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Found 35618 matches. Displaying 21-30
Bin Ramli MN, Lim YS, Koe CT, Demircioglu D, Tng WQ, Gonzales KAU, Tan CP, Szczerbinska I, Liang HQ, Soe EL, Lu ZP, Ariyachet C, Yu KM, Koh SH, Yaw LP, Jumat NHB, Lim JSY, Wright G, Shabbir A, Dan YY, Ng HH, Chan YS
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Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Organoids as Models of Liver Disease

GASTROENTEROLOGY 2020 OCT; 159(4):1471-1486.e12
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few in vitro models for studying the 3-dimensional interactions among different liver cell types during organogenesis or disease development. We aimed to generate hepatic organoids that comprise different parenchymal liver cell types and have structural features of the liver, using human pluripotent stem cells. METHODS: We cultured H1 human embryonic stem cells (WA-01, passage 27-40) and induced pluripotent stem cells (GM23338) with a series of chemically defined and serum-free media to induce formation of posterior foregut cells, which were differentiated in 3 dimensions into hepatic endoderm spheroids and stepwise into hepatoblast spheroids. Hepatoblast spheroids were reseeded in a high-throughput format and induced to form hepatic organoids; development of functional bile canaliculi was imaged live. Levels of albumin and apolipoprotein B were measured in cell culture supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase were measured in cholangiocytes. Organoids were incubated with troglitazone for varying periods and bile transport and accumulation were visualized by live-imaging microscopy. Organoids were incubated with oleic and palmitic acid, and formation of lipid droplets was visualized by staining. We compared gene expression profiles of organoids incubated with free fatty acids or without. We also compared gene expression profiles between liver tissue samples from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) versus without. We quantified hepatocyte and cholangiocyte populations in organoids using immunostaining and flow cytometry; cholangiocyte proliferation of cholangiocytes was measured. We compared the bile canaliculi network in the organoids incubated with versus without free fatty acids by live imaging. RESULTS: Cells in organoids differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, based on the expression of albumin and cytokeratin 7. Hepatocytes were functional, based on secretion of albumin and apolipoprotein B and cytochrome P450 activity; cholangiocytes were functional, based on gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferative responses to secretin. The organoids organized a functional bile canaliculi system, which was disrupted by cholestasis-inducing drugs such as troglitazone. Organoids incubated with free fatty acids had gene expression signatures similar to those of liver tissues from patients with NASH. Incubation of organoids with free fatty acid-enriched media resulted in structural changes associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, such as decay of bile canaliculi network and ductular reactions. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a hepatic organoid platform with human cells that can be used to model complex liver diseases, including NASH.
Dunphy MPS, Pressl C, Pillarsetty N, Grkovski M, Modi S, Jhaveri K, Norton L, Beattie BJ, Zanzonico PB, Zatorska D, Taldone T, Ochiana SO, Uddin MM, Burnazi EM, Lyashchenko SK, Hudis CA, Bromberg J, Schoder HM, Fox JJ, Zhang HW, Chiosis G, Lewis JS, Larson SM
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First-in-Human Trial of Epichaperome-Targeted PET in Patients with Cancer

CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH 2020 OCT 1; 26(19):5178-5187
Purpose: I-124-PU-H71 is an investigational first-in-class radiologic agent specific for imaging tumor epichaperome formations. The intracellular epichaperome forms under cellular stress and is a clinically validated oncotherapeutic target. We conducted a first-inhuman study of microdose I-124-PU-H71 for PET to study in vivo biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and safety; and the feasibility of epichaperome-targeted tumor imaging. Experimental Design: Adult patients with cancer (n = 30) received I-124-PU-H71 tracer (201 + 12 MBq, <25 mu g) intravenous bolus followed by PET/CT scans and blood radioassays. Results: I-124-PU-H71 PET detected tumors of different cancer types (breast, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, and pancreas). I-124-PU-H71 was retained by tumors for several days while it cleared rapidly from bones, healthy soft tissues, and blood. Radiation dosimetry is favorable and patients suffered no adverse effects. Conclusions: Our first-in-human results demonstrate the safety and feasibility of noninvasive in vivo detection of tumor epichaperomes using I-124-PU-H71 PET, supporting clinical development of PU-H71 and other epichaperome-targeted therapeutics.
Nacev BA, Jones KB, Intlekofer AM, Yu JSE, Allis CD, Tap WD, Ladanyi M, Nielsen TO
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The epigenomics of sarcoma

