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Boisson B, Honda Y, Ajiro M, Bustamante J, Bendavid M, Gennery AR, Kawasaki Y, Ichishima J, Osawa M, Nihira H, Shiba T, Tanaka T, Chrabieh M, Bigio B, Hur H, Itan Y, Liang YP, Okada S, Izawa K, Nishikomori R, Ohara O, Heike T, Abel L, Puel A, Saito MK, Casanova JL, Hagiwara M, Yasumi T
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Rescue of recurrent deep intronic mutation underlying cell type-dependent quantitative NEMO deficiency

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION 2019 FEB 1; 129(2):583-597
X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) are caused by loss-of-function and hypomorphic IKBKG (also known as NEMO) mutations, respectively. We describe a European mother with mild IP and a Japanese mother without IP, whose 3 boys with EDA-ID died from ID. We identify the same private variant in an intron of IKBKG, IVS4+866 C>T, which was inherited from and occurred de novo in the European mother and Japanese mother, respectively. This mutation creates a new splicing donor site, giving rise to a 44-nucleotide pseudoexon (PE) generating a frameshift. Its leakiness accounts for NF-kappa B activation being impaired but not abolished in the boys' cells. However, aberrant splicing rates differ between cell types, with WT NEMO mRNA and protein levels ranging from barely detectable in leukocytes to residual amounts in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) macrophages, and higher levels in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neuronal precursor cells. Finally, SRSF6 binds to the PE, facilitating its inclusion. Moreover, SRSF6 knockdown or CLK inhibition restores WT NEMO expression and function in mutant cells. A recurrent deep intronic splicing mutation in IKBKG underlies a purely quantitative NEMO defect in males that is most severe in leukocytes and can be rescued by the inhibition of SRSF6 or CLK.
Knorr DA, Ravetch JV
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Immunotherapy and Hyperprogression: Unwanted Outcomes, Unclear Mechanism

CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH 2019 FEB 1; 25(3):904-906
Hyperprogression (HP) is a recently defined clinical phenomenon in which patients treated with immunotherapy paradoxically exhibit rapid tumor growth. The mechanisms of hyperprogression remain ill-defined, although recent studies in this issue point to a possible role for Fc receptors in this process.
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Teodorescu L, Zahid S, Borzou A, Call K, Dittmann J, Hatakeyama K, Liu H, Pastika N, Smith C, Bartek R, Dominguez A, Buccilli A, Cooper SI, Henderson C, Rumerio P, West C, Arcaro D, Avetisyan A, Bose T, Gastler D, Rankin D, Richardson C, Rohlf J, Sulak L, Zou D, Benelli G, Cutts D, Garabedian A, Hadley M, Hakala J, Heintz U, Hogan JM, Kwok KHM, Laird E, Landsberg G, Mao Z, Narain M, Pazzini J, Piperov S, Sagir S, Syarif R, Yu D, Band R, Brainerd C, Breedon R, Sanchez MCD, Chertok M, Conway J, Conway R, Cox PT, Erbacher R, Flores C, Funk G, Ko W, Lander R, Mclean C, Mulhearn M, Pellett D, Pilot J, Shalhout S, Shi M, Smith J, Stolp D, Tos K, Tripathi M, Bachtis M, Bravo C, Cousins