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Found 37003 matches. Displaying 21-30
Sarhan D, Eisinger S, He F, Bergsland M, Pelicano C, Driescher C, Westberg K, Benitez II, Humoud R, Palano G, Li SJ, Carannante V, Muhr J, Onfelt B, Schlisio S, Ravetch JV, Heuchel R, Lohr MJ, Karlsson MCI
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Targeting myeloid suppressive cells revives cytotoxic anti-tumor responses in pancreatic cancer

ISCIENCE 2022 NOV 18; 25(11):? Article 105317
Immunotherapy for cancer that aims to promote T cell anti-tumor activity has changed current clinical practice, where some previously lethal cancers have now become treatable. However, clinical trials with low response rates have been disappointing for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). One suggested explanation is the accumulation of dominantly immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Using retrospectively collected tumor specimens and transcriptomic data from PDAC, we demonstrate that expression of the scavenger receptor MARCO correlates with poor prognosis and a lymphocyte-excluding tumor phenotype. PDAC cell lines produce IL-10 and induce high expression of MARCO in myeloid cells, and this was further enhanced during hypoxic conditions. These myeloid cells suppressed effector T and natural killer (NK) cells and blocked NK cell tumor infiltration and tumor killing in a PDAC 3D-spheroid model. Anti-human MARCO (anti-hMARCO) antibody targeting triggered the repolarization of tumor-associated macrophages and activated the inflammasome machinery, resulting in IL-18 production. This in turn enhanced T cell and NK cell functions. The targeting of MARCO thus remodels the TME and represents a rational approach to make immunotherapy more efficient in PDAC patients.
Yaron TM, Heaton BE, Levy TM, Johnson JL, Jordan TX, Cohen BM, Kerelsky A, Lin TY, Liberatore KM, Bulaon DK, Nest SJV, Koundouros N, Kastenhuber ER, Mercadante MN, Shobana-Ganesh K, He L, Schwartz RE, Chen SB, Weinstein H, Elemento O, Piskounova E, Nilsson-Payant BE, Lee GA, Trimarco JD, Burke KN, Hamele CE, Chaparian RR, Harding AT, Tata A, Zhu XY, Tata PR, Smith CM, Possemato AP, Tkachev SL, Hornbeck PV, Beausoleil SA, Anand SK, Aguet F, Getz G, Davidson AD, Heesom K, Kavanagh-Williamson M, Matthews DA, tenOever BR, Cantley LC, Blenis J, Heaton NS
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Host protein kinases required for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid phosphorylation and viral replication

SCIENCE SIGNALING 2022 OCT 25; 15(757):? Article eabm0808
Multiple coronaviruses have emerged independently in the past 20 years that cause lethal human diseases. Al-though vaccine development targeting these viruses has been accelerated substantially, there remain patients requiring treatment who cannot be vaccinated or who experience breakthrough infections. Understanding the common host factors necessary for the life cycles of coronaviruses may reveal conserved therapeutic targets. Here, we used the known substrate specificities of mammalian protein kinases to deconvolute the sequence of phosphorylation events mediated by three host protein kinase families (SRPK, GSK-3, and CK1) that coordinately phosphorylate a cluster of serine and threonine residues in the viral N protein, which is required for viral rep-lication. We also showed that loss or inhibition of SRPK1/2, which we propose initiates the N protein phosphor-ylation cascade, compromised the viral replication cycle. Because these phosphorylation sites are highly conserved across coronaviruses, inhibitors of these protein kinases not only may have therapeutic potential against COVID-19 but also may be broadly useful against coronavirus-mediated diseases.
Zhou PC
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Protein vaccine NVX-CoV2373 elicits functional T cell immunity

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION 2022 OCT 3; 132(19):? Article e163614
The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine NVX-CoV2373 is a protein-based vaccine that might circumvent the difficulties in distributing mRNA vaccines to regions with limited access to cold-chain and refrigeration. However, the NVX-CoV2373-induced T cell and antibody responses remain poorly understood. In this issue of the JCI, Moderbacher et al. characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses elicited by one or two doses of NVX-CoV2373 in individuals enrolled in a phase I/IIa trial. Substantially increased spike-specific CD4(+) and T follicular helper cells were found after the first or second vaccine dose, with some individuals developing a modest spike-specific CD8(+) T cell response. Correlation analysis revealed an association between spike-specific CD4(+) T cells and neutralizing antibody titers. Notably, preexisting T cell immunity showed negligible effects on NVX-CoV2373-induced T cell responses. These findings indicate that the protein-based vaccine NVX-CoV2373 induces robust T cell immunity capable of recognizing SARS-CoV-2 antigens and supporting humoral immune responses.
Obado SO, Rout MP, Field MC
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Sending the message: specialized RNA export mechanisms in trypanosomes