NATURE REVIEWS CANCER 2020 OCT; 20(10):608-623
Epigenetic regulation is critical to physiological control of development, cell fate, cell proliferation, genomic integrity and, fundamentally, transcriptional regulation. This epigenetic control occurs at multiple levels including through DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome remodelling and modulation of the 3D chromatin structure. Alterations in genes that encode chromatin regulators are common among mesenchymal neoplasms, a collection of more than 160 tumour types including over 60 malignant variants (sarcomas) that have unique and varied genetic, biological and clinical characteristics. Herein, we review those sarcomas in which chromatin pathway alterations drive disease biology. Specifically, we emphasize examples of dysregulation of each level of epigenetic control though mechanisms that include alterations in metabolic enzymes that regulate DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, mutations in histone genes, subunit loss or fusions in chromatin remodelling and modifying complexes, and disruption of higher-order chromatin structure. Epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis have been implicated in mesenchymal tumours ranging from chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of bone to chondrosarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, synovial sarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma and Ewing sarcoma - all diseases that present in a younger patient population than most cancers. Finally, we review current and potential future approaches for the development of sarcoma therapies based on this emerging understanding of chromatin dysregulation. This Review discusses how the disease biology of many sarcomas is driven by chromatin pathway alterations ranging from dysregulation of DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosome remodelling to disruption of higher-order, 3D chromatin structure, with a view to use this knowledge to better develop targeted therapies for patients with sarcoma.
Schneider C, Shen C, Gopal AA, Douglas T, Forestell B, Kauffman KD, Rogers D, Artusa P, Zhang Q, Jing H, Freeman AF, Barber DL, King IL, Saleh M, Wiseman PW, Su HC, Mandl JN
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Migration-induced cell shattering due to DOCK8 deficiency causes a type 2-biased helper T cell response

Humans with inherited defects inDOCK8expression are prone to allergic, type 2 CD4(+)T cell responses. Mandl and colleagues reveal an important role for cell death in driving such type 2 signals during infection. Mutations that impact immune cell migration and result in immune deficiency illustrate the importance of cell movement in host defense. In humans, loss-of-function mutations inDOCK8, a guanine exchange factor involved in hematopoietic cell migration, lead to immunodeficiency and, paradoxically, allergic disease. Here, we demonstrate that, like humans,Dock8(-/-)mice have a profound type 2 CD4(+)helper T (T(H)2) cell bias upon pulmonary infection withCryptococcus neoformansand other non-T(H)2 stimuli. We found that recruitedDock8(-/-)CX3CR1(+)mononuclear phagocytes are exquisitely sensitive to migration-induced cell shattering, releasing interleukin (IL)-1 beta that drives granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by CD4(+)T cells. Blocking IL-1 beta, GM-CSF or caspase activation eliminated the type-2 skew in mice lackingDock8. Notably, treatment of infected wild-type mice with apoptotic cells significantly increased GM-CSF production and T(H)2 cell differentiation. This reveals an important role for cell death in driving type 2 signals during infection, which may have implications for understanding the etiology of type 2 CD4(+)T cell responses in allergic disease.
Mayer CT, Nieke JP, Gazumyan A, Cipolla M, Wang Q, Oliveira TY, Ramos V, Monette S, Li QZ, Gershwin ME, Kashkar H, Nussenzweig MC
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An apoptosis-dependent checkpoint for autoimmunity in memory B and plasma cells

