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Found 35016 matches. Displaying 21-30
Minis A, Rodriguez JA, Levin A, Liu K, Govek EE, Hatten ME, Steller H
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The proteasome regulator PI31 is required for protein homeostasis, synapse maintenance, and neuronal survival in mice

Proteasome-mediated degradation of intracellular proteins is essential for cell function and survival. The proteasome-binding protein PI31 (Proteasomal Inhibitor of 31kD) promotes 265 assembly and functions as an adapter for proteasome transport in axons. As localized protein synthesis and degradation is especially critical in neurons, we generated a conditional loss of PI31 in spinal motor neurons (MNs) and cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). A cKO of PI31 in these neurons caused axon degeneration, neuronal loss, and progressive spinal and cerebellar neurological dysfunction. For both MNs and PCs, markers of proteotoxic stress preceded axonal degeneration and motor dysfunction, indicating a critical role for PI31 in neuronal homeostasis. The time course of the loss of MN and PC function in developing mouse central nervous system suggests a key role for PI31 in human neurodegenerative diseases.
Bohn JA, DaSilva J, Kharytonchyk S, Mercedes M, Vosters J, Telesnitsky A, Hatziioannou T, Smith JL
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Flexibility in Nucleic Acid Binding Is Central to APOBEC3H Antiviral Activity

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 2019 DEC; 93(24):? Article e01275-19
APOBEC3 proteins APOBEC3F (A3F), APOBEC3G (A3G), and APOBEC3H (A3H) are host restriction factors that inhibit HIV-1 through DNA cytidine deaminasedependent and -independent mechanisms and have either one (A3H) or two (A3F and A3G) zinc-binding domains. A3H antiviral activity encompasses multiple molecular functions, all of which depend on recognition of RNA or DNA. A3H crystal structures revealed an unusual interaction with RNA wherein an RNA duplex mediates dimerization of two A3H proteins. In this study, we sought to determine the importance of RNAbinding amino acids in the antiviral and biochemical properties of A3H. We show that the wild-type A3H-RNA interaction is essential for A3H antiviral activity and for two deaminase-independent processes: encapsidation into viral particles and inhibition of reverse transcription. Furthermore, an extensive mutagenesis campaign revealed distinct roles for two groups of amino acids at the RNA binding interface. C-terminal helix residues exclusively bind RNA, and loop 1 residues play a dual role in recognition of DNA substrates and in RNA binding. Weakening the interface between A3H and RNA allows DNA substrates to bind with greater affinity and enhances deamination rates, suggesting that RNA binding must be disrupted to accommodate DNA. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that A3H can deaminate overhanging DNA strands of RNA/DNA heteroduplexes, which are early intermediates during reverse transcription and may represent natural A3H substrates. Overall, we present a mechanistic model of A3H restriction and a step-by-step elucidation of the roles of RNA-binding residues in A3H activity, particle incorporation, inhibition of reverse transcriptase inhibition, and DNA cytidine deamination. IMPORTANCE APOBEC3 proteins are host factors that protect the integrity of the host genome by inhibiting retroelements as well as retroviruses, such as HIV-1. To do this, the APOBEC3H protein has evolved unique interactions with structured RNAs. Here, we studied the importance of these interactions in driving antiviral activity of APOBEC3H. Our results provide a clear picture of how RNA binding drives the ability of APOBEC3H to infiltrate new viruses and prevent synthesis of viral DNA. We also explore how RNA binding by APOBEC3H influences recognition and deamination of viral DNA and describe two possible routes by which APOBEC3H might hypermutate the HIV-1 genome. These results highlight how one protein can sense many nucleic acid species for a variety of antiviral activities.
Chen ZL, Singh P, Wong J, Horn K, Strickland S, Norris EH
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An antibody against HK blocks Alzheimer's disease peptide beta-amyloid-induced bradykinin release in human plasma

Bradykinin is a proinflammatory factor that mediates angioedema and inflammation in many diseases. It is a key player in some types of hereditary angioedema and is involved in septic shock, traumatic injury, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and stroke, among others. Activation of the plasma contact system leads to elevated levels of plasma kallikrein, which cleaves high molecular weight kininogen (HK) to release bradykinin. Drug development for bradykinin-meditated pathologies has focused on designing inhibitors to the enzymes that cleave HK (to prevent bradykinin release) or antagonists of endothelial bradykinin receptors (to prevent down-stream bradykinin action). Here we show a strategy to block bradykinin generation by using an HK antibody that binds to HK, preventing its cleavage and subsequent bradykinin release. We show that this antibody blocks dextran sodium sulfate-induced HK cleavage and bradykinin production. Moreover, while the pathogenic AD peptide beta-amyloid (A beta)42 cleaves HK and induces a dramatic increase in bradykinin production, our HK antibody blocked these events from occurring. These results may provide strategies for developing treatments for bradykinin-driven pathologies.
Raineki C, Opendak M, Sarro E, Showler A, Bui K, McEwen BS, Wilson DA, Sullivan RM
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During infant maltreatment, stress targets hippocampus, but stress with mother present targets amygdala and social behavior

