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Found 35817 matches. Displaying 21-30
Narla S, Price KN, Sachdeva M, Shah M, Shi V, Hamzavi I, Alavi A, Lowes MA
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Proceeding report of the Fourth Symposium on Hidradenitis Suppurativa Advances 2019

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY 2021 JAN; 84(1):120-129
The Fourth Annual Symposium on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (SHSA) took place on November 1-3, 2019, at the Westin Book Cadillac Hotel in Detroit, Michigan. This symposium was a joint meeting of the US Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation and the Canadian Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation. This cross-disciplinary meeting with experts from around the world was an opportunity to discuss the most recent advances in the study of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) pathogenesis, clinical trials, classification, scoring systems, complementary/alternative medical treatments, diet, pain management, surgical and laser treatment, and ultrasonographic assessment. A special preconference workshop was held on the use of neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser hair reduction, sinus tract deroofing, and carbon dioxide laser excision with ultrasonographic mapping and tumescent anesthesia for the treatment of HS. The focused workshops on establishing an HS clinic, setting up an HS support group, the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Prospective Observational Registry and Biospecimen Repository, and wound care were held during the meeting. A special program called HS Ambassadors was established for patients who may have questions about the conference presentations, and in addition, a meet and greet for patients and HS Ambassadors was arranged. To facilitate networking between those early in their careers and clinical and research experts, a mentoring reception was held.
Ungar B, Pavel AB, Li R, Kimmel G, Nia J, Hashim P, Kim HJ, Chima M, Vekaria AS, Estrada Y, Xu H, Peng XY, Singer GK, Baum D, Mansouri Y, Taliercio M, Guttman-Yassky E
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Phase 2 randomized, double-blind study of IL-17 targeting with secukinumab in atopic dermatitis

JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2021 JAN; 147(1):394-397
Sarbanes SL, Blomen VA, Lam E, Heissel S, Luna JM, Brummelkamp TR, Falck-Pedersen E, Hoffmann HH, Rice CM
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E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 facilitates nuclear delivery of adenovirus genomes

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2021 JAN 5; 118(1):? Article e2015794118
The journey from plasma membrane to nuclear pore is a critical step in the lifecycle of DNA viruses, many of which must successfully deposit their genomes into the nucleus for replication. Viral capsids navigate this vast distance through the coordinated hijacking of a number of cellular host factors, many of which remain unknown. We performed a gene-trap screen in haploid cells to identify host factors for adenovirus (AdV), a DNA virus that can cause severe respiratory illness in immune-compromised individuals. This work identified Mindbomb 1 (MIB1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in neurodevelopment, as critical for AdV infectivity. In the absence of MIB1, we observed that viral capsids successfully traffic to the proximity of the nucleus but ultimately fail to deposit their genomes within. The capacity of MIB1 to promote AdV infection was dependent on its ubiquitination activity, suggesting that MIB1 may mediate proteasomal degradation of one or more negative regulators of AdV infection. Employing complementary proteomic approaches to characterize proteins proximal to MIB1 upon AdV infection and differentially ubiquitinated in the presence or absence of MIB1, we observed an intersection between MIB1 and ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) largely unexplored in mammalian cells. This work uncovers yet another way that viruses utilize host cell machinery for their own replication, highlighting a potential target for therapeutic interventions that counter AdV infection.
Li J, Zhang JL, Liu J, Zhou Y, Cai C, Xu LH, Dai XL, Feng SH, Guo CX, Rao JP, Wei K, Jarvis ED, Jiang Y, Zhou ZK, Zhang GJ, Zhou Q
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A new duck genome reveals conserved and convergently evolved chromosome architectures of birds and mammals