TRENDS IN PARASITOLOGY 2022 OCT; 38(10):854-867
Export of RNA from the nucleus is essential for all eukaryotic cells and has emerged as a major step in the control of gene expression. mRNA molecules are required to complete a complex series of processing events and pass a quality control system to protect the cytoplasm from the translation of aberrant proteins. Many of these events are highly conserved across eukaryotes, reflecting their ancient origin, but significant deviation from a canonical pathway as described from animals and fungi has emerged in the trypanosomatids. With significant implications for the mechanisms that control gene expression and hence differentiation, responses to altered environments and fitness as a parasite, these deviations may also reveal additional, previously unsuspected, mRNA export pathways.
Unda SR, Marciano S, Milner TA, Marongiu R
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State-of-the-art review of the clinical research on menopause and hormone replacement therapy association with Parkinson's disease: What meta-analysis studies cannot tell us

FRONTIERS IN AGING NEUROSCIENCE 2022 OCT 20; 14(?):? Article 971007
The menopause is a midlife endocrinological process that greatly affects women's central nervous system functions. Over the last 2 decades numerous clinical studies have addressed the influence of ovarian hormone decline on neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. However, the findings in support of a role for age at menopause, type of menopause and hormone replacement therapy on Parkinson's disease onset and its core features show inconsistencies due to the heterogeneity in the study design. Here, we provide a unified overview of the clinical literature on the influence of menopause and ovarian hormones on Parkinson's disease. We highlight the possible sources of conflicting evidence and gather considerations for future observational clinical studies that aim to explore the neurological impact of menopause-related features in Parkinson's disease.
Renert-Yuval Y, da Rosa JC, Garcet S, Pavel AB, Bares J, Chima M, Hawkes JE, Gilleaudeau P, Sullivan-Whalen M, Singer GK, Krueger JG, Guttman-Yassky E
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Analysis of alopecia areata surveys suggests a threshold for improved patient-reported outcomes

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY 2022 OCT; 187(4):539-547
Background Although alopecia areata (AA) greatly impacts patients' quality of life (QoL), there is no adequate validation of AA-targeted QoL surveys in clinical trials, hindering sufficient representation of patient-reported outcomes. Objectives Better understanding of patient-reported outcomes may guide treatment goals and future clinical trials. Methods In a recent randomized controlled trial testing dupilumab in AA, patients were administered the Alopecia Areata Quality of Life Index (AA-QLI) and the Alopecia Areata Symptom Impact Scale (AASIS) surveys, specifically evaluating QoL in patients with AA. An in-depth analysis was performed to assess the utility of these questionnaires in this patient population, both at baseline and after treatment, and to determine a threshold for improved patient-reported outcomes. Results While AASIS correlated with baseline Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) scores and with therapeutic response, AA-QLI showed no correlation with AA severity before or after treatment. Itch strongly correlated with serum IgE levels across both surveys. Using various approaches to estimate a discriminative threshold for decreased impact of AA on QoL (by AASIS) following treatment, a SALT score of 20 points or less post-treatment was associated with improved patient-reported outcomes, including both AA-related symptoms and items within the daily activities/feelings domain such as 'feeling sad' and 'feeling anxious or worry'. Conclusions AASIS is better than AA-QLI to assess patient-reported outcomes. SALT <= 20 following treatment should be considered as a threshold for meaningful therapeutic outcome and as a clinical endpoint in future clinical trials for AA. What is already known about this topic? Alopecia areata greatly compromises quality of life, and affected patients have increased prevalences of depression, anxiety and social phobia. Despite the significant negative impact of the disease on patients' wellbeing, validation of targeted questionnaires in alopecia areata is lacking, and a therapeutic response threshold for improved patient-reported outcomes is unknown. What does this study add? This study investigated the utility of two different alopecia areata-targeted questionnaires - Alopecia Areata Quality of Life Index and Alopecia Areata Symptom Impact Scale (AASIS) - in a clinical trial setting. AASIS was found to correlate strongly with alopecia areata severity and clinical response. What are the clinical implications of this work? Patients with <= 20% scalp hair loss after treatment reported improvement in multiple quality-of-life items, suggesting this as a meaningful therapeutic outcome that may guide clinicians and improve the development of future clinical trials.
Yoney A, Bai L, Brivanlou AH, Siggia ED
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Mechanisms underlying WNT-mediated priming of human embryonic stem cells

