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Found 34428 matches. Displaying 21-30
Yan BY, Garcet S, Gulati N, Kiecker F, Fuentes-Duculan J, Gilleaudeau P, Sullivan-Whalen M, Shemer A, Mitsui H, Krueger JG
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Novel immune signatures associated with dysplastic naevi and primary cutaneous melanoma in human skin

Dysplastic naevi (DN) are benign lesions with atypical features intermediate between that of common melanocytic naevi (CMN) and malignant melanoma (MM). Debate remains over whether DN represent progressive lesions from CMN. Through gene expression profiling and analysis of molecular gene signatures, our study revealed progressive increases in immune activation and regulation, along with pathways implicated in melanomagenesis, from CMN to DN to MM. Using criteria of 1.5-fold change and false discovery rate <= 0.05, we found differential expression of 7186 probes (6370 unique genes) with the largest difference detected between DN and MM from the standpoint of genomic melanoma progression. Despite progressive increases in the T-helper type 1 (Th1)-inducing gene (IL-12), RT-PCR indicated impaired Th1 or cytotoxic T-cell response (decreased IFN-gamma) in MM. Concordantly, our results indicated progressive increases in molecular markers associated with regulatory T cells, exhausted T cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells, including detection of increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) in dendritic cells associated with MM. All together, our findings suggest that the increased immunosuppressive microenvironment of melanoma may contribute to unhampered proliferation of neoplastic cells. In addition, the detection of increased markers associated with tolerogenic dendritic cells in MM suggests that targeting these suppressive immune cell types may represent an alternative avenue for future immunotherapy.
Liu N, Song JH, Xie YY, Wang XL, Rong BW, Man N, Zhang MM, Zhang QL, Gao FF, Du MR, Zhang Y, Shen J, Xu CH, Hu CL, Wu JC, Liu P, Zhang YL, Xie YY, Huang JY, Huang QH, Lan F, Shen SH, Nimer SD, Chen Z, Chen SJ, Roeder RG, Wang L, Sun XJ
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Different roles of E proteins in t(8;21) leukemia: E2-2 compromises the function of AETFC and negatively regulates leukemogenesis

The AML1-ETO fusion protein, generated by the t(8;21) chromosomal translocation, is causally involved in nearly 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. In leukemic cells, AML1-ETO resides in and functions through a stable protein complex, AML1-ETO-containing transcription factor complex (AETFC), that contains multiple transcription (co)factors. Among these AETFC components, HEB and E2A, two members of the ubiquitously expressed E proteins, directly interact with AML1-ETO, confer new DNA-binding capacity to AETFC, and are essential for leukemogenesis. However, the third E protein, E2-2, is specifically silenced in AML1-ETO-expressing leukemic cells, suggesting E2-2 as a negative factor of leukemogenesis. Indeed, ectopic expression of E2-2 selectively inhibits the growth of AML1-ETO-expressing leukemic cells, and this inhibition requires the bHLH DNA-binding domain. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses reveal that, despite some overlap, the three E proteins differentially regulate many target genes. In particular, studies show that E2-2 both redistributes AETFC to, and activates, some genes associated with dendritic cell differentiation and represses MYC target genes. In AML patients, the expression of E2-2 is relatively lower in the t(8; 21) subtype, and an E2-2 target gene, THPO, is identified as a potential predictor of relapse. In a mouse model of human t(8; 21) leukemia, E2-2 suppression accelerates leukemogenesis. Taken together, these results reveal that, in contrast to HEB and E2A, which facilitate AML1-ETO-mediated leukemogenesis, E2-2 compromises the function of AETFC and negatively regulates leukemogenesis. The three E proteins thus define a heterogeneity of AETFC, which improves our understanding of the precise mechanism of leukemogenesis and assists development of diagnostic/therapeutic strategies.
Nagy Z, Vogtle T, Geer MJ, Mori J, Heising S, Di Nunzio G, Gareus R, Tarakhovsky A, Weiss A, Neel BG, Desanti GE, Mazharian A, Senis YA
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The Gp1ba-Cre transgenic mouse: a new model to delineate platelet and leukocyte functions