B lymphocytes acquire self-reactivity as an unavoidable byproduct of antibody gene diversification in the bone marrow and in germinal centers (GCs). Autoreactive B cells emerging from the bone marrow are silenced in a series of well-defined checkpoints, but less is known about how self-reactivity that develops by somatic mutation in GCs is controlled. Here, we report the existence of an apoptosis-dependent tolerance checkpoint in post-GC B cells. Whereas defective GC B cell apoptosis has no measurable effect on autoantibody development, disruption of post-GC apoptosis results in accumulation of autoreactive memory B cells and plasma cells, antinuclear antibody production, and autoimmunity. The data presented shed light on mechanisms that regulate immune tolerance and the development of autoantibodies.
Thongthip S, Conti BA, Lach FP, Smogorzewska A
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Suppression of non-homologous end joining does not rescue DNA repair defects in Fanconi anemia patient cells

CELL CYCLE 2020 OCT 1; 19(19):2553-2561
Severe cellular sensitivity and aberrant chromosomal rearrangements in response to DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) inducing agents are hallmarks of Fanconi anemia (FA) deficient cells. These phenotypes have previously been ascribed to inappropriate activity of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) rather than a direct consequence of DNA ICL repair defects. Here we used chemical inhibitors, RNAi, and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 to inactivate various components of NHEJ in cells from FA patients. We show that suppression of DNA-PKcs, DNA Ligase IV, and 53BP1 is not capable of rescuing ICL-induced proliferation defects and only53BP1knockout partially suppresses the chromosomal abnormalities of FA patient cells.
Fuchs E, Blau HM
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Tissue Stem Cells: Architects of Their Niches

CELL STEM CELL 2020 OCT 1; 27(4):532-556
Stem cells (SCs) maintain tissue homeostasis and repair wounds. Despite marked variation in tissue architecture and regenerative demands, SCs often follow similar paradigms in communicating with their microenvironmental "niche" to transition between quiescent and regenerative states. Here we use skin epithelium and skeletal muscle-among the most highly-stressed tissues in our body-to highlight similarities and differences in niche constituents and how SCs mediate natural tissue rejuvenation and perform regenerative acts prompted by injuries. We discuss how these communication networks break down during aging and how understanding tissue SCs has led to major advances in regenerative medicine.
Weisel K, Berger S, Papp K, Maari C, Krueger JG, Scott N, Tompson D, Wang S, Simeoni M, Bertin J, Tak PP
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Response to Inhibition of Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1) in Active Plaque Psoriasis: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), a regulator of inflammation and cell death, is a potential therapeutic target in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). The objective of this phase IIa multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate safety, tolerability pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary efficacy of GSK2982772, a RIPK1 inhibitor, in plaque-type psoriasis. Psoriasis patients (N = 65) were randomized to 60 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) or three times daily (t.i.d.), or placebo for 84 days. Most adverse events (AEs) were mild with no severe drug-related AEs reported. Plaque Lesion Severity Sum improved with b.i.d. treatment compared with placebo; interpretation of t.i.d. treatment results was complicated by a high placebo response. Reductions in epidermal thickness and infiltration by CD3+ T cells in the epidermis and dermis were observed compared with placebo. Results support the rationale for additional studies on RIPK1 inhibition in IMIDs.
Su MF, Zhu L, Zhang YX, Paknejad N, Dey R, Huang JY, Lee MY, Williams D, Jordan KD, Eng ET, Ernst OP, Meyerson JR, Hite RK, Walz T, Liu W, Huang XY
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Structural Basis of the Activation of Heterotrimeric Gs-Protein by Isoproterenol-Bound beta(1)-Adrenergic Receptor

