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Williams RM, Lee C, Galassi TV, Harvey JD, Leicher R, Sirenko M, Dorso MA, Shah J, Olvera N, Dao F, Levine DA, Heller DA
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Noninvasive ovarian cancer biomarker detection via an optical nanosensor implant

SCIENCE ADVANCES 2018 APR; 4(4):? Article eaaq1090
Patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma ( HGSC) exhibit poor 5-year survival rates, which may be significantly improved by early-stage detection. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved biomarkers for HGSC-CA-125 (cancer antigen 125) and HE4 (human epididymis protein 4)-do not generally appear at detectable levels in the serum until advanced stages of the disease. An implantable device placed proximal to disease sites, such as in or near the fallopian tube, ovary, uterine cavity, or peritoneal cavity, may constitute a feasible strategy to improve detection of HGSC. We engineered a prototype optical sensor composed of an antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube complex, which responds quantitatively to HE4 via modulation of the nanotube optical bandgap. The complexes measured HE4 with nanomolar sensitivity to differentiate disease from benign patient biofluids. The sensors were implanted into four models of ovarian cancer, within a semipermeable membrane, enabling the optical detection of HE4 within the live animals. We present the first in vivo optical nanosensor capable of noninvasive cancer biomarker detection in orthotopic models of disease.
Kara EE, Nussenzweig MC
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Redemption for self-reactive antibodies Antibody self-reactivity is repaired through antibody gene mutation in B cells

SCIENCE 2018 APR 13; 360(6385):152-153
Lewin HA, Robinson GE, Kress WJ, Baker WJ, Coddington J, Crandall KA, Durbin R, Edwards SV, Forest F, Gilbert MTP, Goldstein MM, Grigoriev IV, Hackett KJ, Haussler D, Jarvis ED, Johnson WE, Patrinos A, Richards S, Castilla-Rubio JC, van Sluys MA, Soltis PS, Xu X, Yang HM, Zhang GJ
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Earth BioGenome Project: Sequencing life for the future of life

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2018 APR 24; 115(17):4325-4333
Increasing our understanding of Earth's biodiversity and responsibly stewarding its resources are among the most crucial scientific and social challenges of the new millennium. These challenges require fundamental new knowledge of the organization, evolution, functions, and interactions among millions of the planet's organisms. Herein, we present a perspective on the Earth BioGenome Project (EBP), a moonshot for biology that aims to sequence, catalog, and characterize the genomes of all of Earth's eukaryotic biodiversity over a period of 10 years. The outcomes of the EBP will inform a broad range of major issues facing humanity, such as the impact of climate change on biodiversity, the conservation of endangered species and ecosystems, and the preservation and enhancement of ecosystem services. We describe hurdles that the project faces, including data-sharing policies that ensure a permanent, freely available resource for future scientific discovery while respecting access and benefit sharing guidelines of the Nagoya Protocol. We also describe scientific and organizational challenges in executing such an ambitious project, and the structure proposed to achieve the project's goals. The far-reaching potential benefits of creating an open digital repository of genomic information for life on Earth can be realized only by a coordinated international effort.