BLOOD 2019 JAN 24; 133(4):331-343
Conditional knockout (KO) mouse models are invaluable for elucidating the physiological roles of platelets. The Platelet factor 4-Cre recombinase (Pf4-Cre) transgenic mouse is the current model of choice for generating megakaryocyte/platelet-specific KO mice. Platelets and leukocytes work closely together in a wide range of disease settings, yet the specific contribution of platelets to these processes remains unclear. This is partially a result of the Pf4-Cre transgene being expressed in a variety of leukocyte populations. To overcome this issue, we developed a Gp1ba-Cre transgenic mouse strain in which Cre expression is driven by the endogenous Gp1ba locus. By crossing Gp1ba-Cre and Pf4-Cre mice to the mT/mG dual-fluorescence reporter mouse and performing a head-to-head comparison, we demonstrate more stringent megakaryocyte lineage-specific expression of the Gp1ba-Cre transgene. Broader tissue expression was observed with the Pf4-Cre transgene, leading to recombination in many hematopoietic lineages, including monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, and dendritic and B and T cells. Direct comparison of phenotypes of Csk, Shp1, or CD148 conditional KO mice generated using either the Gp1ba-Cre or Pf4-Cre strains revealed similar platelet phenotypes. However, additional inflammatory and immunological anomalies were observed in Pf4-Cre-generated KO mice as a result of nonspecific deletion in other hematopoietic lineages. By excluding leukocyte contributions to phenotypes, the Gp1ba-Cre mousewill advance our understanding of the role of platelets in inflammation and other pathophysiological processes in which platelet-leukocyte interactions are involved.
Bayraktar EC, Baudrier L, Ozerdem C, Lewis CA, Chan SH, Kunchok T, Abu-Remaileh M, Cangelosi AL, Sabatini DM, Birsoy K, Chen WW
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MITO-Tag Mice enable rapid isolation and multimodal profiling of mitochondria from specific cell types in vivo

Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that are essential for mammalian life, but the dynamics of mitochondrial metabolism within mammalian tissues in vivo remains incompletely understood. While whole-tissue metabolite profiling has been useful for studying metabolism in vivo, such an approach lacks resolution at the cellular and subcellular level. In vivo methods for interrogating organellar metabolites in specific cell types within mammalian tissues have been limited. To address this, we built on prior work in which we exploited a mitochondrially localized 3XHA epitope tag (MITO-Tag) for the fast isolation of mitochondria from cultured cells to generate MITO-Tag Mice. Affording spatiotemporal control over MITO-Tag expression, these transgenic animals enable the rapid, cell-type-specific immunoisolation of mitochondria from tissues, which we verified using a combination of proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Using MITOTag Mice and targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling, we identified changes during fasted and refed conditions in a diverse array of mitochondrial metabolites in hepatocytes and found metabolites that behaved differently at the mitochondrial versus wholetissue level. MITO-Tag Mice should have utility for studying mitochondrial physiology, and our strategy should be generally applicable for studying other mammalian organelles in specific cell types in vivo.
Panarelli N, Tyryshkin K, Wong JJM, Majewski A, Yang XJ, Scognamiglio T, Kim MK, Bogardus K, Tuschl T, Chen YT, Renwick N
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Evaluating gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors through microRNA sequencing

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) can be challenging to evaluate histologically. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that often are excellent biomarkers due to their abundance, cell-type and disease stage specificity and stability. To evaluate miRNAs as adjunct tissue markers for classifying and grading well-differentiated GEP-NETs, we generated and compared miRNA expression profiles from four pathological types of GEP-NETs. Using quantitative barcoded small RNA sequencing and state-of-theart sequence annotation, we generated comprehensive miRNA expression profiles from archived pancreatic, ileal, appendiceal and rectal NETs. Following data preprocessing, we randomly assigned sample profiles to discovery (80%) and validation (20%) sets prior to data mining using machine-learning techniques. High expression analyses indicated that miR-375 was the most abundant individual miRNA and miRNA cistron in all samples. Leveraging prior knowledge that GEP-NET behavior is influenced by embryonic derivation, we developed a dual-layer hierarchical classifier for differentiating GEP-NET types. In the first layer, our classifier discriminated midgut (ileum, appendix) from non-midgut (rectum, pancreas) NETs based on miR-615 and-92b expression. In the second layer, our classifier discriminated ileal from appendiceal NETs based on miR-125b,-192 and -149 expression, and rectal from pancreatic NETs based on miR-429 and -487b expression. Our classifier achieved overall accuracies of 98.5% and 94.4% in discovery and validation sets, respectively. We also found provisional evidence that low-and intermediate-grade pancreatic NETs can be discriminated based on miR-328 expression. GEP-NETs can be reliably classified and potentially graded using a limited panel of miRNA markers, complementing morphological and immunohistochemistry-based approaches to histologic evaluation.
Yin L, Ren HC, Hou DF
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Holographic magnetic susceptibility

