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Found 36385 matches. Displaying 1-10
Prakash R, Freyer L, Saiz N, Gavrilov S, Wang RQ, Romanienko PJ, Lacy E, Hadjantonakis AK, Jasin M
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XRCC3 loss leads to midgestational embryonic lethality in mice

DNA REPAIR 2021 DEC; 108 Article 103227
RAD51 paralogs are key components of the homologous recombination (HR) machinery. Mouse mutants have been reported for four of the canonical RAD51 paralogs, and each of these mutants exhibits embryonic lethality, although at different gestational stages. However, the phenotype of mice deficient in the fifth RAD51 paralog, XRCC3, has not been reported. Here we report that Xrcc3 knockout mice exhibit midgestational lethality, with mild phenotypes beginning at about E8.25 but severe developmental abnormalities evident by E9.0-9.5. The most obvious phenotypes are small size and a failure of the embryo to turn to a fetal position. A knockin mutation at a key ATPase residue in the Walker A box results in embryonic lethality at a similar stage. Death of knockout mice can be delayed a few days for some embryos by homozygous or heterozygous Trp53 mutation, in keeping with an important role for XRCC3 in promoting genome integrity. Given that XRCC3 is a unique member of one of two RAD51 paralog complexes with RAD51C, these results demonstrate that both RAD51 paralog complexes are required for mouse development.
Beziat V, Casanova JL, Jouanguy E
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Human genetic and immunological dissection of papillomavirus-driven diseases: new insights into their pathogenesis

CURRENT OPINION IN VIROLOGY 2021 DEC; 51:9-15
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are responsible for cutaneous and mucosal lesions. Persistent HPV infection remains a leading cause of uterine cancer in women, but also of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), and of rare and devastating benign tumors, such as 'tree-man' syndrome. HPV infections are usually asymptomatic or benign in the general population. Severe manifestations in otherwise healthy subjects can attest to inherited immunodeficiencies. The human genetic dissection of these cases has identified critical components of the immune response to HPVs, including the non-redundant roles of keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity in controlling 13-HPVs, and of T cell-dependent adaptive immunity for controlling all HPV types. A key role of the CD28 T-cell costimulation pathway in controlling common warts due to HPVs was recently discovered. This review summarizes the state of the art in the human genetics of HPV infection, focusing on two key affected cell types: keratinocytes and T cells.
Zolin A, Cohn R, Pang R, Siliciano AF, Fairhall AL, Ruta V
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Context-dependent representations of movement in Drosophila dopaminergic reinforcement pathways

NATURE NEUROSCIENCE 2021 NOV; 24(11):1555-+
By recording from the Drosophila mushroom body during active odor navigation, Zolin et al. reveal that dopaminergic reinforcement pathways encode rewards and goal-directed actions through similar patterns of neural activity and dopamine release. Dopamine plays a central role in motivating and modifying behavior, serving to invigorate current behavioral performance and guide future actions through learning. Here we examine how this single neuromodulator can contribute to such diverse forms of behavioral modulation. By recording from the dopaminergic reinforcement pathways of the Drosophila mushroom body during active odor navigation, we reveal how their ongoing motor-associated activity relates to goal-directed behavior. We found that dopaminergic neurons correlate with different behavioral variables depending on the specific navigational strategy of an animal, such that the activity of these neurons preferentially reflects the actions most relevant to odor pursuit. Furthermore, we show that these motor correlates are translated to ongoing dopamine release, and acutely perturbing dopaminergic signaling alters the strength of odor tracking. Context-dependent representations of movement and reinforcement cues are thus multiplexed within the mushroom body dopaminergic pathways, enabling them to coordinately influence both ongoing and future behavior.
Wang Y, Yen FS, Zhu XG, Timson RC, Weber R, Xing CR, Liu YY, Allwein B, Luo HZ, Yeh HW, Heissel S, Unlu G, Gamazon ER, Kharas MG, Hite R, Birsoy K
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SLC25A39 is necessary for mitochondrial glutathione import in mammalian cells

NATURE 2021 NOV 4; 599(7883):136-+
Glutathione (GSH) is a small-molecule thiol that is abundant in all eukaryotes and has key roles in oxidative metabolism(1). Mitochondria, as the major site of oxidative reactions, must maintain sufficient levels of GSH to perform protective and biosynthetic functions(2). GSH is synthesized exclusively in the cytosol, yet the molecular machinery involved in mitochondrial GSH import remains unknown. Here, using organellar proteomics and metabolomics approaches, we identify SLC25A39, a mitochondrial membrane carrier of unknown function, as a regulator of GSH transport into mitochondria. Loss of SLC25A39 reduces mitochondrial GSH import and abundance without affecting cellular GSH levels. Cells lacking both SLC25A39 and its paralogue SLC25A40 exhibit defects in the activity and stability of proteins containing iron-sulfur clusters. We find that mitochondrial GSH import is necessary for cell proliferation in vitro and red blood cell development in mice. Heterologous expression of an engineered bifunctional bacterial GSH biosynthetic enzyme (GshF) in mitochondria enables mitochondrial GSH production and ameliorates the metabolic and proliferative defects caused by its depletion. Finally, GSH availability negatively regulates SLC25A39 protein abundance, coupling redox homeostasis to mitochondrial GSH import in mammalian cells. Our work identifies SLC25A39 as an essential and regulated component of the mitochondrial GSH-import machinery.
Ding T, Magarinos AM, Kow LM, Milner TA, Pfaff DW
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Kv2.1 expression in giant reticular neurons of the postnatal mouse brain

