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Found 35417 matches. Displaying 21-30
Chottekalapanda RU, Kalik S, Gresack J, Ayala A, Gao M, Wang W, Meller S, Aly A, Schaefer A, Greengard P
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AP-1 controls the p11-dependent antidepressant response

MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY 2020 JUL; 25(7):1364-1381
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed drugs for mood disorders. While the mechanism of SSRI action is still unknown, SSRIs are thought to exert therapeutic effects by elevating extracellular serotonin levels in the brain, and remodel the structural and functional alterations dysregulated during depression. To determine their precise mode of action, we tested whether such neuroadaptive processes are modulated by regulation of specific gene expression programs. Here we identify a transcriptional program regulated by activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, formed by c-Fos and c-Jun that is selectively activated prior to the onset of the chronic SSRI response. The AP-1 transcriptional program modulates the expression of key neuronal remodeling genes, including S100a10 (p11), linking neuronal plasticity to the antidepressant response. We find that AP-1 function is required for the antidepressant effect in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate how neurochemical pathways of BDNF and FGF2, through the MAPK, PI3K, and JNK cascades, regulate AP-1 function to mediate the beneficial effects of the antidepressant response. Here we put forth a sequential molecular network to track the antidepressant response and provide a new avenue that could be used to accelerate or potentiate antidepressant responses by triggering neuroplasticity.
Tomlinson JE, Wolfisberg R, Fahnoe U, Sharma H, Renshaw RW, Nielsen L, Nishiuchi E, Holm C, Dubovi E, Rosenberg BR, Tennant BC, Bukh J, Kapoor A, Divers TJ, Rice CM, Van de Walle GR, Scheel TKH
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Equine pegiviruses cause persistent infection of bone marrow and are not associated with hepatitis

PLOS PATHOGENS 2020 JUL; 16(7):? Article e1008677
Pegiviruses frequently cause persistent infection (as defined by >6 months), but unlike most other Flaviviridae members, no apparent clinical disease. Human pegivirus (HPgV, previously GBV-C) is detectable in 1-4% of healthy individuals and another 5-13% are seropositive. Some evidence for infection of bone marrow and spleen exists. Equine pegivirus 1 (EPgV-1) is not linked to disease, whereas another pegivirus, Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV), was identified in an outbreak of acute serum hepatitis (Theiler's disease) in horses. Although no subsequent reports link TDAV to disease, any association with hepatitis has not been formally examined. Here, we characterized EPgV-1 and TDAV tropism, sequence diversity, persistence and association with liver disease in horses. Among more than 20 tissue types, we consistently detected high viral loads only in serum, bone marrow and spleen, and viral RNA replication was consistently identified in bone marrow. PBMCs and lymph nodes, but not liver, were sporadically positive. To exclude potential effects of co-infecting agents in experimental infections, we constructed full-length consensus cDNA clones; this was enabled by determination of the complete viral genomes, including a novel TDAV 3' terminus. Clone derived RNA transcripts were used for direct intrasplenic inoculation of healthy horses. This led to productive infection detectable from week 2-3 and persisting beyond the 28 weeks of study. We did not observe any clinical signs of illness or elevation of circulating liver enzymes. The polyprotein consensus sequences did not change, suggesting that both clones were fully functional. To our knowledge, this is the first successful extrahepatic viral RNA launch and the first robust reverse genetics system for a pegivirus. In conclusion, equine pegiviruses are bone marrow tropic, cause persistent infection in horses, and are not associated with hepatitis. Based on these findings, it may be appropriate to rename the group of TDAV and related viruses as EPgV-2. Author summary Transmissible hepatitis in horses (Theiler's disease) has been known for 100 years without knowledge of causative infectious agents. Recently, two novel equine pegiviruses (EPgV) were discovered. Whereas EPgV-1 was not associated to disease, the other was identified in an outbreak of acute serum hepatitis and therefore named Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV). This finding was surprising since human and monkey pegiviruses typically cause long-term infection without associated clinical disease. Whereas no subsequent reports link TDAV to disease, the original association to hepatitis has not been formally examined. Here, we studied EPgV-1 and TDAV and found that their natural history of infection in horses were remarkably similar. Examination of various tissues identified the bone marrow as the primary site of replication for both viruses with no evidence of replication in the liver. To exclude potential effects of other infectious agents, we developed molecular full-length clones for EPgV-1 and TDAV and were able to initiate infection in horses using derived synthetic viral genetic material. This demonstrated long-term infection, but no association with hepatitis. These findings call into question the connection between TDAV, liver infection, and hepatitis in horses.
Chiou CC, Wang CL, Luo JD, Liu CY, Ko HW, Yang CT
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Targeted Sequencing of Circulating Cell Free DNA Can Be Used to Monitor Therapeutic Efficacy of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

