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Brunner PM, He H, Pavel AB, Czarnowicki T, Lefferdink R, Erickson T, Canter T, Puar N, Rangel SM, Malik K, Estrada Y, Krueger JG, Guttman-Yassky E, Paller AS
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The blood proteomic signature of early-onset pediatric atopic dermatitis shows systemic inflammation and is distinct from adult long-standing disease

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY 2019 AUG; 81(2):510-519
Background: Despite increasing evidence that adults with long-standing atopic dermatitis (AD) have systemic inflammation, little is known about systemic inflammation in recent-onset early pediatric AD. Objective: To analyze blood inflammatory proteins of early pediatric AD. Methods: Using high-throughput proteomics (proximity extension assay), we assessed 257 inflammatory and cardiovascular risk proteins in the blood of 30 children with moderate to severe AD younger than 5 years of age (within 6 months of onset) compared with age-matched pediatric control individuals and adult patients with AD. Results: In pediatric AD blood, T helper (Th) type 2 (CCL13, CCL22) and Th17 (peptidase inhibitor-3/elafin) markers were increased, together with markers of tissue remodeling (matrix metalloproteinases 3/9/10, urokinase receptor), endothelial activation (E-selectin), T-cell activation (IL2RA), neutrophil activation (myeloperoxidase), lipid metabolism (FABP4), and growth factors (FGF21, transforming growth factor-alpha). Total numbers of dysregulated proteins were smaller in pediatric AD (n = 22) than in adult AD (n = 61). Clinical severity scores were positively correlated with receptors for interleukins 33 and 36 and inversely correlated with some Th1 markers (interferon gamma, CXCL11). Limitations: Different baseline expression levels in healthy pediatric vs adult samples. Conclusions: Within months of pediatric AD onset, systemic immune activation is present, with Th2/Th17 skewing but otherwise different proteomic patterns from adult AD. Future correlation of proteomic patterns with disease course, comorbidity development, and drug response may yield predictive biomarkers.
Cao CK, Oswald AB, Fabella BA, Ren YS, Rodriguiz R, Trainor G, Greenblatt MB, Hilton MJ, Pitt GS
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The Ca(v)1.2 L-type calcium channel regulates bone homeostasis in the middle and inner ear

BONE 2019 AUG; 125(?):160-168
Bone remodeling of the auditory ossicles and the otic capsule is highly restricted and tightly controlled by the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) system. In these bony structures, a pathological decrease in OPG expression stimulates osteoclast differentiation and excessive resorption followed by accrual of sclerotic bone, ultimately resulting in the development of otosclerosis, a leading cause of deafness in adults. Understanding the signaling pathways involved in maintaining OPG expression in the ear would shed light on the pathophysiology of otosclerosis and other ear bone-related diseases. We and others previously demonstrated that Ca2+ signaling through the L-type Ca(v)1.2 Ca2+ channel positively regulates OPG expression and secretion in long bone osteoblasts and their precursor cells in vitro and in vivo. Whether Cav1.2 regulates OPG expression in ear bones has not been investigated. We drove expression of a gain-of-function Ca(v)1.2 mutant channel (Ca(v)1.2(TS)) using Col2a1-Cre, which we found to target osteochondral/osteoblast progenitors in the auditory ossicles and the otic capsule. Col2a1-Cre;Ca-v1.2(TS) mice displayed osteopetrosis of these bones shown by mu CT 3D reconstruction, histological analysis, and lack of bone sculpting, findings similar to phenotypes seen in mice with an osteoclast defect. Consistent with those observations, we found that Co/2a1-Cre;Ca(v)1.2(TS) mutant mice showed reduced osteoclasts in the otic capsule, upregulated mRNA expression of Opg and Opg/Rankl ratio, and increased mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes in the otic capsule, suggesting both an anti-catabolic and anabolic effect of Ca(v)1.2(TS) mutant channel contributed to the observed morphological changes of the ear bones. Further, we found that Col2a1-Cre;Ca(v)1.2(TS) mice experienced hearing loss and displayed defects of body balance in behavior tests, confirming that the Ca(v)1.2-dependent Ca2+ influx affects bone structure in the ear and consequent hearing and vestibular functions. Together, these data support our hypothesis that Ca2+ (i)nflux through Ca(v)1.2(TS) promotes OPG expression from osteoblasts, thereby affecting bone modeling/remodeling in the auditory ossicles and the otic capsule. These data provide insight into potential pathological mechanisms underlying perturbed OPG expression and otosclerosis.
Galea S, Vaughan R
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On Choosing the Right Starting Question: A Public Health of Consequence, August 2019

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 2019 AUG; 109(8):1075-1076
Munoz E
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Canal shaping with a reciprocating system is easy to learn

INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL 2019 AUG; 52(8):1244-1249
Aim To assess progressive learning of root canal shaping in order to
Wang XY
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C9orf72 and triplet repeat disorder RNAs: G-quadruplex formation,

RNA 2019 AUG; 25(8):935-947
Some neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Hawkes JE
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Impact of Online Prescription Management Systems on Biologic Treatment

ADVANCES IN THERAPY 2019 AUG; 36(8):2021-2033
IntroductionPharmaceutical firms have begun offering online prescription
Li SQ
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Chaperoning RPA during DNA metabolism

CURRENT GENETICS 2019 AUG; 65(4):857-864
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is widely generated during DNA metabolisms
Munch NS
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High-Fat Diet Accelerates Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model of Barrett's

GASTROENTEROLOGY 2019 AUG; 157(2):492-506.e2
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor to esophageal
Estrogens receptors (ER) are involved in several sociosexual behaviors and fear responses. In particular, the ER alpha is important for sexual behaviors, whereas ER beta modulates anxiolytic responses. Using shRNA directed either against the ER alpha or the ER beta RNAs (or containing luciferase control) encoded within an adeno-associated viral vector, we silenced these receptors in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) and the central amygdala (CeA). We exposed ovariectomized female rats, sequentially treated with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, to five stimuli, previously reported to elicit positive and negative affect. The subjects were housed in groups of 4 females and 3 males in a seminatural environment for several days before hormone treatment. We analyzed the frequency of a large number of behavior patterns. In addition, we performed analyses of co-occurrence in order to detect changes in the structure of behavior after infusion of the vectors. Silencing the ER alpha in the VMN disrupted lordosis and showed some anxiolytic properties in aversive situations, whereas silencing of the ER beta in this structure had no effect. This was also the case after silencing the ER alpha in the CeA. Silencing of the ER beta in this structure increased risk assessment, an expression of anxiety, and increased olfactory exploration of the environment. We hypothesize that the ER beta in the CeA has an important role in the well-established anxiolytic effects of estrogens, and that it may modulate arousal level. Furthermore, it seems that the ER alpha in the VMN is anxiogenic in aversive or threatening situations, in agreement with other studies.
Fava VM
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Pleiotropic effects for Parkin and LRRK2 in leprosy type-1 reactions and

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF 2019 JUL 30; 116(31):15616-15624
Type-1 reactions (T1R) are pathological inflammatory episodes and main