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL NEUROANATOMY 2021 NOV; 117 Article 102005
Previous experiments charted the development of behavioral arousal in postnatal mice. From Postnatal Day 3 (P3) to Postnatal Day 6 (P6) mice (a) become significantly more active, "arousable"; and (b) in large reticular neurons, nucleus gigantocellularis (NGC), patch clamp recordings reveal a significantly increased ability to fire high frequency trains of action potentials as are associated with elevated cortical arousal. These action potential trains depend on delayed rectifiers such as Kv2.1. Here we report tracking the development of expression of a delayed rectifier, Kv2.1 in NGC neurons crucial for initiating CNS arousal. In tissue sections, light microscope immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of Kv2.1 in NGC neurons is greater at day P6 than at P3. Electron microscope immunohistochemistry revealed Kv2.1 labeling on the plasmalemmal surface of soma and dendrites, greater on P6 than P3. In brainstem reticular neuron cell culture, Kv2.1 immunocytochemistry increased monotonically from Days-In-Vitro 3-10, paralleling the ability of such neurons to fire action potential trains. The increase of Kv2.1 expression from P3 to P6, perhaps in conjunction with other delayed rectifier currents, could permit the ability to fire action potential trains in NGC neurons. Further work with genetically identified NGC neurons is indicated.
Xu CS, Pang S, Shtengel G, Muller A, Ritter AT, Hoffman HK, Takemura SY, Lu ZY, Pasolli HA, Iyer N, Chung J, Bennett D, Weigel AV, Freeman M, van Engelenburg SB, Walther TC, Farese RV, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Mellman I, Solimena M, Hess HF
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An open-access volume electron microscopy atlas of whole cells and tissues

NATURE 2021 NOV 4; 599(7883):147-+
Understanding cellular architecture is essential for understanding biology. Electron microscopy (EM) uniquely visualizes cellular structures with nanometre resolution. However, traditional methods, such as thin-section EM or EM tomography, have limitations in that they visualize only a single slice or a relatively small volume of the cell, respectively. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) has demonstrated the ability to image small volumes of cellular samples with 4-nm isotropic voxels(1). Owing to advances in the precision and stability of FIB milling, together with enhanced signal detection and faster SEM scanning, we have increased the volume that can be imaged with 4-nm voxels by two orders of magnitude. Here we present a volume EM atlas at such resolution comprising ten three-dimensional datasets for whole cells and tissues, including cancer cells, immune cells, mouse pancreatic islets and Drosophila neural tissues. These open access data (via OpenOrganelle(2)) represent the foundation of a field of high-resolution whole-cell volume EM and subsequent analyses, and we invite researchers to explore this atlas and pose questions. Open-access 3D images of whole cells and tissues with combined finer resolution and larger sample size are enabled by advances in focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.
Picatoste B, Yammine L, Leahey RA, Soares D, Johnson EF, Cohen P, McGraw TE
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Defective insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in brown adipocytes induces systemic glucose homeostasis dysregulation independent of thermogenesis in female mice

