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Found 35919 matches. Displaying 1-10
Bastard P, Michailidis E, Hoffmann HH, Chbihi M, Le Voyer T, Rosain J, Philippot Q, Seeleuthner Y, Gervais A, Materna M, de Oliveira PMN, Maia MDS, Bom APDA, Azamor T, da Conceicao DA, Goudouris E, Homma A, Slesak G, Schafer J, Pulendran B, Miller JD, Huits R, Yang R, Rosen LB, Bizien L, Lorenzo L, Chrabieh M, Erazo LV, Rozenberg F, Jeljeli MM, Beziat V, Holland SM, Cobat A, Notarangelo LD, Su HC, Ahmed R, Puel A, Zhang SY, Abel L, Seligman SJ, Zhang Q, MacDonald MR, Jouanguy E, Rice CM, Casanova JL
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Auto-antibodies to type I IFNs can underlie adverse reactions to yellow fever live attenuated vaccine

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2021 APR 5; 218(4):? Article e20202486
Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-?2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.
Islam MS, Yang XW, Euler CW, Han XQ, Liu JH, Hossen I, Zhou Y, Li JQ
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Application of a novel phage ZPAH7 for controlling multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila on lettuce and reducing biofilms

FOOD CONTROL 2021 APR; 122(?):? Article 107785
Aeromonas hydrophila is an important pathogenic bacterium that causes foodborne illness worldwide. In this study, virulent phages from the sediment of a fish farm were propagated and isolated on a multidrug-resistant strain of A. hydrophila, ZYAH75. One phage, designated as ZPAH7, featured a unique turbid halo around a clear plaque on the bacterial lawn (indicative of potential depolymerase activity), and was selected for further analysis. ZPAH7 was classified as podophage by morphological and genomic methods. Further comparisons of genome nucleotide similarity, ratios of homologous proteins and phylogenetic relatedness among the terminase large subunit and major capsid proteins of similar phage deposited in GENBANK, led us to propose a new genus, ZPAH7virus, in the Autographivirinae subfamily of Podoviridae. ZPAH7 had an adsorption rate of 79% in 5 min, an eclipse period of 15 min, a latent period of 25 min, and a burst size of 148 +/- 9 PFU/cell. Antimicrobial application experiments showed that ZPAH7 lead to significantly reduction on A. hydrophila on lettuce. Additionally, ZPAH7 was able to inhibit biofilm formation, as well as degrade and kill bacteria in established biofilms. Furthermore, lytic activity of ZPAH7 remained stable across a wide range of temperatures and pH measurements. These results suggest ZPAH7 could be used as a potential biological control agent against A. hydrophila on food and/or biofilms on food contact surfaces.
de Prost N, Bastard P, Arrestier R, Fourati S, Mahevas M, Burrel S, Dorgham K, Gorochov G, Tandjaoui-Lambiotte Y, Azzaoui I, Fernandes I, Combes A, Casanova JL, Mekontso-Dessap A, Luyt CE
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Plasma Exchange to Rescue Patients with Autoantibodies Against Type I Interferons and Life-Threatening COVID-19 Pneumonia

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2021 APR; 41(3):536-544
Purpose To report four cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with high blood concentrations of neutralizing autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs), who were treated with plasma exchange (PE) as a rescue therapy. Methods Prospective case series, which included patients, diagnosed with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and positive autoantibodies against type I IFNs in two French intensive care units (ICUs) between October 8 and November 14, 2020. Six critically ill COVID-19 patients with no anti-IFN antibodies were used as controls. Anti-IFN autoantibodies and IFN concentrations, together with the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, were measured sequentially in serum. Viral load was determined in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Patients were followed during hospital stay. Results Three men and one woman were included. Three of the patients had four PE sessions each, while another had three PE sessions. PE decreased the concentrations of autoantibodies against type I IFN in all four patients, whereas anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels remained stable. Autoantibodies against type I IFN levels were high in tracheal aspirates of one patient and decreased after three PE sessions. By contrast, anti-IFN autoantibodies were not detected in tracheal aspirates from five control patients without detectable anti-IFN autoantibodies in serum. During PE, serum IFN-alpha levels slightly increased in three out of four patients, and upper respiratory tract viral load decreased in all patients. All patients were alive at day 28 of ICU admission. Two patients eventually died in the ICU, while the two survivors were discharged from the ICU at days 50 and 66. Conclusions PE efficiently removes autoantibodies against type I IFNs, including those detected in tracheal aspirates, without affecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, in patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The clinical benefit of PE in patients with autoantibodies against type I IFNs should be tested in a larger study.
El-Etr M, Akwa Y, Rame M, Schumacher M, Sitruk-Ware R
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Nestorone(R), a 19nor-progesterone derivative boosts remyelination in an animal model of demyelination