MOLECULAR CELL 2020 OCT 1; 80(1):59-71.e4
Cardiac disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)-AR) is a major regulator of cardiac functions and is downregulated in the majority of heart failure cases. A key physiological process is the activation of heterotrimeric G-protein Gs by beta(1)-ARs, leading to increased heart rate and contractility. Here, we use cryo-electron microscopy and functional studies to investigate the molecular mechanism by which beta(1)-AR activates Gs. We find that the tilting of alpha 5-helix breaks a hydrogen bond between the sidechain of His373 in the C-terminal alpha 5-helix and the backbone carbonyl of Arg38 in the N-terminal alpha N-helix of Ga-s. Together with the disruption of another interacting network involving Gln59 in the alpha 1-helix, Ala352 in the beta 6-alpha 5 loop, and Thr355 in the alpha 5-helix, these conformational changes might lead to the deformation of the GDP-binding pocket. Our data provide molecular insights into the activation of G-proteins by G-protein-coupled receptors.
Connaughton DM, Dai RF, Owen DJ, Marquez J, Mann N, Graham-Paquin AL, Nakayama M, Coyaud E, Laurent EM, St-Germain JR, Blok LS, Vino A, Klambt V, Deutsch K, Wu CHW, Kolvenbach CM, Kause F, Ottlewski I, Schneider R, Kitzler TM, Majmundar AJ, Buerger F, Onuchic-Whitford AC, Mao YY, Kolb A, Salmanullah D, Chen E, van der Ven AT, Rao J, Ityel H, Seltzsam S, Rieke JM, Chen J, Vivante A, Hwang DY, Kohl S, Dworschak GC, Hermle T, Alders M, Bartolomaeus T, Bauer SB, Baum MA, Brilstra EH, Challman TD, Zyskind J, Costin CE, Dipple KM, Duijkers FA, Ferguson M, Fitzpatrick DR, Fick R, Glass IA, Hulick PJ, Kline AD, Krey I, Kumar S, Lu WN, Marco EJ, Wentzensen IM, Mefford HC, Platzer K, Povolotskaya IS, Savatt JM, Shcherbakova NV, Senguttuvan P, Squire AE, Stein DR, Thiffault I, Voinova VY, Somers MJG, Ferguson MA, Traum AZ, Daouk GH, Daga A, Rodig NM, Terhal PA, van Binsbergen E, Eid LA, Tasic V, Rasouly HM, Lim TY, Ahram DF, Gharavi AG, Reutter HM, Rehm HL, MacArthur DG, Lek M, Laricchia KM, Lifton RP, Xu H, Mane SM, Sanna-Cherchi S, Sharrocks AD, Raught B, Fisher SE, Bouchard M, Khokha MK, Shril S, Hildebrandt F
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Mutations of the Transcriptional Corepressor ZMYM2 Cause Syndromic Urinary Tract Malformations

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute one of the most frequent birth defects and represent the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Despite the discovery of dozens of monogenic causes of CAKUT, most pathogenic pathways remain elusive. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 551 individuals with CAKUT and identified a heterozygous de novo stop-gain variant in ZMYM2 in two different families with CAKUT. Through collaboration, we identified in total 14 different heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in ZMYM2 in 15 unrelated families. Most mutations occurred de novo, indicating possible interference with reproductive function. Human disease features are replicated in X. tropicalis larvae with morpholino knockdowns, in which expression of truncated ZMYM2 proteins, based on individual mutations, failed to rescue renal and craniofacial defects. Moreover, heterozygous Zmym2-deficient mice recapitulated features of CAKUT with high penetrance. The ZMYM2 protein is a component of a transcriptional corepressor complex recently linked to the silencing of developmentally regulated endogenous retrovirus elements. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we show that ZMYM2 interacts with additional epigenetic silencing complexes, as well as confirming that it binds to FOXP1, a transcription factor that has also been linked to CAKUT. In summary, our findings establish that loss-of-function mutations of ZMYM2, and potentially that of other proteins in its interactome, as causes of human CAKUT, offering new routes for studying the pathogenesis of the disorder.