R, Dasgupta A, Florent A, Hauser J, Ignatenko M, Mccoll N, Regnard S, Saltzberg D, Schnaible C, Valuev V, Bouvier E, Burt K, Clare R, Ellison J, Gary JW, Shirazi SMAG, Hanson G, Heilman J, Karapostoli G, Kennedy E, Lacroix F, Long OR, Negrete MO, Paneva MI, Si W, Wang L, Wei H, Wimpenny S, Yates BR, Branson JG, Cittolin S, Derdzinski M, Gerosa R, Gilbert D, Hashemi B, Holzner A, Klein D, Kole G, Krutelyov V, Letts J, Masciovecchio M, Olivito D, Padhi S, Pieri M, Sani M, Sharma V, Simon S, Tadel M, Vartak A, Wasserbaech S, Wood J, Wurthwein F, Yagil A, Della Porta GZ, Amin N, Bhandari R, Bradmiller-Feld J, Campagnari C, Dishaw A, Dutta V, Sevilla MF, Golf F, Gouskos L, Heller R, Incandela J, Ovcharova A, Qu H, Richman J, Stuart D, Suarez I, Yoo J, Anderson D, Bornheim A, Lawhorn JM, Newman HB, Nguyen T, Pena C, Spiropulu M, Vlimant JR, Xie S, Zhang Z, Zhu RY, Andrews MB, Ferguson T, Mudholkar T, Paulini M, Russ J, Sun M, Vogel H, Vorobiev I, Weinberg M, Cumalat JP, Ford WT, Jensen F, Johnson A, Krohn M, Leontsinis S, Mulholland T, Stenson K, Wagner SR, Alexander J, Chaves J, Chu J, Dittmer S, Mcdermott K, Mirman N, Patterson JR, Quach D, Rinkevicius A, Ryd A, Skinnari L, Soffi L, Tan SM, Tao Z, Thom J, Tucker J, Wittich P, Zientek M, Abdullin S, Albrow M, Alyari M, Apollinari G, Apresyan A, Apyan A, Bauerdick LAT, Beretvas A, Berryhill J, Bhat PC, Bolla G, Burkett K, Butler JN, Canepa A, Cerati GB, Cheung HWK, Chlebana F, Cremonesi M, Duarte J, Elvira VD, Freeman J, Gecse Z, Gottschalk E, Gray L, Green D, Grunendahl S, Gutsche O, Hanlon J, Harris RM, Hasegawa S, Hirschauer J, Hu Z, Jayatilaka B, Jindariani S, Johnson M, Joshi U, Klima B, Kreis B, Lammel S, Lincoln D, Lipton R, Liu M, Liu T, De Sa RL, Lykken J, Maeshima K, Magini N, Marraffino JM, Mason D, McBride P, Merkel P, Mrenna S, Nahn S, O'Dell V, Pedro K, Prokofyev O, Rakness G, Ristori L, Schneider B, Sexton-Kennedy E, Soha A, Spalding WJ, Spiegel L, Stoynev S, Strait J, Strobbe N, Taylor L, Tkaczyk S, Tran NV, Uplegger L, Vaandering EW, Vernieri C, Verzocchi M, Vidal R, Wang M, Weber HA, Whitbeck A, Acosta D, Avery P, Bortignon P, Bourilkov D, Brinkerhoff A, Carnes A, Carver M, Curry D, Field RD, Furic IK, Gleyzer SV, Joshi BM, Konigsberg J, Korytov A, Kotov K, Ma P, Matchev K, Mei H, Mitselmakher G, Shi K, Sperka D, Terentyev N, Thomas L, Wang J, Wang S, Yelton J, Joshi YR, Linn S, Markowitz P, Rodriguez JL, Ackert A, Adams T, Askew A, Hagopian S, Hagopian V, Johnson KF, Kolberg T, Martinez G, Perry T, Prosper H, Saha A, Santra A, Yohay R, Baarmand MM, Bhopatkar V, Colafranceschi S, Hohlmann M, Noonan D, Roy T, Yumiceva F, Adams MR, Apanasevich L, Berry D, Betts RR, Cavanaugh R, Chen X, Evdokimov O, Gerber CE, Hangal DA, Hofman DJ, Jung K, Kamin J, Gonzalez IDS, Tonjes MB, Trauger H, Varelas N, Wang H, Wu Z, Zhang J, Bilki B, Clarida W, Dilsiz K, Durgut S, Gandrajula RP, Haytmyradov M, Khristenko V, Merlo JP, Mermerkaya H, Mestvirishvili A, Moeller A, Nachtman J, Ogul H, Onel Y, Ozok F, Penzo A, Snyder C, Tiras E, Wetzel J, Yi K, Blumenfeld B, Cocoros A, Eminizer N, Fehling D, Feng L, Gritsan AV, Maksimovic P, Roskes J, Sarica U, Swartz M, Xiao M, You C, Al-bataineh A, Baringer P, Bean A, Boren S, Bowen