Background/Aim: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) bears specific mutations derived from tumor cells. The amount of mutant ctDNA may reflect tumor burden. In this study, we detected epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in ctDNA as a monitoring marker for the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients and Methods: Serial plasma samples from eight NSCLC patients during TKI treatment were collected. Libraries with barcoded aliapters were constructed from ctDNA of these plasma samples using a PCR-based targeted DNA panel. The libraries were then sequenced for measuring EGFR mutations. In addition, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was also measured in these patients. Results: In six patients who suffered disease progression (PD), five had elevated EGFR mutation reads before PD. In the two patients who did not develop PD, EGFR mutations remained undetectable in their plasma. The CEA levels were higher than the cutoff value in most samples and had a poor correlation with disease status. Conclusion: The mutation count of tumor-specific mutations can be a monitoring marker of TKI treatment in NSCLC patients.
Meeske AJ, Jia N, Cassel AK, Kozlova A, Liao JQ, Wiedmann M, Patel DJ, Marraffini LA
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A phage-encoded anti-CRISPR enables complete evasion of type VI-A CRISPR-Cas immunity

SCIENCE 2020 JUL 3; 369(6499):54-59
The CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided nuclease Cas13 recognizes complementary viral transcripts to trigger the degradation of both host and viral RNA during the type VI CRISPR-Cas antiviral response. However, how viruses can counteract this immunity is not known. We describe a listeriaphage (phi LS46) encoding an anti-CRISPR protein (AcrVIA1) that inactivates the type VI-A CRISPR system of Listeria seeligeri. Using genetics, biochemistry, and structural biology, we found that AcrVIA1 interacts with the guide-exposed face of Cas13a, preventing access to the target RNA and the conformational changes required for nuclease activation. Unlike inhibitors of DNA-cleaving Cas nucleases, which cause limited immunosuppression and require multiple infections to bypass CRISPR defenses, a single dose of AcrVIA1 delivered by an individual virion completely dismantles type VI-A CRISPR-mediated immunity.
Orange DE, Yao V, Sawicka K, Fak J, Frank MO, Parveen S, Blachere NE, Hale C, Zhang F, Raychaudhuri S, Troyanskaya OG, Darnell RB
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RNA Identification of PRIME Cells Predicting Rheumatoid Arthritis Flares

BackgroundRheumatoid arthritis, like many inflammatory diseases, is characterized by episodes of quiescence and exacerbation (flares). The molecular events leading to flares are unknown. MethodsWe established a clinical and technical protocol for repeated home collection of blood in patients with rheumatoid arthritis to allow for longitudinal RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Specimens were obtained from 364 time points during eight flares over a period of 4 years in our index patient, as well as from 235 time points during flares in three additional patients. We identified transcripts that were differentially expressed before flares and compared these with data from synovial single-cell RNA-seq. Flow cytometry and sorted-blood-cell RNA-seq in additional patients were used to validate the findings. ResultsConsistent changes were observed in blood transcriptional profiles 1 to 2 weeks before a rheumatoid arthritis flare. B-cell activation was followed by expansion of circulating CD45-CD31-PDPN+ preinflammatory mesenchymal, or PRIME, cells in the blood from patients with rheumatoid arthritis; these cells shared features of inflammatory synovial fibroblasts. Levels of circulating PRIME cells decreased during flares in all 4 patients, and flow cytometry and sorted-cell RNA-seq confirmed the presence of PRIME cells in 19 additional patients with rheumatoid arthritis. ConclusionsLongitudinal genomic analysis of rheumatoid arthritis flares revealed PRIME cells in the blood during the period before a flare and suggested a model in which these cells become activated by B cells in the weeks before a flare and subsequently migrate out of the blood into the synovium. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) Serial analysis of RNA expression in peripheral blood cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in remission showed changes in gene expression that precede and predict clinical flares and could provide an opportunity for intervention to prevent such flares.
Background Clinical and animal studies show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy produces lasting behavioral disturbances in offspring, including increased alcohol drinking, which are linked to inflammation in the brain and disturbances in neurochemical systems that promote these behaviors. These include the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), which is mostly expressed in the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Maternal ethanol administration at low-to-moderate doses, while stimulating MCH neurons without affecting apoptosis or gliogenesis, increases in LH the density of neurons expressing the inflammatory chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 and their colocalization with MCH. These neural effects associated with behavioral changes are reproduced by maternal CCL2 administration, reversed by a CCR2 antagonist, and consistently stronger in females than males. The present study investigates in the embryo the developmental origins of this CCL2/CCR2-mediated stimulatory effect of maternal ethanol exposure on MCH neurons. Methods Pregnant rats from embryonic day 10 (E10) to E15 during peak neurogenesis were orally administered ethanol at a moderate dose (2 g/kg/day) or peripherally injected with CCL2 or CCR2 antagonist to test this neuroimmune system's role in ethanol's actions. Using real-time quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence histochemistry, in situ hybridization, and confocal microscopy, we examined in embryos at E19 the CCL2/CCR2 system and MCH neurons in relation to radial glia progenitor cells in the hypothalamic neuroepithelium where neurons are born and radial glia processes projecting laterally through the medial hypothalamus that provide scaffolds for neuronal migration into LH. Results We demonstrate that maternal ethanol increases radial glia cell density and their processes while stimulating the CCL2/CCR2 system and these effects are mimicked by maternal administration of CCL2 and blocked by a CCR2 antagonist. While stimulating CCL2 colocalization with radial glia and neurons but not microglia, ethanol increases MCH neuronal number near radial glia cells and making contact along their processes projecting into LH. Further tests identify the CCL2/CCR2 system in NEP as a primary source of ethanol's sexually dimorphic actions. Conclusions These findings provide new evidence for how an inflammatory chemokine pathway functions within neuroprogenitor cells to mediate ethanol's long-lasting, stimulatory effects on peptide neurons linked to adolescent drinking behavior.
Marodi L
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The Konya Declaration for Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies

Goodman SM, Mirza SZ, DiCarlo EF, Pearce-Fisher D, Zhang M, Mehta B, Donlin LT, Bykerk VP, Figgie MP, Orange DE
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Rheumatoid Arthritis Flares After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty: Outcomes at One Year

ARTHRITIS CARE & RESEARCH 2020 JUL; 72(7):925-932
Objective Most patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have active RA and report postoperative flares; whether RA disease activity or flares increase the risk of worse pain and function scores 1 year later is unknown. Methods Patients with RA were enrolled before THA/TKA. Patient-reported outcomes, including the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and physician assessments of disease characteristics and activity (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints [DAS28] and Clinical Disease Activity Index), were collected before surgery. Patient-reported outcomes were repeated at 1 year. Postoperative flares were identified using the RA Flare Questionnaire weekly for 6 weeks and were defined by concordance between patient report plus physician assessment. We compared baseline characteristics and HOOS/KOOS scores using 2-sample t-test/Wilcoxon's rank sum test as well as chi-square/Fisher's exact tests. We used multivariate linear and logistic regression to determine the association of baseline characteristics, disease activity, and flares with 1-year outcomes. Results One-year HOOS/KOOS scores were available for 122 patients (56 with THA and 66 with TKA). Although HOOS/KOOS pain was worse for patients who experienced a flare within 6 weeks of surgery, absolute improvement was not different. In multivariable models, baseline DAS28 predicted 1-year HOOS/KOOS pain and function; each 1-unit increase in DAS28 worsened 1-year pain by 2.41 (SE 1.05; P = 0.02) and 1-year function by 4.96 (SE 1.17; P = 0.0001). Postoperative flares were not independent risk factors for pain or function scores. Conclusion Higher disease activity increased the risk of worse pain and function 1 year after arthroplasty, but postoperative flares did not.
Gleicher N, Barad DH, Adashi EY
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Why is use of donor eggs not viewed as treatment failure? A call for improvements in treatments with autologous oocytes

Based on national registry reports, after age 42, the number of IVF cycles utilizing autologous oocytes is very small; after age 43, autologous oocyte use in US IVF cycles is almost non-existent. We here argue that the in vitro fertilization (IVF) field has created a self-fulfilling prophecy by basically abandoning the utilization of autologous oocytes after ages 42-43 years. This not only resulted in almost no IVF cycles with autologous oocytes being performed but also in abandonment of research that could lead to improvements in IVF outcomes in older women when using autologous oocytes. As a consequence, IVF has largely stagnated in this area. We further argue that third-party oocyte donation in clinical IVF should be considered a treatment failure, as it requires patients to choose a second rather than a first-choice treatment. Such a redesignation of third-party egg donation would not only be appropriate but could lead to necessary changes in physician attitudes, considering that women almost exclusively prefer to conceive with their autologous oocytes.
Wang XL, Gerber A, Chen WY, Roeder RG
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Functions of paralogous RNA polymerase III subunits POLR3G and POLR3GL in mouse development

Mammalian cells contain two isoforms of RNA polymerase III (Pol III) that differ in only a single subunit, with POLR3G in one form (Pol III alpha) and the related POLR3GL in the other form (Pol III beta). Previous research indicates that POLR3G and POLR3GL are differentially expressed, with POLR3G expression being highly enriched in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and tumor cells relative to the ubiquitously expressed POLR3GL. To date, the functional differences between these two subunits remain largely unexplored, especially in vivo. Here, we show that POLR3G and POLR3GL containing Pol III complexes bind the same target genes and assume the same functions both in vitro and in vivo and, to a significant degree, can compensate for each other in vivo. Notably, an observed defect in the differentiation ability of POLR3G knockout ESCs can be rescued by exogenous expression of POLR3GL. Moreover, whereas POLR3G knockout mice die at a very early embryonic stage, POLR3GL knockout mice complete embryonic development without noticeable defects but die at about 3 wk after birth with signs of both general growth defects and potential cerebellum-related neuronal defects. The different phenotypes of the knockout mice likely reflect differential expression levels of POLR3G and POLR3GL across developmental stages and between tissues and insufficient amounts of total Pol III in vivo.