Warejko JK, Schueler M, Vivante A, Tan WZ, Daga A, Lawson JA, Braun DA, Shril S, Amann K, Somers MJG, Rodig NM, Baum MA, Daouk G, Traum AZ, Kim HB, Vakili K, Porras D, Lock J, Rivkin MJ, Chaudry G, Smoot LB, Singh MN, Smith ER, Mane SM, Lifton RP, Stein DR, Ferguson MA, Hildebrandt F
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Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals a Monogenic Cause of Disease in approximate to 43% of 35 Families With Midaortic Syndrome

HYPERTENSION 2018 APR; 71(4):691-699
Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare cause of severe childhood hypertension characterized by narrowing of the abdominal aorta in children and is associated with extensive vascular disease. It may occur as part of a genetic syndrome, such as neurofibromatosis, or as consequence of a pathological inflammatory disease. However, most cases are considered idiopathic. We hypothesized that in a high percentage of these patients, a monogenic cause of disease may be detected by evaluating whole exome sequencing data for mutations in 1 of 38 candidate genes previously described to cause vasculopathy. We studied a cohort of 36 individuals from 35 different families with MAS by exome sequencing. In 15 of 35 families (42.9%), we detected likely causal dominant mutations. In 15 of 35 (42.9%) families with MAS, whole exome sequencing revealed a mutation in one of the genes previously associated with vascular disease (NF1, JAG1, ELN, GATA6, and RNF213). Ten of the 15 mutations have not previously been reported. This is the first report of ELN, RNF213, or GATA6 mutations in individuals with MAS. Mutations were detected in NF1 (6/15 families), JAG1 (4/15 families), ELN (3/15 families), and one family each for GATA6 and RNF213. Eight individuals had syndromic disease and 7 individuals had isolated MAS. Whole exome sequencing can provide conclusive molecular genetic diagnosis in a high fraction of individuals with syndromic or isolated MAS. Establishing an etiologic diagnosis may reveal genotype/phenotype correlations for MAS in the future and should, therefore, be performed routinely in MAS.
Butler IA, Peters MK, Kronauer DJC
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Low levels of hybridization in two species of African driver ants

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 2018 APR; 31(4):556-571
Hybridization in ants can have consequences different from those observed in most other species, with many of the potential deleterious effects being mitigated due to haplodiploidy and eusociality. In some species where colonies are either headed by multiple queens or single queens that mate with many males, hybridization is associated with genetic caste determination, where hybrids develop into workers and purebred individuals develop into queens. A previous study suggested that hybridization occurs between two Dorylus army ant species with multiply mated queens. However, the extent and exact pattern of hybridization have remained unclear, and its possible effect on caste determination has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the extent and direction of hybridization by measuring how frequently hybrids occur in colonies of both species, and to investigate the possibility of genetic caste determination. We show that hybridization is bidirectional and occurs at equal rates in both species. Hybrid workers make up only 1-2% of the population, and successful interspecific matings represent approximately 2% of all matings in both species. This shows that, although interspecific matings that give rise to worker offspring occur regularly, they are much rarer than intraspecific mating. Finally, we find no evidence of an association between hybridization and genetic caste determination in this population. This means that genetic caste determination is not a necessary outcome of hybridization in ants, even in species where queens mate with multiple males.
Evering TH, Tsuji M
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Human Immune System Mice for the Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 Infection of the Central Nervous System

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 2018 APR 4; 9(?):? Article 649
Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human cell populations or tissues, also known as human immune system (HIS) mice, have emerged as an important and versatile tool for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis, treatment, and persistence in various biological compartments. Recent work in HIS mice has demonstrated their ability to recapitulate critical aspects of human immune responses to HIV-1 infection, and such studies have informed our knowledge of HIV-1 persistence and latency in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy. The central nervous system (CNS) is a unique, immunologically privileged compartment susceptible to HIV-1 infection, replication, and immune-mediated damage. The unique, neural, and glia-rich cellular composition of this compartment, as well as the important role of infiltrating cells of the myeloid lineage in HIV-1 seeding and replication makes its study of paramount importance, particularly in the context of HIV-1 cure research. Current work on the replication and persistence of HIV-1 in the CNS, as well as cells of the myeloid lineage thought to be important in HIV-1 infection of this compartment, has been aided by the expanded use of these HIS mouse models. In this review, we describe the major HIS mouse models currently in use for the study of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis, recent insights from the field, limitations of the available models, and promising advances in HIS mouse model development.