J, Castle J, Khalil S, Kropivnitskaya A, Majumder D, Mcbrayer W, Murray M, Rogan C, Royon C, Sanders S, Schmitz E, Takaki JDT, Wang Q, Ivanov A, Kaadze K, Maravin Y, Mohammadi A, Saini LK, Skhirtladze N, Toda S, Rebassoo F, Wright D, Anelli C, Baden A, Baron O, Belloni A, Eno SC, Feng Y, Ferraioli C, Hadley NJ, Jabeen S, Jeng GY, Kellogg RG, Kunkle J, Mignerey AC, Ricci-Tam F, Shin YH, Skuja A, Tonwar SC, Abercrombie D, Allen B, Azzolini V, Barbieri R, Baty A, Bauer G, Bi R, Brandt S, Busza W, Cali IA, D'Alfonso M, Demiragli Z, Ceballos GG, Goncharov M, Hsu D, Hu M, Iiyama Y, Innocenti GM, Klute M, Kovalskyi D, Lai YS, Lee YJ, Levin A, Luckey PD, Maier B, Marini AC, Mcginn C, Mironov C, Narayanan S, Niu X, Paus C, Roland C, Roland G, Salfeld-Nebgen J, Stephans GSF, Sumorok K, Tatar K, Velicanu D, Wang TW, Wyslouch B, Benvenuti AC, Chatterjee RM, Evans A, Hansen P, Hiltbrand J, Kalafut S, Kubota Y, Lesko Z, Mans J, Nourbakhsh S, Ruckstuhl N, Rusack R, Turkewitz J, Wadud MA, Acosta JG, Oliveros S, Avdeeva E, Bloom K, Claes DR, Fangmeier C, Suarez RG, Kamalieddin R, Kravchenko I, Monroy J, Siado JE, Snow GR, Stieger B, Dolen J, Godshalk A, Harrington C, Iashvili I, Nguyen D, Parker A, Rappoccio S, Roozbahani B, Alverson G, Barberis E, Freer C, Hortiangtham A, Massironi A, Morse DM, Orimoto T, De Lima RT, Trocino D, Wamorkar T, Wang B, Wisecarver A, Wood D, Charaf O, Hahn KA, Mucia N, Odell N, Schmitt MH, Sung K, Trovato M, Velasco M, Bucci R, Dev N, Hildreth M, Anampa KH, Jessop C, Karmgard DJ, Kellams N, Lannon K, Li W, Loukas N, Marinelli N, Meng F, Mueller C, Musienko Y, Planer M, Reinsvold A, Ruchti R, Siddireddy P, Smith G, Taroni S, Wayne M, Wightman A, Wolf M, Woodard A, Alimena J, Antonelli L, Bylsma B, Durkin LS, Flowers S, Francis B, Hart A, Hill C, Ji W, Liu B, Luo W, Winer BL, Wulsin HW, Cooperstein S, Driga O, Elmer P, Hardenbrook J, Hebda P, Higginbotham S, Kalogeropoulos A, Lange D, Luo J, Marlow D, Mei K, Ojalvo I, Olsen J, Palmer C, Piroue P, Stickland D, Tully C, Norberg S, Barker A, Barnes VE, Das S, Folgueras S, Gutay L, Jha MK, Jones M, Jung AW, Khatiwada A, Miller DH, Neumeister N, Peng CC, Qiu H, Schulte JF, Sun J, Wang F, Xiao R, Xie W, Cheng T, Parashar N, Stupak J, Chen Z, Ecklund KM, Freed S, Geurts FJM, Guilbaud M, Kilpatrick M, Michlin B, Padley BP, Roberts J, Rorie J, Shi W, Tu Z, Zabel J, Zhang A, Bodek A, de Barbaro P, Demina R, Duh YT, Ferbel T, Galanti M, Garcia-Bellido A, Han J, Hindrichs O, Khukhunaishvili A, Lo KH, Tan P, Verzetti M, Ciesielski R, Goulianos K, Mesropian C, Agapitos A, Chou JP, Gershtein Y, Espinosa TAG, Halkiadakis E, Heindl M, Hughes E, Kaplan S, Elayavalli RK, Kyriacou S, Lath A, Montalvo R, Nash K, Osherson M, Saka H, Salur S, Schnetzer S, Sheffield D, Somalwar S, Stone R, Thomas S, Thomassen P, Walker M, Delannoy AG, Foerster M, Heideman J, Riley G, Rose K, Spanier S, Thapa K, Bouhali O, Hernandez AC, Celik A, Dalchenko M, De Mattia M, Delgado A, Dildick S, Eusebi R, Gilmore J, Huang T, Kamon T, Mueller R, Pakhotin Y, Patel R, Perloff A, Pernie L, Rathjens D, Safonov A, Tatarinov A, Ulmer KA, Akchurin N, Damgov J, De Guio F, Dudero PR, Faulkner J, Gurpinar E, Kunori S, Lamichhane K, Libeiro T, Mengke