Infant maltreatment increases vulnerability to physical and mental disorders, yet specific mechanisms embedded within this complex infant experience that induce this vulnerability remain elusive. To define critical features of maltreatment-induced vulnerability, rat pups were reared from postnatal day 8 (PN8) with a maltreating mother, which produced amygdala and hippocampal deficits and decreased social behavior at PN13. Next, we deconstructed the maltreatment experience to reveal sufficient and necessary conditions to induce this phenotype. Social behavior and amygdala deficits (volume, neurogenesis, c-Fos, local field potential) required combined chronic high corticosterone and maternal presence (not maternal behavior). Hippocampal deficits were induced by chronic high corticosterone regardless of social context. Causation was shown by blocking corticosterone during maltreatment and suppressing amygdala activity during social behavior testing. These results highlight (1) that early life maltreatment initiates multiple pathways to pathology, each with distinct causal mechanisms and outcomes, and (2) the importance of social presence on brain development.
Galea S, Vaughan RD
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Tendrils of Hope in the Gun Epidemic: A Public Health of Consequence, November 2019

Brohawn SG, Wang WW, Handler A, Campbell EB, Schwarz JR, MacKinnon R
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The mechanosensitive ion channel TRAAK is localized to the mammalian node of Ranvier

ELIFE 2019 NOV 1; 8(?):? Article e50403
TRAAK is a membrane tension-activated K+ channel that has been associated through behavioral studies to mechanical nociception. We used specific monoclonal antibodies in mice to show that TRAAK is localized exclusively to nodes of Ranvier, the action potential propagating elements of myelinated nerve fibers. Approximately 80 percent of myelinated nerve fibers throughout the central and peripheral nervous system contain TRAAK in what is likely an all-nodes or no-nodes per axon fashion. TRAAK is not observed at the axon initial segment where action potentials are first generated. We used polyclonal antibodies, the TRAAK inhibitor RU2 and node clamp amplifiers to demonstrate the presence and functional properties of TRAAK in rat nerve fibers. TRAAK contributes to the 'leak' K+ current in mammalian nerve fiber conduction by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential, thereby increasing Na+ channel availability for action potential propagation. We speculate on why nodes of Ranvier contain a mechanosensitive K+ channel.
Wasserman MR, Liu SX
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A Tour de Force on the Double Helix: Exploiting DNA Mechanics To Study DNA-Based Molecular Machines

BIOCHEMISTRY 2019 NOV 26; 58(47):4667-4676
DNA is both a fundamental building block of life and a fascinating natural polymer. The advent of single-molecule manipulation tools made it possible to exert controlled force on individual DNA molecules and measure their mechanical response. Such investigations elucidated the elastic properties of DNA and revealed its distinctive structural configurations across force regimes. In the meantime, a detailed understanding of DNA mechanics laid the groundwork for single-molecule studies of DNA-binding proteins and DNA-processing enzymes that bend, stretch, and twist DNA. These studies shed new light on the metabolism and transactions of nucleic acids, which constitute a major part of the cell's operating system. Furthermore, the marriage of single-molecule fluorescence visualization and force manipulation has enabled researchers to directly correlate the applied tension to changes in the DNA structure and the behavior of DNA-templated complexes. Overall, experimental exploitation of DNA mechanics has been and will continue to be a unique and powerful strategy for understanding how molecular machineries recognize and modify the physical state of DNA to accomplish their biological functions.
Pohl A, Berger F, Sullan RMA, Valverde-Tercedor C, Freindl K, Spiridis N, Lefevre CT, Menguy N, Klumpp S, Blank KG, Faivre D
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Decoding Biomineralization: Interaction of a Mad10-Derived Peptide with Magnetite Thin Films