Marodi L
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From Ignac Semmelweis to Primary Immunodeficiencies: a Bicentenary Commemoration

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2018 APR; 38(3):247-250
Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, Brondolin E, Dragicevic M, Ero J, Flechl M, Friedl M, Fruhwirth R, Ghete VM, Grossmann J, Hrubec J, Jeitler M, Konig A, Krammer N, Kratschmer I, Liko D, Madlener T, Mikulec I, Pree E, Rabady D, Rad N, Rohringer H, Schieck J, Schofbeck R, Spanring M, Spitzbart D, Waltenberger W, Wittmann J, Wulz CE, Zarucki M, Chekhovsky V, Mossolov V, Gonzalez JS, De Wolf EA, Di Croce D, Janssen X, Lauwers J, Van Haevermaet H, Van Mechelen P, Van Remortel N, Abu Zeid S, Blekman F, D'Hondt J, De Bruyn I, De Clercq J, Deroover K, Flouris G, Lontkovskyi D, Lowette S, Moortgat S, Moreels L, Python Q, Skovpen K, Tavernier S, Van Doninck W, Van Mulders P, Van Parijs I, Brun H, Clerbaux B, De Lentdecker G, Delannoy H, Fasanella G, Favart L, Goldouzian R, Grebenyuk A, Karapostoli G, Lenzi T, Luetic J, Maerschalk T, Marinov A, Randle-Conde A, Seva T, Vander Velde C, Vanlaer P, Vannerom D, Yonamine R, Zenoni F, Zhang F, Cimmino A, Cornelis T, Dobur D, Fagot A, Gul M, Khvastunov I, Poyraz D, Roskas C, Salva S, Tytgat M, Verbeke W, Zaganidis N, Bakhshiansohi H, Bondu O, Brochet S, Bruno G, Caputo C, Caudron A, De Visscher S, Delaere C, Delcourt M, Francois B, Giammanco A, Jafari A, Komm M, Krintiras G, Lemaitre V, Magitteri A, Mertens A, Musich M, Piotrzkowski K, Quertenmont L, Marono MV, Wertz S, Beliy N, Alda WL, Alves FL, Alves GA, Brito L, Martins MC, Hensel C, Moraes A, Pol ME, Teles PR, Das Chagas EBB, Carvalho W, Chinellato J, Custodio A, Da Costa EM, Da Silveira GG, Damiao DDJ, De Souza SF, Guativa LMH, Malbouisson H, De Almeida MM, Herrera CM, Mundim L, Nogima H, Santoro A, Sznajder A, Manganote EJT, De Araujo FTDS, Pereira AV, Ahuja S, Bernardes CA, Tomei TRFP, Gregores EM, Mercadante PG, Novaes SF, Padula SS, Abad DR, Vargas JCR, Aleksandrov A, Hadjiiska R, Iaydjiev P, Misheva M, Rodozov M, Shopova M, Stoykova S, Sultanov G, Dimitrov A, Glushkov I, Litov L, Pavlov B, Petkov P, Fang W, Gao X, Ahmad M, Bian JG, Chen GM, Chen HS, Chen M, Chen Y, Jiang CH, Leggat D, Liao H, Liu Z, Romeo F, Shaheen SM, Spiezia A, Tao J, Wang C, Wang Z, Yazgan E, Zhang H, Zhang S, Zhao J, Ban Y, Chen G, Li Q, Liu S, Mao Y, Qian SJ, Wang D, Xu Z, Avila C, Cabrera A, Sierra LFC, Florez C, Hernandez CFG, Alvarez JDR, Courbon B, Godinovic N, Lelas D, Puljak I, Cipriano PMR, Sculac T, Antunovic Z, Kovac M, Brigljevic V, Ferencek D, Kadija K, Mesic B, Starodumov A, Susa T, Ather MW, Attikis A, Mavromanolakis G, Mousa J, Nicolaou C, Ptochos F, Razis PA, Rykaczewski H, Finger M, Finger M, Jarrin EC, Assran Y, Elgammal S, Mahrous A, Dewanjee RK, Kadastik M, Perrini L, Raidal M, Tiko A, Veelken C, Eerola P, Pekkanen J, Voutilainen M, Harkonen J, Jarvinen T, Karimaki V, Kinnunen R, Lampen T, Lassila-Perini K, Lehti S, Linden T, Luukka P, Tuominen E, Tuominiemi J, Tuovinen E, Talvitie J, Tuuva T, Besancon M, Couderc F, Dejardin M, Denegri D, Faure JL, Ferri F, Ganjour S, Ghosh S, Givernaud A, Gras P, Monchenault GH, Jarry