T, Muthumuni S, Peltola T, Undleeb S, Volobouev I, Greene S, Gurrola A, Janjam R, Johns W, Maguire C, Melo A, Ni H, Padeken K, Sheldon P, Tuo S, Velkovska J, Xu Q, Arenton MW, Barria P, Cox B, Hirosky R, Joyce M, Ledovskoy A, Li H, Neu C, Sinthuprasith T, Wang Y, Wolfe E, Xia F, Harr R, Karchin PE, Poudyal N, Sturdy J, Thapa P, Zaleski S, Brodski M, Buchanan J, Caillol C, Dasu S, Dodd L, Duric S, Gomber B, Grothe M, Herndon M, Herve A, Hussain U, Klabbers P, Lanaro A, Levine A, Long K, Loveless R, Ruggles T, Savin A, Smith N, Smith WH, Taylor D, Woods N
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Non-Gaussian elliptic-flow fluctuations in PbPb collisions at root S-NN=5.02 TeV

PHYSICS LETTERS B 2019 FEB 10; 789(?):643-665
Event-by-event fluctuations in the elliptic-flow coefficient v(2) are studied in PbPb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV using the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. Elliptic-flow probability distributions p(v(2)) for charged particles with transverse momentum 0.3 < p(T) < 3.0 GeV/c and pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1.0 are determined for different collision centrality classes. The moments of the p(v(2)) distributions are used to calculate the v(2) coefficients based on cumulant orders 2, 4, 6, and 8. A rank ordering of the higher-order cumulant results and nonzero standardized skewness values obtained for the p(v(2)) distributions indicate non-Gaussian initial-state fluctuations. Bessel-Gaussian and elliptic power fits to the flow distributions are studied to characterize the initial-state spatial anisotropy. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bonvin E, Radaelli E, Bizet M, Luciani F, Calonne E, Putmans P, Nittner D, Singh NK, Santagostino SF, Petit V, Larue L, Marine JC, Fuks F
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TET2-Dependent Hydroxymethylome Plasticity Reduces Melanoma Initiation and Progression

CANCER RESEARCH 2019 FEB 1; 79(3):482-494
Although numerous epigenetic aberrancies accumulate in melanoma, their contribution to initiation and progression remain unclear. The epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), generated through TET-mediated DNA modification, is now referred to as the sixth base of DNA and has recently been reported as a potential biomarker for multiple types of cancer. Loss of 5hmC is an epigenetic hallmark of melanoma, but whether a decrease in 5hmc levels contributes directly to pathogenesis or whether it merely results from disease progression-associated epigenetic remodeling remains to be established. Here, we show that NRAS-driven melanomagenesis in mice is accompanied by an overall decrease in 5hmC and specific 5hmC gains in selected gene bodies. Strikingly, genetic ablation of Tet2 in mice cooperated with oncogenic NRASQ61K to promote melanoma initiation while suppressing specific gains in 5hmC. We conclude that TET2 acts as a barrier to melanoma initiation and progression, partly by promoting 5hmC gains in specific gene bodies. Significance: This work emphasizes the importance of epigenome plasticity in cancer development and highlights the involvement of druggable epigenetic factors in cancer.