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 2019 JAN 8; 99(2):? Article 026006
The (2 + 1)-dimensional static magnetic susceptibility in strong-coupling is studied via a Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS geometry. The analyticity of the susceptibility on the complex momentum q-plane in relation to the Friedel-like oscillation in coordinate space is explored. In contrast to the branch-cuts crossing the real momentum-axis for a Fermi liquid, we prove that the holographic magnetic susceptibility remains an analytic function of the complex momentum around the real axis in the limit of zero temperature. At zero temperature, we located analytically two pairs of branch-cuts that are parallel to the imaginary momentum-axis for large dim q hut become warped with the endpoints keeping away from the real and imaginary momentum-axes. We conclude that these branch-cuts give rise to the exponential decay behaviour of Friedel-like oscillation of magnetic susceptibility in coordinate space. We also derived the analytical forms of the susceptibility in large and small-momentum, respectively.
Maffucci P, Bigio B, Rapaport F, Cobat A, Borghesi A, Lopez M, Pating E, Bolze A, Shang L, Bendavid M, Scott EM, Stenson PD, Cunningham-Rundles C, Cooper DN, Gleeson JG, Fellay J, Quintana-Murci L, Casanova JL, Abel L, Boisson B, Itan Y
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Blacklisting variants common in private cohorts but not in public databases optimizes human exome analysis

Computational analyses of human patient exomes aim to filter out as many nonpathogenic genetic variants (NPVs) as possible, without removing the true disease-causing mutations. This involves comparing the patient's exome with public databases to remove reported variants inconsistent with disease prevalence, mode of inheritance, or clinical penetrance. However, variants frequent in a given exome cohort, but absent or rare in public databases, have also been reported and treated as NPVs, without rigorous exploration. We report the generation of a blacklist of variants frequent within an in-house cohort of 3,104 exomes. This blacklist did not remove known pathogenic mutations from the exomes of 129 patients and decreased the number of NPVs remaining in the 3,104 individual exomes by a median of 62%. We validated this approach by testing three other independent cohorts of 400, 902, and 3,869 exomes. The blacklist generated from any given cohort removed a substantial proportion of NPVs (11-65%). We analyzed the blacklisted variants computationally and experimentally. Most of the blacklisted variants corresponded to false signals generated by incomplete reference genome assembly, location in low-complexity regions, bioinformatic misprocessing, or limitations inherent to cohort-specific private alleles (e.g., due to sequencing kits, and genetic ancestries). Finally, we provide our precalculated blacklists, together with ReFiNE, a program for generating customized blacklists from any medium-sized or large in-house cohort of exome (or other next-generation sequencing) data via a user-friendly public web server. This work demonstrates the power of extracting variant blacklists from private databases as a specific in-house but broadly applicable tool for optimizing exome analysis.
Borrell LN, Vaughan R
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An AJPH Supplement Toward a Unified Research Approach for Minority Health and Health Disparities

McEwen BS
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Prenatal Programming of Neuropsychiatric Disorders: An Epigenetic Perspective Across the Lifespan

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2019 JAN 15; 85(2):91-93
Braffman NR, Piscotta FJ, Hauver J, Campbell EA, Link AJ, Darst SA
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Structural mechanism of transcription inhibition by lasso peptides microcin J25 and capistruin

We report crystal structures of the antibacterial lasso peptides microcin J25 (MccJ25) and capistruin (Cap) bound to their natural enzymatic target, the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). Both peptides bind within the RNAP secondary channel, through which NTP substrates enter the RNAP active site, and sterically block trigger-loop folding, which is essential for efficient catalysis by the RNAP. MccJ25 binds deep within the secondary channel in a manner expected to interfere with NTP substrate binding, explaining the partial competitive mechanism of inhibition with respect to NTPs found previously [Mukhopadhyay J, Sineva E, Knight J, Levy RM, Ebright RH (2004) Mol Cell 14:739-751]. The Cap binding determinant on RNAP overlaps, but is not identical to, that of MccJ25. Cap binds further from the RNAP active site and does not sterically interfere with NTP binding, and we show that Cap inhibition is partially noncompetitive with respect to NTPs. This work lays the groundwork for structure determination of other lasso peptides that target the bacterial RNAP and provides a structural foundation to guide lasso peptide antimicrobial engineering approaches.