CNS NEUROSCIENCE & THERAPEUTICS 2021; 27(4):464-469
Introduction We previously showed that Nestorone(R) (NES), a synthetic progestin structurally related to progesterone, stimulated remyelination of the corpus callosum in a Cuprizone (CUP) mouse model of demyelination in intact females by promoting replenishment with mature oligodendrocytes (OL) (Glia. 2015;63:104-117). Here, we further investigated the underlying mechanisms of this promyelinating effect. Methods We explored whether NES, applied subcutaneously through Alzet mini-osmotic pumps, regulates specific transcription factors involved in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and their differentiation into mature OL, using RT-qPCR and Western Blot analysis. Results Our present data show that in comparison to controls, a one-week treatment with NES, through Alzet mini-osmotic pumps, enhanced the production of three relevant transcription factor mRNAs encoding Olig2, Myt1, and Sox17. After 3 weeks, NES treatment reversed the effect of CUP on the levels of corresponding Olig2, Myt1, and Sox17 proteins. Moreover, in mice receiving NES + Estradiol (E2) co-treatment, levels of Olig2, Myt1, and Sox17 proteins did not change as compared to NES alone. Conclusion NES alone or with E2 increased the levels of transcription factors, essential for myelin synthesis.
Sharanowski BJ, Ridenbaugh RD, Piekarski PK, Broad GR, Burke GR, Deans AR, Lemmon AR, Lemmon ECM, Diehl GJ, Whitfield JB, Hines HM
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Phylogenomics of Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera) and implications for evolution of mode of parasitism and viral endogenization

MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION 2021 MAR; 156(?):? Article 107023
Ichneumonoidea is one of the most diverse lineages of animals on the planet with >48,000 described species and many more undescribed. Parasitoid wasps of this superfamily are mostly beneficial insects that attack and kill other arthropods and are important for understanding diversification and the evolution of life history strategies related to parasitoidism. Further, some lineages of parasitoids within Ichneumonoidea have acquired endogenous virus elements (EVEs) that are permanently a part of the wasp's genome and benefit the wasp through host immune disruption and behavioral control. Unfortunately, understanding the evolution of viral acquisition, parasitism strategies, diversification, and host immune disruption mechanisms, is deeply limited by the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Ichneumonoidea. Here we design probes targeting 541 genes across 91 taxa to test phylogenetic relationships, the evolution of parasitoid strategies, and the utility of probes to capture polydnavirus genes across a diverse array of taxa. Phylogenetic relationships among Ichneumonoidea were largely well resolved with most higher-level relationships maximally supported. We noted codon use biases between the outgroups, Braconidae, and Ichneumonidae and within Pimplinae, which were largely solved through analyses of amino acids rather than nucleotide data. These biases may impact phylogenetic reconstruction and caution for outgroup selection is recommended. Ancestral state reconstructions were variable for Braconidae across analyses, but consistent for reconstruction of idiobiosis/koinobiosis in Ichneumonidae. The data suggest many transitions between parasitoid life history traits across the whole superfamily. The two subfamilies within Ichneumonidae that have polydnaviruses are supported as distantly related, providing strong evidence for two independent acquisitions of ichnoviruses. Polydnavirus capture using our designed probes was only partially successful and suggests that more targeted approaches would be needed for this strategy to be effective for surveying taxa for these viral genes. In total, these data provide a robust framework for the evolution of Ichneumonoidea.
Capoor MN, Konieczna A, McDowell A, Ruzicka F, Smrcka M, Jancalek R, Maca K, Lujc M, Ahmed FS, Birkenmaier C, Dudli S, Slaby O
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Pro-Inflammatory and Neurotrophic Factor Responses of Cells Derived from Degenerative Human Intervertebral Discs to the Opportunistic Pathogen Cutibacterium acnes