Capalbo A, Chokoshvili D, Dugoff L, Franasiak J, Gleicher N, Pennings G, Simon C
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Should the reproductive risk of a couple aiming to conceive be tested in the contemporary clinical context?

FERTILITY AND STERILITY 2019 FEB; 111(2):229-238
Zhang HX, Chaudhury D, Nectow AR, Friedman AK, Zhang S, Juarez B, Liu H, Pfau ML, Aleyasin H, Jiang C, Crumiller M, Calipari ES, Ku SM, Morel C, Tzavaras N, Montgomery SE, He M, Salton SR, Russo SJ, Nestler EJ, Friedman JM, Cao JL, Han MH
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alpha(1)- and beta(3)-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Mesolimbic Homeostatic Plasticity Confers Resilience to Social Stress in Susceptible Mice

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2019 FEB 1; 85(3):226-236
BACKGROUND: Homeostatic plasticity in mesolimbic dopamine ( DA) neurons plays an essential role in mediating resilience to social stress. Recent evidence implicates an association between stress resilience and projections from the locus coeruleus ( LC) to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) ( LC/VTA) DA system. However, the precise circuitry and molecular mechanisms of the homeostatic plasticity in mesolimbic DA neurons mediated by the LC/VTA circuitry, and its role in conferring resilience to social defeat stress, have not been described. METHODS: In a well-established chronic social defeat stress model of depression, using projection-specific electrophysiological recordings and optogenetic, pharmacological, and molecular profiling techniques, we investigated the functional role and molecular basis of an LC/VTA circuit in conferring resilience to social defeat stress. RESULTS: We found that LC neurons projecting to the VTA exhibit enhanced firing activity in resilient, but not susceptible, mice. Optogenetically mimicking this firing adaptation in susceptible mice reverses their depressionrelated behaviors, and induces reversal of cellular hyperactivity and homeostatic plasticity in VTA DA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens. Circuit-specific molecular profiling studies reveal that alpha(1)-and beta(3)-adrenergic receptors are highly expressed in VTA/nucleus accumbens DA neurons. Pharmacologically activating these receptors induces similar proresilient effects at the ion channel and cellular and behavioral levels, whereas antagonizing these receptors blocks the proresilient effect of optogenetic activation of LC/VTA circuit neurons in susceptible mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a key role of the LC/VTA circuit in mediating homeostatic plasticity in stress resilience and reveal alpha(1)-and beta(3)-adrenergic receptors as new molecular targets for therapeutically promoting resilience.
Klinge S, Woolford JL
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Ribosome assembly coming into focus

NATURE REVIEWS MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY 2019 FEB; 20(2):116-131
In the past 25 years, genetic and biochemical analyses of ribosome assembly in yeast have identified most of the factors that participate in this complex pathway and have generated models for the mechanisms driving the assembly. More recently, the publication of numerous cryo-electron microscopy structures of yeast ribosome assembly intermediates has provided near-atomic resolution snapshots of ribosome precursor particles. Satisfyingly, these structural data support the genetic and biochemical models and provide additional mechanistic insight into ribosome assembly. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms of assembly of the yeast small ribosomal subunit and large ribosomal subunit in the nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm. Particular emphasis is placed on concepts such as the mechanisms of RNA compaction, the functions of molecular switches and molecular mimicry, the irreversibility of assembly checkpoints and the roles of structural and functional proofreading of pre-ribosomal particles.