DEVELOPMENT 2022 OCT; 149(20):? Article dev200335
Embryogenesis is guided by a limited set of signaling pathways dynamically expressed in different places. How a context-dependent signaling response is generated has been a central question of developmental biology, which can now be addressed with in vitro models of human embryos that are derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our previous work demonstrated that during early stages of hESC differentiation, cells chronicle signaling hierarchy. Only cells that have been exposed (primed) by WNT signaling can respond to subsequent activin exposure and differentiate to mesendodermal (ME) fates. Here, we show that WNT priming does not alter SMAD2 binding nor its chromatin opening but, instead, acts by inducing the expression of the SMAD2 co-factor EOMES. Expression of EOMES is sufficient to replace WNT upstream of activin-mediated ME differentiation, thus unveiling the mechanistic basis for priming and cellular memory in early development.
Li LL, Zhou AD, Wei YJ, Liu F, Li P, Fang RP, Ma L, Zhang SC, Wang LQ, Liu JZ, Richard HT, Chen YW, Wang HB, Huang SY
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Critical role of lncEPAT in coupling dysregulated EGFR pathway and histone H2A deubiquitination during glioblastoma tumorigenesis

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2022 OCT 7; 8(40):? Article eabn2571
Histone 2A (H2A) monoubiquitination is a fundamental epigenetics mechanism of gene expression, which plays a critical role in regulating cell fate. However, it is unknown if H2A ubiquitination is involved in EGFR-driven tumorigenesis. In the current study, we have characterized a previously unidentified oncogenic lncRNA (lncEPAT) that mediates the integration of the dysregulated EGFR pathway with H2A deubiquitination in tumorigenesis. LncEPAT was induced by the EGFR pathway, and high-level lncEPAT expression positively correlated with the glioma grade and predicted poor survival of glioma patients. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed that lncEPAT specifically interacted with deubiquitinase USP16. LncEPAT inhibited USP16's recruitment to chromatin, thereby blocking USP16-mediated H2A deubiquitination and repressing target gene expression, including CDKN1A and CLUSTERIN. Depletion of lncEPAT promoted USP16-induced cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence, and then repressed GBM cell tumorigenesis. Thus, the EGFR-lncEPAT-ubH2A coupling represents a previously unidentified mechanism for epigenetic gene regulation and senescence resistance during GBM tumorigenesis.
Okazaki A, Ott J
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Machine learning approaches to explore digenic inheritance

TRENDS IN GENETICS 2022 OCT; 38(10):1013-1018
Some rare genetic disorders, such as retinitis pigmentosa or Alport syndrome, are caused by the co-inheritance of DNA variants at two different genetic loci (digenic inheritance). To capture the effects of these disease-causing variants and their possible interactive effects, various statistical methods have been developed in human genetics. Analogous developments have taken place in the field of machine learning, particularly for the field that is now called Big Data. In the past, these two areas have grown independently and have started to converge only in recent years. We discuss an overview of each of the two fields, paying special attention to machine learning methods for uncovering the combined effects of pairs of variants on human disease.
Wang X, Simon SM, Coffino P
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Single molecule microscopy reveals diverse actions of substrate sequences that impair ClpX AAA plus ATPase function

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 2022 OCT; 298(10):? Article 102457
AAA+ (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) proteases unfold substrate proteins by pulling the substrate polypeptide through a narrow pore. To overcome the barrier to unfolding, substrates may require extended association with the ATPase. Failed unfolding attempts can lead to a slip of grip, which may result in substrate dissociation, but how substrate sequence affects slippage is unresolved. Here, we measured single molecule dwell time using total internal reflection fluo-rescence microscopy, scoring time-dependent dissociation of engaged substrates from bacterial AAA+ ATPase unfoldase/ translocase ClpX. Substrates comprising a stable domain resistant to unfolding and a C-terminal unstructured tail, tag-ged with a degron for initiating translocase insertion, were used to determine dwell time in relation to tail length and compo-sition. We found greater tail length promoted substrate retention during futile unfolding. Additionally, we tested two tail compositions known to frustrate unfolding. A poly-glycine tract (polyG) promoted release, but only when adjacent to the folded domain, whereas glycine-alanine repeats (GAr) did not promote release. A high complexity motif containing polar and charged residues also promoted release. We further investi-gated the impact of these and related motifs on substrate degradation rates and ATP consumption, using the unfoldase??? protease complex ClpXP. Here, substrate domain stability modulates the effects of substrate tail sequences. polyG and GAr are both inhibitory for unfolding, but act in different ways. GAr motifs only negatively affected degradation of highly sta-ble substrates, which is accompanied by reduced ClpXP ATPase activity. Together, our results specify substrate char-acteristics that affect unfolding and degradation by ClpXP.