P, Kucher I, Locci E, Machet M, Malcles J, Negro G, Rander J, Rosowsky A, Sahin MO, Titov M, Abdulsalam A, Antropov I, Baffioni S, Beaudette F, Busson P, Cadamuro L, Charlot C, Cassagnac RG, Jo M, Lisniak S, Lobanov A, Blanco JM, Nguyen M, Ochando C, Ortona G, Paganini P, Pigard P, Salerno R, Sauvan JB, Sirois Y, Leiton AGS, Strebler T, Yilmaz Y, Zabi A, Zghiche A, Agram JL, Andrea J, Bloch D, Brom JM, Buttignol M, Chabert EC, Chanon N, Collard C, Conte E, Coubez X, Fontaine JC, Gele D, Goerlach U, Jansova M, Bihan AC, Tonon N, Hove P, Gadrat S, Beauceron S, Bernet C, Boudoul G, Chierici R, Contardo D, Depasse P, Mamouni H, Fay J, Finco L, Gascon S, Gouzevitch M, Grenier G, Ille B, Lagarde F, Laktineh IB, Lethuillier M, Mirabito L, Pequegnot AL, Perries S, Popov A, Sordini V, Donckt M, Viret S, Toriashvili T, Tsamalaidze Z, Autermann C, Feld L, Kiesel MK, Klein K, Lipinski M, Preuten M, Schomakers C, Schulz J, Verlage T, Zhukov V, Albert A, Dietz-Laursonn E, Duchardt D, Endres M, Erdmann M, Erdweg S, Esch T, Fischer R, Guth A, Hamer M, Hebbeker T, Heidemann C, Hoepfner K, Knutzen S, Merschmeyer M, Meyer A, Millet P, Mukherjee S, Olschewski M, Pook T, Radziej M, Reithler H, Rieger M, Scheuch F, Teyssier D, Thuer S, Flugge G, Kargoll B, Kress T, Kunsken A, Lingemann J, Muller T, Nehrkorn A, Nowack A, Pistone C, Pooth O, Stahl A, Martin MA, Arndt T, Asawatangtrakuldee C, Beernaert K, Behnke O, Behrens U, Martinez AB, Anuar AA, Borras K, Botta V, Campbell A, Connor P, Contreras-Campana C, Costanza F, Pardos CD, Eckerlin G, Eckstein D, Eichhorn T, Eren E, Gallo E, Garcia JG, Geiser A, Gizhko A, Luyando JMG, Grohsjean A, Gunnellini P, Guthoff M, Harb A, Hauk J, Hempel M, Jung H, Kalogeropoulos A, Kasemann M, Keaveney J, Kleinwort C, Korol I, Krucker D, Lange W, Lelek A, Lenz T, Leonard J, Lipka K, Lohmann W, Mankel R, Melzer-Pellmann IA, Meyer AB, Mittag G, Mnich J, Mussgiller A, Ntomari E, Pitzl D, Raspereza A, Roland B, Savitskyi M, Saxena P, Shevchenko R, Spannagel S, Stefaniuk N, Onsem GP, Walsh R, Wen Y, Wichmann K, Wissing C, Zenaiev O, Bein S, Blobel V, Vignali MC, Dreyer T, Garutti E, Gonzalez D, Haller J, Hinzmann A, Hoffmann M, Karavdina A, Klanner R, Kogler R, Kovalchuk N, Kurz S, Lapsien T, Marchesini I, Marconi D, Meyer M, Niedziela M, Nowatschin D, Pantaleo F, Peiffer T, Perieanu A, Scharf C, Schleper P, Schmidt A, Schumann S, Schwandt J, Sonneveld J, Stadie H, Steinbruck G, Stober FM, Stover M, Tholen H, Troendle D, Usai E, Vanelderen L, Vanhoefer A, Vormwald B, Akbiyik M, Barth C, Baur S, Butz E, Caspart R, Chwalek T, Colombo F, Boer W, Dierlamm A, Freund B, Friese R, Giffels M, Gilbert A, Haitz D, Hartmann F, Heindl SM, Husemann U, Kassel F, Kudella S, Mildner H, Mozer MU, Muller T, Plagge M, Quast G, Rabbertz K, Schafer D, Schroder M, Shvetsov I, Sieber G, Simonis HJ, Ulrich R, Wayand S, Weber M, Weiler T, Williamson S, Wohrmann C, Wolf R, Anagnostou G, Daskalakis G, Geralis T, Giakoumopoulou VA, Kyriakis A, Loukas D, Topsis-Giotis I, Karathanasis G, Kesisoglou S, Panagiotou A, Saoulidou N, Kousouris K, Evangelou I, Foudas C, Kokkas P, Mallios S, Manthos N, Papadopoulos I, Paradas E, Strologas J, Triantis FA, Csanad M, Filipovic N, Pasztor