MOLECULAR METABOLISM 2021 NOV; 53 Article 101305
Objective: Recent studies indicate that brown adipose tissue, in addition to its role in thermogenesis, has a role in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. Here we characterize the metabolic effects of deleting Rab10, a protein key for insulin stimulation of glucose uptake into white adipocytes, solely from brown adipocytes. Methods: We used a murine brown adipocyte cell line and stromal vascular fraction-derived in vitro differentiated brown adipocytes to study the role of Rab10 in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We generated a brown adipocyte-specific Rab10 knockout for in vivo studies of metabolism and thermoregulation. Results: We demonstrate that deletion of Rab10 from brown adipocytes results in a two-fold reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose transport by reducing translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane, an effect linked to whole-body glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in female mice. This effect on metabolism is independent of the thermogenic function of brown adipocytes, thereby revealing a metabolism-specific role for brown adipocytes in female mice. The reduced glucose uptake induced by Rab10 deletion disrupts ChREBP regulation of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) genes, providing a potential link between DNL in brown adipocytes and whole-body metabolic regulation in female mice. However, deletion of Rab10 from male mice does not induce systemic insulin resistance, although ChREBP regulation is disrupted. Conclusions: Our studies of Rab10 reveal the role of insulin-regulated glucose transport into brown adipocytes in whole-body metabolic homeostasis of female mice. Importantly, the contribution of brown adipocytes to whole-body metabolic regulation is independent of its role in thermogenesis. It is unclear whether the whole-body metabolic sexual dimorphism is because female mice are permissive to the effects of Rab10 deletion from brown adipocytes or because male mice are resistant to the effect. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier GmbH. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Vertebrate genome evolution remains a hotly debated topic, specifically as regards the number and the timing of putative rounds of whole genome duplication events. In this study, I sought to shed light to this conundrum through assessing the evolutionary history of the oxytocin/vasotocin receptor family. I performed ancestral analyses of the genomic segments containing oxytocin and vasotocin receptors (OTR-VTRs) by mapping them back to the reconstructed ancestral vertebrate/chordate karyotypes reported in five independent studies (Nakatani et al., 2007; Putnam et al., 2008; Smith and Keinath, 2015; Smith et al., 2018; Simakov et al., 2020) and found that two alternative scenarios can account for their evolution: one consistent with one round of whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of lampreys and gnathostomes, followed by segmental duplications in both lineages, and another consistent with two rounds of whole genome duplication, with the first occurring in the gnathostome-lamprey ancestor and the second in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. Combining the data reported here with synteny and phylogeny data reported in our previous study (Theofanopoulou et al., 2021), I put forward that a single round of whole genome duplication scenario is more consistent with the synteny and evolution of chromosomes where OTR-VTRs are encountered, without excluding the possibility of a scenario including two rounds of whole genome duplication. Although the analysis of one gene family is not able to capture the full complexity of vertebrate genome evolution, this study can provide solid insight, since the gene family used here has been meticulously analyzed for its genes' orthologous and paralogous relationships across species using high quality genomes.
Li J, Lei WT, Zhang P, Rapaport F, Seeleuthner Y, Lyu BN, Asano T, Rosain J, Hammadi B, Zhang Y, Pelham SJ, Spaan AN, Migaud M, Hum D, Bigio B, Chrabieh M, Beziat V, Bustamante J, Zhang SY, Jouanguy E, Boisson-Dupuis S, El Baghdadi J, Aimanianda V, Thoma K, Fliegauf M, Grimbacher B, Korganow AS, Saunders C, Rao VK, Uzel G, Freeman AF, Holland SM, Su HC, Cunningham-Rundles C, Fieschi C, Abel L, Puel A, Cobat A, Casanova JL, Zhang Q, Boisson B
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Biochemically deleterious human NFKB1 variants underlie an autosomal dominant form of common variable immunodeficiency

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2021 NOV 1; 218(11) Article e20210566
Autosomal dominant (AD) NFKB1 deficiency is thought to be the most common genetic etiology of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). However, the causal link between NFKB1 variants and CVID has not been demonstrated experimentally and genetically, as there has been insufficient biochemical characterization and enrichment analysis. We show that the cotransfection of NFKB1-deficient HEK293T cells (lacking both p105 and its cleaved form p50) with a Kappa B reporter, NFKB1/p105, and a homodimerization-defective RELA/p65 mutant results in p50:p65 heterodimer-dependent and p65:p65 homodimer-independent transcriptional activation. We found that 59 of the 90 variants in patients with CVID or related conditions were loss of function or hypomorphic. By contrast, 258 of 260 variants in the general population or patients with unrelated conditions were neutral. None of the deleterious variants displayed negative dominance. The enrichment in deleterious NFKB1 variants of patients with CVID was selective and highly significant (P = 2.78 x 10-15). NFKB1 variants disrupting NFKB1/p50 transcriptional activity thus underlie AD CVID by haploinsufficiency, whereas neutral variants in this assay should not be considered causal.
Tataryn NM, Singh V, Dyke JP, Berk-Rauch HE, Clausen DM, Aronowitz E, Norris EH, Strickland S, Ahn HJ
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Vascular endothelial growth factor associated dissimilar cerebrovascular phenotypes in two different mouse models of Alzheimer's Disease

NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2021 NOV; 107:96-108
Vascular perturbations and cerebral hypometabolism are emerging as important components of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While various in vivo imaging modalities have been designed to detect changes of cerebral perfusion and metabolism in AD patients and animal models, study results were often het erogenous with respect to imaging techniques and animal models. We therefore evaluated cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism of two popular transgenic AD mouse strains, TgCRND8 and 5xFAD, at 7 and 12 months-of-age under identical conditions and analyzed possible molecular mechanisms underlying heterogeneous cerebrovascular phenotypes. Results revealed disparate findings in these two strains, displaying important aspects of AD progression. TgCRND8 mice showed significantly decreased cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism with unchanged cerebral blood volume (CBV) at 12 months of-age whereas 5xFAD mice showed unaltered glucose metabolism with significant increase in CBV at 12 months-of-age and a biphasic pattern of early hypoperfusion followed by a rebound to normal cerebral blood flow in late disease. Finally, immunoblotting assays suggested that VEGF dependent vascular tone change may restore normoperfusion and increase CBV in 5xFAD. (c) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.