GIGASCIENCE 2021 JAN; 10(1):? Article giaa142
Background: Ducks have a typical avian karyotype that consists of macro- and microchromosomes, but a pair of much less differentiated ZW sex chromosomes compared to chickens. To elucidate the evolution of chromosome architectures between ducks and chickens, and between birds and mammals, we produced a nearly complete chromosomal assembly of a female Pekin duck by combining long-read sequencing and multiplatform scaffolding techniques. Results: A major improvement of genome assembly and annotation quality resulted from the successful resolution of lineage-specific propagated repeats that fragmented the previous Illumina-based assembly. We found that the duck topologically associated domains (TAD) are demarcated by putative binding sites of the insulator protein CTCF, housekeeping genes, or transitions of active/inactive chromatin compartments, indicating conserved mechanisms of spatial chromosome folding with mammals. There are extensive overlaps of TAD boundaries between duck and chicken, and also between the TAD boundaries and chromosome inversion breakpoints. This suggests strong natural selection pressure on maintaining regulatory domain integrity, or vulnerability of TAD boundaries to DNA double-strand breaks. The duck W chromosome retains 2.5-fold more genes relative to chicken. Similar to the independently evolved human Y chromosome, the duck W evolved massive dispersed palindromic structures, and a pattern of sequence divergence with the Z chromosome that reflects stepwise suppression of homologous recombination. Conclusions: Our results provide novel insights into the conserved and convergently evolved chromosome features of birds and mammals, and also importantly add to the genomic resources for poultry studies.
Understanding the spatial and temporal distributions and fluctuations of living populations is a central goal in ecology and demography. A scaling pattern called Taylor's law has been used to quantify the distributions of populations. Taylor's law asserts a linear relationship between the logarithm of the mean and the logarithm of the variance of population size. Here, extending previous work, we use generalized least-squares models to describe three types of Taylor's law. These models incorporate the temporal and spatial autocorrelations in the mean-variance data. Moreover, we analyze three purely statistical models to predict the form and slope of Taylor's law. We apply these descriptive and predictive models of Taylor's law to the county population counts of the United States decennial censuses (1790-2010). We find that the temporal and spatial autocorrelations strongly affect estimates of the slope of Taylor's law, and generalized least-squares models that take account of these autocorrelations are often superior to ordinary least-squares models. Temporal and spatial autocorrelations combine with demographic factors (e.g., population growth and historical events) to influence Taylor's law for human population data. Our results show that the assumptions of a descriptive model must be carefully evaluated when it is used to estimate and interpret the slope of Taylor's law.
Chandler JA, Cabrera LY, Doshi P, Fecteau S, Fins JJ, Guinjoan S, Hamani C, Herrera-Ferra K, Honey CM, Illes J, Kopell BH, Lipsman N, McDonald PJ, Mayberg HS, Nadler R, Nuttin B, Oliveira-Maia AJ, Rangel C, Ribeiro R, Salles A, Wu HM
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International Legal Approaches to Neurosurgery for Psychiatric Disorders

FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE 2021 JAN 13; 14(?):? Article 588458
Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders (NPD), also sometimes referred to as psychosurgery, is rapidly evolving, with new techniques and indications being investigated actively. Many within the field have suggested that some form of guidelines or regulations are needed to help ensure that a promising field develops safely. Multiple countries have enacted specific laws regulating NPD. This article reviews NPD-specific laws drawn from North and South America, Asia and Europe, in order to identify the typical form and contents of these laws and to set the groundwork for the design of an optimal regulation for the field. Key challenges for this design that are revealed by the review are how to define the scope of the law (what should be regulated), what types of regulations are required (eligibility criteria, approval procedures, data collection, and oversight mechanisms), and how to approach international harmonization given the potential migration of researchers and patients.
Kreek MJ, Zhang Y, Windisch KA, Dunn A
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The Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases: Four Women in Neuroscience

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 2021 JAN; 99(1):29-36
Mummery C, Little M, Lin HF, Clark A, Zaret K, Srivastava D, Fuchs E, Watt F, Temple S
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Mentorship in Science: Response to AlShebli et al., Nature Communications 2020