G, Veres GI, Bencze G, Hajdu C, Horvath D, Hunyadi A, Sikler F, Veszpremi V, Zsigmond AJ, Beni N, Czellar S, Karancsi J, Makovec A, Molnar J, Szillasi Z, Bartok M, Raics P, Trocsanyi ZL, Ujvari B, Choudhury S, Komaragiri JR, Bahinipati S, Bhowmik S, Mal P, Mandal K, Nayak A, Sahoo DK, Sahoo N, Swain SK, Bansal S, Beri SB, Bhatnagar V, Chawla R, Dhingra N, Kalsi AK, Kaur A, Kaur M, Kumar R, Kumari P, Mehta A, Singh JB, Walia G, Kumar A, Shah A, Bhardwaj A, Chauhan S, Choudhary BC, Garg RB, Keshri S, Kumar A, Malhotra S, Naimuddin M, Ranjan K, Sharma R, Bhardwaj R, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya S, Bhawandeep U, Dey S, Dutt S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, Majumdar N, Modak A, Mondal K, Mukhopadhyay S, Nandan S, Purohit A, Roy A, Roy D, Chowdhury SR, Sarkar S, Sharan M, Thakur S, Behera PK, Chudasama R, Dutta D, Jha V, Kumar V, Mohanty AK, Netrakanti PK, Pant LM, Shukla P, Topkar A, Aziz T, Dugad S, Mahakud B, Mitra S, Mohanty GB, Sur N, Sutar B, Banerjee S, Bhattacharya S, Chatterjee S, Das P, Guchait M, Jain S, Kumar S, Maity M, Majumder G, Mazumdar K, Sarkar T, Wickramage N, Chauhan S, Dube S, Hegde V, Kapoor A, Kothekar K, Pandey S, Rane A, Sharma S, Chenarani S, Tadavani EE, Etesami SM, Khakzad M, Najafabadi MM, Naseri M, Mehdiabadi SP, Hosseinabadi FR, Safarzadeh B, Zeinali M, Felcini M, Grunewald M, Abbrescia M, Calabria C, Colaleo A, Creanza D, Cristella L, De Filippis N, Palma M, Errico F, Fiore L, Iaselli G, Lezki S, Maggi G, Maggi M, Miniello G, My S, Nuzzo S, Pompili A, Pugliese G, Radogna R, Ranieri A, Selvaggi G, Sharma A, Silvestris L, Venditti R, Verwilligen P, Abbiendi G, Battilana C, Bonacorsi D, Braibant-Giacomelli S, Campanini R, Capiluppi P, Castro A, Cavallo FR, Chhibra SS, Codispoti G, Cuffiani M, Dallavalle GM, Fabbri F, Fanfani A, Fasanella D, Giacomelli P, Grandi C, Guiducci L, Marcellini S, Masetti G, Montanari A, Navarria FL, Perrotta A, Rossi AM, Rovelli T, Siroli GP, Tosi N, Albergo S, Costa S, Mattia A, Giordano F, Potenza R, Tricomi A, Tuve C, Barbagli G, Chatterjee K, Ciulli V, Civinini C, D'Alessandro R, Focardi E, Lenzi P, Meschini M, Paoletti S, Russo L, Sguazzoni G, Strom D, Viliani L, Benussi L, Bianco S, Fabbri F, Piccolo D, Primavera F, Calvelli V, Ferro F, Robutti E, Tosi S, Benaglia A, Brianza L, Brivio F, Ciriolo V, Dinardo ME, Fiorendi S, Gennai S, Ghezzi A, Govoni P, Malberti M, Malvezzi S, Manzoni RA, Menasce D, Moroni L, Paganoni M, Pauwels K, Pedrini D, Pigazzini S, Ragazzi S, Redaelli N, Fatis TT, Buontempo S, Cavallo N, Guida S, Fabozzi F, Fienga F, Iorio AOM, Khan WA, Lista L, Meola S, Paolucci P, Sciacca C, Thyssen F, Azzi P, Bacchetta N, Benato L, Bisello D, Boletti A, Carlin R, Oliveira ACA, Checchia P, Dall'Osso M, Manzano PDC, Dorigo T, Dosselli U, Gasparini F, Gasparini U, Gozzelino A, Lacaprara S, Lujan P, Margoni M, Meneguzzo AT, Pozzobon N, Ronchese P, Rossin R, Sgaravatto M, Torassa E, Zanetti M, Zumerle G, Braghieri A, Magnani A, Montagna P, Ratti SP, Re V, Ressegotti M, Riccardi C, Salvini P, Vai I, Vitulo P, Solestizi LA, Biasini M, Bilei GM, Cecchi C, Ciangottini D, Fano L, Lariccia P, Leonardi R, Manoni E, Mantovani G, Mariani V, Menichelli