NANO LETTERS 2019 NOV; 19(11):8207-8215
Protein-surface interactions play a pivotal role in processes as diverse as biomineralization, biofouling, and the cellular response to medical implants. In biomineralization processes, biomacromolecules control mineral deposition and architecture via complex and often unknown mechanisms. For studying these mechanisms, the formation of magnetite nanoparticles in magnetotactic bacteria has become an excellent model system. Most interestingly, nanoparticle morphologies have been discovered that defy crystallographic rules (e.g., in the species Desulfamplus magnetovallimortis strain BW-1). In certain conditions, this strain mineralizes bullet-shaped magnetite nanoparticles, which exhibit defined (111) crystal faces and are elongated along the [100] direction. We hypothesize that surface-specific protein interactions break the nanoparticle symmetry, inhibiting the growth of certain crystal faces and thereby favoring the growth of others. Screening the genome of BW-1, we identified Mad10 (Magnetosome-associated deep-branching) as a potential magnetite-binding protein. Using atomic force microscope (AFM)-based single-molecule force spectroscopy, we show that a Mad10-derived peptide, which represents the most conserved region of Mad10, binds strongly to (100)- and (111)-oriented single-crystalline magnetite thin films. The peptide-magnetite interaction is thus material- but not crystal-face-specific. It is characterized by broad rupture force distributions that do not depend on the retraction speed of the AFM cantilever. To account for these experimental findings, we introduce a three-state model that incorporates fast rebinding. The model suggests that the peptide-surface interaction is strong in the absence of load, which is a direct result of this fast rebinding process. Overall, our study sheds light on the kinetic nature of peptide-surface interactions and introduces a new magnetite-binding peptide with potential use as a functional coating for magnetite nanoparticles in biotechnological and biomedical applications.
Blus BJ, Koh J, Krolak A, Seo HS, Coutavas E, Blobel G
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Allosteric modulation of nucleoporin assemblies by intrinsically disordered regions

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2019 NOV; 5(11):? Article eaax1836
Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins are implicated in key macromolecular interactions. However, the molecular forces underlying IDR function within multicomponent assemblies remain elusive. By combining thermodynamic and structural data, we have discovered an allostery-based mechanism regulating the soluble core region of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) composed of nucleoporins Nup53, Nic96, and Nup157. We have identified distinct IDRs in Nup53 that are functionally coupled when binding to partner nucleoporins and karyopherins (Kaps) involved in NPC assembly and nucleocytoplasmic transport. We show that the Nup53.Kap121 complex forms an ensemble of structures that destabilize Nup53 hub interactions. Our study provides a molecular framework for understanding how disordered and folded domains communicate within macromolecular complexes.
Linden JR, Flores C, Schmidt EF, Uzal FA, Michel AO, Valenzuela M, Dobrow S, Vartanian T
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Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin induces blood brain barrier permeability via caveolae-dependent transcytosis and requires expression of MAL

PLOS PATHOGENS 2019 NOV; 15(11):? Article e1008014
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is responsible for causing the economically devastating disease, enterotoxaemia, in livestock. It is well accepted that ETX causes blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, however the mechanisms involved in this process are not well understood. Using in vivo and in vitro methods, we determined that ETX causes BBB permeability in mice by increasing caveolae-dependent transcytosis in brain endothelial cells. When mice are intravenously injected with ETX, robust ETX binding is observed in the microvasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) with limited to no binding observed in the vasculature of peripheral organs, indicating that ETX specifically targets CNS endothelial cells. ETX binding to CNS microvasculature is dependent on MAL expression, as ETX binding to CNS microvasculature of MAL-deficient mice was not detected. ETX treatment also induces extravasation of molecular tracers including 376Da fluorescein salt, 60kDA serum albumin, 70kDa dextran, and 155kDA IgG. Importantly, ETX-induced BBB permeability requires expression of both MAL and caveolin-1, as mice deficient in MAL or caveolin-1 did not exhibit ETX-induced BBB permeability. Examination of primary murine brain endothelial cells revealed an increase in caveolae in ETX-treated cells, resulting in dynamin and lipid raft-dependent vacuolation without cell death. ETX-treatment also results in a rapid loss of EEA1 positive early endosomes and accumulation of large, RAB7-positive late endosomes and multivesicular bodies. Based on these results, we hypothesize that ETX binds to MAL on the apical surface of brain endothelial cells, causing recruitment of caveolin-1, triggering caveolae formation and internalization. Internalized caveolae fuse with early endosomes which traffic to late endosomes and multivesicular bodies. We believe that these multivesicular bodies fuse basally, releasing their contents into the brain parenchyma.