STEM CELL REPORTS 2021 JAN 12; 16(1):1-2
Gleicher N, Weghofer A, Darmon SK, Barad DH
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Rate of rebound in follicle growth after cessation of ovarian stimulation in initial non-responders: a prospective cohort study

JOURNAL OF OVARIAN RESEARCH 2021 JAN 9; 14(1):? Article 11
Previously anecdotally observed rebounds in follicle growth after interruption of exogenous gonadotropins in absolute non-responders were the impetus for here reported study. In a prospective cohort study, we investigated 49 consecutive patients, absolutely unresponsive to maximal exogenous gonadotropin stimulation, for a so-called rebound response to ovarian stimulation. A rebound response was defined as follicle growth following complete withdrawal of exogenous gonadotropin stimulation after complete failure to respond to maximal gonadotropin stimulation over up to 5-7 days. Median age of study patients was 40.5 +/- 5.1 years (range 23-52). Women with and without rebound did not differ significantly (40.0 +/- 6.0 vs. 41.0 +/- 7.0 years, P = 0.41), with 24 (49.0%) recording a rebound and 25 (51.0%) not. Among the former, 21 (87.5%) reached retrieval of 1-3 oocytes and 15 (30.6%) reached embryo transfer. A successful rebound in almost half of prior non-responders was an unsuspected response rate, as was retrieval of 1-3 oocytes in over half of rebounding patients. Attempting rebounds may, thus, represent another incremental step in very poor prognosis patients before giving up on utilization of autologous oocytes. Here presented findings support further investigations into the underlying physiology leading to such an unexpectedly high rebound rate.
Gondim MVP, Sherrill-Mix S, Bibollet-Ruche F, Russell RM, Trimboli S, Smith AG, Li YY, Liu WM, Avitto AN, DeVoto JC, Connell J, Fenton-May AE, Pellegrino P, Williams I, Papasavvas E, Lorenzi JCC, Salantes DB, Mampe F, Monroy MA, Cohen YZ, Heath S, Saag MS, Montaner LJ, Collman RG, Siliciano JM, Siliciano RF, Plenderleith LJ, Sharp PM, Caskey M, Nussenzweig MC, Shaw GM, Borrow P, Bar KJ, Hahn BH
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Heightened resistance to host type 1 interferons characterizes HIV-1 at transmission and after antiretroviral therapy interruption

SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2021 JAN 13; 13(576):? Article eabd8179
Type 1 interferons (IFN-I) are potent innate antiviral effectors that constrain HIV-1 transmission. However, harnessing these cytokines for HIV-1 cure strategies has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of their antiviral activities at later stages of infection. Here, we characterized the IFN-I sensitivity of 500 clonally derived HIV-1 isolates from the plasma and CD4(+) T cells of 26 individuals sampled longitudinally after transmission or after antiretroviral therapy (ART) and analytical treatment interruption. We determined the concentration of IFN.2 and IFN. that reduced viral replication in vitro by 50% (IC50) and found consistent changes in the sensitivity of HIV-1 to IFN-I inhibition both across individuals and over time. Resistance of HIV-1 isolates to IFN-I was uniformly high during acute infection, decreased in all individuals in the first year after infection, was reacquired concomitant with CD4(+) T cell loss, and remained elevated in individuals with accelerated disease. HIV-1 isolates obtained by viral outgrowth during suppressive ART were relatively IFN-I sensitive, resembling viruses circulating just before ART initiation. However, viruses that rebounded after treatment interruption displayed the highest degree of IFN.2 and IFN. resistance observed at any time during the infection course. These findings indicate a dynamic interplay between host innate responses and the evolving HIV-1 quasispecies, with the relative contribution of IFN-I to HIV-1 control affected by both ART and analytical treatment interruption. Although elevated at transmission, host innate pressures are the highest during viral rebound, limiting the viruses that successfully become reactivated from latency to those that are IFN-I resistant.