Shukla AP, Dickison M, Coughlin N, Karan A, Mauer E, Truong W, Casper A, Emiliano AB, Kumar RB, Saunders KH, Igel LI, Aronne LJ
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The impact of food order on postprandial glycaemic excursions in prediabetes

DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM 2019 FEB; 21(2):377-381
Data suggest that nutrient order during a meal significantly impacts postprandial glucose and insulin excursions in type 2 diabetes, while its effects in prediabetes have not been reported. Fifteen participants with prediabetes consumed the same meal on 3 days in random order: carbohydrate first, followed 10 minutes later by protein and vegetables (CF); protein and vegetables first, followed 10 minutes later by carbohydrate (PVF); or vegetables first followed by protein and carbohydrate (VF). Blood was sampled for glucose and insulin measurements at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes. Incremental glucose peaks were similarly attenuated by >40% in the PVF and VF meal conditions compared with CF. The incremental area under the curve for glucose was 38.8% lower following the PVF meal order, compared with CF, and postprandial insulin excursions were significantly lower in the VF meal condition compared with CF. The CF meal pattern showed marked glycaemic variability whereas glucose levels were stable in the PVF and VF meal conditions. Food order presents a novel, simple behavioural strategy to reduce glycaemic excursions in prediabetes.
Hemelaar J, Elangovan R, Yun J, Dickson-Tetteh L, Fleminger I, Kirtley S, Williams B, Gouws-Williams E, Ghys PD, Abimiku AG, Agwale S, Archibald C, Avidor B, Barbas MG, Barre-Sinoussi F, Barugahare B, Belabbes E, Bertagnolio S, Birx D, Bobkov AF, Brandful J, Bredell H, Brennan CA, Brooks J, Bruckova M, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro F, Butto S, Buve A, Campbell M, Carr J, Carrera A, Carrillo MG, Celum C, Chaplin B, Charles M, Chatzidimitriou D, Chen ZW, Chijiwa K, Cooper D, Cunningham P, Dagnra A, de Gascun CF, Del Amo J, Delgado E, Dietrich U, Dwyer D, Ellenberger D, Ensoli B, Essex M, Fleury H, Fonjungo PN, Foulongne V, Gadkari DA, Gao F, Garcia F, Garsia R, Gershy-Damet GM, Glynn JR, Goodall R, Grossman Z, Guimaraes ML, Hahn B, Hamers RL, Hamouda O, Handema R, He X, Herbeck J, Ho DD, Holguin A, Hosseinipour M, Hunt G, Ito M, Kacem MABH, Kahle E, Kaleebu P, Kalish M, Kamarulzaman A, Kang C, Kanki P, Karamov E, Karasi JC, Kayitenkore K, Kelleher T, Kitayaporn D, Kostrikis LG, Kucherer C, Lara C, Leitner T, Liitsola K, Lingappa J, Linka M, de Rivera IL, Lukashov V, Maayan S, Mayr L, McCutchan F, Meda N, Menu E, Mhalu F, Mloka D, Mokili JL, Montes B, Mor O, Morgado M, Mosha F, Moussi A, Mullins J, Najera R, Nasr M, Ndembi N, Neilson JR, Nerurkar VR, Neuhann F, Nolte C, Novitsky V, Nyambi P, Ofner M, Paladin FJ, Papa A, Pape J, Parkin N, Parry C, Peeters M, Pelletier A, Perez-Alvarez L, Pillay D, Pinto A, Quang TD, Rademeyer C, Raikanikoda F, Rayfield MA, Reynes JM, de Wit TR, Robbins KE, Rolland M, Rousseau C, Salazar-Gonzales J, Salem H, Salminen M, Salomon H, Sandstrom P, Santiago ML, Sarr AD, Schroeder B, Segondy M, Selhorst P, Sempala S, Servais J, Shaik A, Shao YM, Slim A, Soares MA, Songok E, Stewart D, Stokes J, Subbarao S, Sutthent R, Takehisa J, Tanuri A, Tee KK, Thapa K, Thomson M, Tran T, Urassa W, Ushijima H, van de Perre P, van der Groen G, van Laethem K, van Oosterhout J, van Sighem A, van Wijngaerden E, Vandamme AM, Vercauteren J, Vidal N, Wallace L, Williamson C, Wolday D, Xu JQ, Yang CF, Zhang LQ, Zhang R
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Global and regional molecular epidemiology of HIV-1, 1990-2015: a systematic review, global survey, and trend analysis

LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2019 FEB; 19(2):143-155