M, Rossi A, Santocchia A, Spiga D, Androsov K, Azzurri P, Bagliesi G, Boccali T, Borrello L, Castaldi R, Ciocci MA, Dell'Orso R, Fedi G, Giannini L, Giassi A, Grippo MT, Ligabue F, Lomtadze T, Manca E, Mandorli G, Martini L, Messineo A, Palla F, Rizzi A, Savoy-Navarro A, Spagnolo P, Tenchini R, Tonelli G, Venturi A, Verdini PG, Barone L, Cavallari F, Cipriani M, Daci N, Re D, Marco E, Diemoz M, Gelli S, Longo E, Margaroli F, Marzocchi B, Meridiani P, Organtini G, Paramatti R, Preiato F, Rahatlou S, Rovelli C, Santanastasio F, Amapane N, Arcidiacono R, Argiro S, Arneodo M, Bartosik N, Bellan R, Biino C, Cartiglia N, Cenna F, Costa M, Covarelli R, Degano A, Demaria N, Kiani B, Mariotti C, Maselli S, Migliore E, Monaco V, Monteil E, Monteno M, Obertino MM, Pacher L, Pastrone N, Pelliccioni M, Angioni GLP, Ravera F, Romero A, Ruspa M, Sacchi R, Shchelina K, Sola V, Solano A, Staiano A, Traczyk P, Belforte S, Casarsa M, Cossutti F, Ricca G, Zanetti A, Kim DH, Kim GN, Kim MS, Lee J, Lee S, Lee SW, Moon CS, Oh YD, Sekmen S, Son DC, Yang YC, Lee A, Kim H, Moon DH, Oh G, Cifuentes JAB, Goh J, Kim TJ, Cho S, Choi S, Go Y, Gyun D, Ha S, Hong B, Jo Y, Kim Y, Lee K, Lee KS, Lee S, Lim J, Park SK, Roh Y, Almond J, Kim J, Kim JS, Lee H, Lee K, Nam K, Oh SB, Radburn-Smith BC, Seo SH, Yang UK, Yoo HD, Yu GB, Choi M, Kim H, Kim JH, Lee JSH, Park IC, Choi Y, Hwang C, Lee J, Yu I, Dudenas V, Juodagalvis A, Vaitkus J, Ahmed I, Ibrahim ZA, Ali MABM, Idris FM, Abdullah WATW, Yusli MN, Zolkapli Z, Reyes-Almanza R, Ramirez-Sanchez G, Duran-Osuna MC, Castilla-Valdez H, la Cruz-Burelo E, Cruz IHD, Rabadan-Trejo RI, Lopez-Fernandez R, Guisao JM, Sanchez-Hernandez A, Moreno SC, Barrera CO, Valencia FV, Pedraza I, Ibarguen HAS, Estrada CU, Pineda AM, Krofcheck D, Butler PH, Ahmad A, Ahmad M, Hassan Q, Hoorani HR, Saddique A, Shah MA, Shoaib M, Waqas M, Bialkowska H, Bluj M, Boimska B, Frueboes T, Gorski M, Kazana M, Nawrocki K, Szleper M, Zalewski P, Bunkowski K, Byszuk A, Doroba K, Kalinowski A, Konecki M, Krolikowski J, Misiura M, Olszewski M, Pyskir A, Walczak M, Bargassa P, Silva CBDCE, Francesco A, Faccioli P, Galinhas B, Gallinaro M, Hollar J, Leonardo N, Iglesias LL, Nemallapudi MV, Seixas J, Strong G, Toldaiev O, Vadruccio D, Varela J, Afanasiev S, Bunin P, Gavrilenko M, Golutvin I, Gorbunov I, Kamenev A, Karjavin V, Lanev A, Malakhov A, Matveev V, Palichik V, Perelygin V, Shmatov S, Shulha S, Skatchkov N, Smirnov V, Voytishin N, Zarubin A, Ivanov Y, Kim V, Kuznetsova E, Levchenko P, Murzin V, Oreshkin V, Smirnov I, Sulimov V, Uvarov L, Vavilov S, Vorobyev A, Andreev Y, 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Search for massive resonances decaying into WW, WZ, ZZ, qW, and qZ with dijet final states at root s=13 TeV

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 2018 APR 10; 97(7):? Article 072006
