immune and barrier gene products were detected (gene detection rate, 97%) in 70 of 71 tape strips (sample detection rate, 99%), with 53 of 79 markers differentiating between children with lesional and/or nonlesional AD from children without AD. Many cellular markers of T cells (CD3), AD-related dendritic cells (Fc epsilon RI and OX40 ligand receptors), and key inflammatory (matrix metallopeptidase 12), innate (interleukin 8 [IL-8] and IL-6), helper T cell 2 (T(H)2; IL-4, IL-13, and chemokines CCL17 and CCL26), and T(H)17/T(H)22 (IL-19, IL-36G, and S100A proteins) genes were significantly increased in lesional and nonlesional AD compared with tape strips from normal skin. For example, IL-4 mean (SE) for lesional was -15.2 (0.91) and normal was -19.5 (0.48); P < .001. Parallel decreases occurred in epidermal barrier gene products (FLG, CLDN23, and FA2H) and negative immune regulators (IL-34 and IL-37). For example, the decrease for FLG lesional was mean (SE) -2.9 (0.42) and for normal was 2.2 (0.45); P < .001. Associations were found between disease severity or transepidermal water loss and T(H)2 (IL-33 and IL-4R) and T(H)17/T(H)22 (IL-36G and S100As) products in lesional and nonlesional AD skin (evaluated using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis, Eczema Area and Severity Index, and Pruritus Atopic Dermatitis Quickscore tools). Conclusions and Relevance In this study, tape strips provide a minimally invasive alternative for serially evaluating AD-associated cutaneous biomarkers and may prove useful for tracking pediatric AD therapeutic response and predicting future course and comorbidities. This cross-sectional study examines whether tape strips might be used to detect immune and barrier abnormalities and to define biomarkers associated with atopic dermatitis in children younger than 5 years with early-onset atopic dermatitis
Kueck T, Bloyet LM, Cassella E, Zang T, Schmidt F, Brusic V, Tekes G, Pornillos O, Whelan SPJ, Bieniasz PD
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Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Transcription Is Inhibited by TRIM69 in the Interferon-Induced Antiviral State

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 2019 DEC; 93(24):? Article e01372-19
Interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), many of which are responsible for the cellular antiviral state in which the replication of numerous viruses is blocked. How the majority of individual ISGs inhibit the replication of particular viruses is unknown. We conducted a loss-of-function screen to identify genes required for the activity of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) against vesicular stomatitis virus, Indiana serotype (VSVIND), a prototype negative-strand RNA virus. Our screen revealed that TRIM69, a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins, is a VSVIND inhibitor. TRIM69 potently inhibited VSVIND replication through a previously undescribed transcriptional inhibition mechanism. Specifically, TRIM69 physically associates with the VSVIND phosphoprotein (P), requiring a specific peptide target sequence encoded therein. P is a cofactor for the viral polymerase and is required for viral RNA synthesis, as well as the assembly of replication compartments. By targeting P, TRIM69 inhibits pioneer transcription of the incoming virion-associated minus-strand RNA, thereby preventing the synthesis of viral mRNAs, and consequently impedes all downstream events in the VSVIND replication cycle. Unlike some TRIM proteins, TRIM69 does not inhibit viral replication by inducing degradation of target viral proteins. Rather, higher-order TRIM69 multimerization is required for its antiviral activity, suggesting that TRIM69 functions by sequestration or anatomical disruption of the viral machinery required for VSVIND RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Interferons are important antiviral cytokines that work by inducing hundreds of host genes whose products inhibit the replication of many viruses. While the antiviral activity of interferon has long been known, the identities and mechanisms of action of most interferon-induced antiviral proteins remain to be discovered. We identified gene products that are important for the antiviral activity of interferon against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a model virus that whose genome consists of a single RNA molecule with negative-sense polarity. We found that a particular antiviral protein, TRIM69, functions by a previously undescribed molecular mechanism. Specifically, TRIM69 interacts with and inhibits the function of a particular phosphoprotein (P) component of the viral transcription machinery, preventing the synthesis of viral messenger RNAs.