Background Global genetic diversity of HIV-1 is a major challenge to the development of HIV vaccines. We aimed to estimate the regional and global distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants during 1990-2015. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL (Ebscohost), and Global Health (Ovid) for HIV-1 subtyping studies published between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 2015. We collected additional unpublished HIV-1 subtyping data through a global survey. We included prevalence studies with HIV-1 subtyping data collected during 1990-2015. We grouped countries into 14 regions and analysed data for four time periods (1990-99, 2000-04, 2005-09, and 2010-15). The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes, circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), and unique recombinant forms (URFs) in individual countries was weighted according to the UNAIDS estimates of the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in each country to generate regional and global estimates of HIV-1 diversity in each time period. The primary outcome was the number of samples designated as HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, CRFs, and URFs. The systematic review is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017067164. Findings This systematic review and global survey yielded 2203 datasets with 383 519 samples from 116 countries in 1990-2015. Globally, subtype C accounted for 46 . 6% (16 280 897/34 921 639 of PLHIV) of all HIV-1 infections in 2010-15. Subtype B was responsible for 12 . 1% (4 235 299/34 921 639) of infections, followed by subtype A (10 . 3%; 3 587 003/34 921 639), CRF02_AG (7 . 7%; 2 705 110/34 921 639), CRF01_AE (5 . 3%; 1 840 982/34 921 639), subtype G (4 . 6%; 1 591 276/34 921 639), and subtype D (2 . 7%; 926 255/34 921 639). Subtypes F, H, J, and K combined accounted for 0 . 9% (311 332/34 921 639) of infections. Other CRFs accounted for 3 . 7% (1 309 082/34 921 639), bringing the proportion of all CRFs to 16 . 7% (5 844 113/34 921 639). URFs constituted 6 . 1% (2 134 405/34 921 639), resulting in recombinants accounting for 22 . 8% (7 978 517/34 921 639) of all global HIV-1 infections. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants changed over time in countries, regions, and globally. At a global level during 2005-15, subtype B increased, subtypes A and D were stable, and subtypes C and G and CRF02_AG decreased. CRF01_AE, other CRFs, and URFs increased, leading to a consistent increase in the global proportion of recombinants over time. Interpretation Global and regional HIV diversity is complex and evolving, and is a major challenge to HIV vaccine development. Surveillance of the global molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 remains crucial for the design, testing, and implementation of HIV vaccines.
Pressl C, Brandner P, Schaffelhofer S, Blackmon K, Dugan P, Holmes M, Thesen T, Kuzniecky R, Devinsky O, Freiwald WA
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Resting state functional connectivity patterns associated with pharmacological treatment resistance in temporal lobe epilepsy

EPILEPSY RESEARCH 2019 JAN; 149(?):37-43
There are no functional imaging based biomarkers for pharmacological treatment response in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this study, we investigated whether there is an association between resting state functional brain connectivity (RsFC) and seizure control in TLE. We screened a large database containing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) data from 286 epilepsy patients. Patient medical records were screened for seizure characterization, EEG reports for lateralization and location of seizure foci to establish uniformity of seizure localization within patient groups. Rs-fMRI data from patients with well-controlled left TLE, patients with treatment-resistant left TLE, and healthy controls were analyzed. Healthy controls and cTLE showed similar functional connectivity patterns, whereas trTLE exhibited a significant bilateral decrease in thalamo-hippocampal functional connectivity. This work is the first to demonstrate differences in neural network connectivity between well-controlled and treatment-resistant TLE. These differences are spatially highly focused and suggest sites for the etiology and possibly treatment of TLE. Altered thalamo-hippocampal RsFC thus is a potential new biomarker for TLE treatment resistance.