Results are presented from a search in the dijet final state for new massive narrow resonances decaying to pairs of W and Z bosons or to a W/Z boson and a quark. Results are based on data recorded in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The mass range investigated extends upwards from 1.2 TeV. No excess is observed above the estimated standard model background and limits are set at 95% confidence level on cross sections, which are interpreted in terms of various models that predict gravitons, heavy spin-1 bosons, and excited quarks. In a heavy vector triplet model, W' and Z' resonances, with masses below 3.2 and 2.7 TeV, respectively, and spin-1 resonances with degenerate masses below 3.8 TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level. In the case of a singlet W' resonance masses between 3.3 and 3.6 TeV can be excluded additionally. Similarly, excited quark resonances, q*, decaying to qW and qZ with masses less than 5.0 and 4.7 TeV, respectively, are excluded. In a narrow-width bulk graviton model, upper limits are set on cross sections ranging from 0.6 fb for high resonance masses above 3.6 TeV, to 36.0 fb for low resonance masses of 1.3 TeV.
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Das S, Folgueras S, Gutay L, Jha MK, Jones M, Jung AW, Khatiwada A, Miller DH, Neumeister N, Peng CC, Qiu H, Schulte JF, Sun J, Wang F, Xie W, Cheng T, Parashar N, Stupak J, Adair A, Chen Z, Ecklund KM, Freed S, Geurts FJM, Guilbaud M, Kilpatrick M, Li W, Michlin B, Northup M, Padley BP, Roberts J, Rorie J, Shi W, Tu Z, Zabel J, Zhang A, Bodek A, de Barbaro P, Demina R, Duh YT, Ferbel T, Galanti M, Garcia-Bellido A, Han J, Hindrichs O, Khukhunaishvili A, Lo KH, Tan P, Verzetti M, Ciesielski R, Goulianos K, Mesropian C, Agapitos A, Chou JP, Gershtein Y, Espinosa TAG, Halkiadakis E, Heindl M, Hughes E, Kaplan S, Elayavalli RK, Kyriacou S, Lath A, Montalvo R, Nash K, Osherson M, Saka H, Salur S, Schnetzer S, Sheffield D, Somalwar S, Stone R, Thomas S, Thomassen P, Walker M, Delannoy AG, Foerster M, Heideman J, Riley G, Rose K, Spanier S, Thapa K, Bouhali O, Hernandez AC, Celik A, Dalchenko M, De Mattia M, Delgado A, Dildick S, Eusebi R, Gilmore J, Huang T, Kamon T, Mueller R, Pakhotin Y, Patel R, Perloff A, Pernie L, Rathjens D, Safonov A, Tatarinov A, Ulmer KA, Akchurin N, Damgov J, De Guio F, Dudero PR, Faulkner J, Gurpinar E, Kunori S, Lamichhane K, Lee SW, Libeiro T, Mengke T, Muthumuni S, Peltola T, Undleeb S, Volobouev I, Wang Z, Greene S, Gurrola A, Janjam R, Johns W, Maguire C, Melo A, Ni H, Padeken K, Sheldon P, Tuo S, Velkovska J, Xu Q, Arenton MW, Barria P, Cox B, Hirosky R, Joyce M, Ledovskoy A, Li H, Neu C, Sinthuprasith T, Wang Y, Wolfe E, Xia F, Harr R, Karchin PE, Poudyal N, Sturdy J, Thapa P, Zaleski S, Brodski M, Buchanan J, Caillol C, Dasu S, Dodd L, Duric S, Gomber B, Grothe M, Herndon M, Herve A, Hussain U, Klabbers P, Lanaro A, Levine A, Long K, Loveless R, Polese G, Ruggles T, Savin A, Smith N, Smith WH, Taylor D, Woods N
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Constraints on the chiral magnetic effect using charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in pPb and PbPb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

PHYSICAL REVIEW C 2018 APR 23; 97(4):? Article 044912
Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations of same-and opposite-sign pairs with respect to the second-and third-order event planes have been measured in pPb collisions at root s(NN) = 8.16 TeV and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is motivated by the search for the charge separation phenomenon predicted by the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in heavy ion collisions. Three-and two-particle azimuthal correlators are extracted as functions of the pseudorapidity difference, the transverse momentum (p(T)) difference, and the p(T) average of same-and opposite-charge pairs in various event multiplicity ranges. The data suggest that the charge-dependent three-particle correlators with respect to the second-and third-order event planes share a common origin, predominantly arising from charge-dependent two-particle azimuthal correlations coupled with an anisotropic flow. The CME is expected to lead to a v(2)-independent three-particle correlation when the magnetic field is fixed. Using an event shape engineering technique, upper limits on the v(2)-independent fraction of the three-particle correlator are estimated to be 13% for pPb and 7% for PbPb collisions at 95% confidence level. The results of this analysis, both the dominance of two-particle correlations as a source of the three-particle results and the similarities seen between PbPb and pPb, provide stringent constraints on the origin of charge-dependent three-particle azimuthal correlations and challenge their interpretation as arising from a chiral magnetic effect in heavy ion collisions.
Hover BM, Kim SH, Katz M, Charlop-Powers Z, Owen JG, Ternei MA, Maniko J, Estrela AB, Molina H, Park S, Perlin DS, Brady SF
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Culture-independent discovery of the malacidins as calcium-dependent antibiotics with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens

NATURE MICROBIOLOGY 2018 APR; 3(4):415-422
Despite the wide availability of antibiotics, infectious diseases remain a leading cause of death worldwide(1). In the absence of new therapies, mortality rates due to untreatable infections are predicted to rise more than tenfold by 2050. Natural products (NPs) made by cultured bacteria have been a major source of clinically useful antibiotics. In spite of decades of productivity, the use of bacteria in the search for new antibiotics was largely abandoned due to high rediscovery rates(2,3). As only a fraction of bacterial diversity is regularly cultivated in the laboratory and just a fraction of the chemistries encoded by cultured bacteria are detected in fermentation experiments, most bacterial NPs remain hidden in the global microbiome. In an effort to access these hidden NPs, we have developed a culture-independent NP discovery platform that involves sequencing, bioinformatic analysis and heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters captured on DNA extracted from environmental samples. Here, we describe the application of this platform to the discovery of the malacidins, a distinctive class of antibiotics that are commonly encoded in soil microbiomes but have never been reported in culture-based NP discovery efforts. The malacidins are active against multidrug-resistant pathogens, sterilize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections in an animal wound model and did not select for resistance under our laboratory conditions.