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 2021 MAR; 22(5):? Article 2347
Previously, we proposed the hypothesis that similarities in the inflammatory response observed in acne vulgaris and degenerative disc disease (DDD), especially the central role of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, may be further evidence of the role of the anaerobic bacterium Cutibacterium (previously Propionibacterium) acnes in the underlying aetiology of disc degeneration. To investigate this, we examined the upregulation of IL-1 beta, and other known IL-1 beta-induced inflammatory markers and neurotrophic factors, from nucleus-pulposus-derived disc cells infected in vitro with C. acnes for up to 48 h. Upon infection, significant upregulation of IL-1 beta, alongside IL-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), was observed with cells isolated from the degenerative discs of eight patients versus non-infected controls. Expression levels did, however, depend on gene target, multiplicity and period of infection and, notably, donor response. Pre-treatment of cells with clindamycin prior to infection significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. This study confirms that C. acnes can stimulate the expression of IL-1 beta and other host molecules previously associated with pathological changes in disc tissue, including neo-innervation. While still controversial, the role of C. acnes in DDD remains biologically credible, and its ability to cause disease likely reflects a combination of factors, particularly individualised response to infection.
Schafer A, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JCC, Leist SR, Cipolla M, Bournazos S, Schmidt F, Maison RM, Gazumyan A, Martinez DR, Baric RS, Robbiani DF, Hatziioannou T, Ravetch JV, Bieniasz PD, Bowen RA, Nussenzweig MC, Sheahan TP
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Antibody potency, effector function, and combinations in protection and therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2021 MAR 1; 218(3):? Article e20201993
SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has been responsible for over 42 million infections and 1 million deaths since its emergence in December 2019. There are few therapeutic options and no approved vaccines. Here, we examine the properties of highly potent human monoclonal antibodies (hu-mAbs) in a Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 and in a mouse-adapted model of SARS-CoV-2 infection (SARS-CoV-2 MA). Antibody combinations were effective for prevention and in therapy when administered early. However, in vitro antibody neutralization potency did not uniformly correlate with in vivo protection, and some hu-mAbs were more protective in combination in vivo. Analysis of antibody Fc regions revealed that binding to activating Fc receptors contributes to optimal protection against SARS-CoV-2 MA. The data indicate that intact effector function can affect hu-mAb protective activity and that in vivo testing is required to establish optimal hu-mAb combinations for COVID-19 prevention.
Cai BL, Li ZH, Ma MT, Zhang J, Kong SF, Abdalla BA, Xu HP, Jebessa E, Zhang XQ, Lawal RA, Nie QH
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Long noncoding RNA SMUL suppresses SMURF2 production-mediated muscle atrophy via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

MOLECULAR THERAPY-NUCLEIC ACIDS 2021 MAR 5; 23(?):498-526
As the world population grows, muscle atrophy leading to muscle wasting could become a bigger risk. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to play important roles in muscle growth and muscle atrophy. Meanwhile, it has recently come to light that many putative small open reading frames (sORFs) are hidden in lncRNAs; however, their translational capabilities and functions remain unclear. In this study, we uncovered 104 myogenic-associated lncRNAs translated, in at least a small peptide, by integrated transcriptome and proteomic analyses. Furthermore, an upstream ORF (uORF) regulatory network was constructed, and a novel muscle atrophy-associated lncRNA named SMUL (Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 [SMURF2] upstream lncRNA) was identified. SMUL was highly expressed in skeletal muscle, and its expression level was down regulated during myoblast differentiation. SMUL promoted myoblast proliferation and suppressed differentiation in vitro. In vivo, SMUL induced skeletal muscle atrophy and promoted a switch from slow-twitch to fast-twitch fibers. In the meantime, translation of the SMUL sORF disrupted the stability of SMURF2 mRNA. Mechanistically, SMUL restrained SMURF2 production via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), participating in the regulation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)/SMAD pathway and further regulating myogenesis and muscle atrophy. Taken together, these results suggest that SMUL could be a novel therapeutic target for muscle atrophy.
Gaebler C, Wang ZJ, Lorenzi JCC, Muecksch F, Finkin S, Tokuyama M, Cho A, Jankovic M, Schaefer-Babajew D, Oliveira TY, Cipolla M, Viant C, Barnes CO, Bram Y, Breton G, Hagglof T, Mendoza P, Hurley A, Turroja M, Gordon K, Millard KG, Ramos V, Schmidt F, Weisblum Y, Jha D, Tankelevich M, Martinez-Delgado G, Yee J, Patel R, Dizon J, Unson-O'Brien C, Shimeliovich I, Robbiani DF, Zhao Z, Gazumyan A, Schwartz RE, Hatziioannou T, Bjorkman PJ, Mehandru S, Bieniasz PD, Caskey M, Nussenzweig MC
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Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2

NATURE 2021 MAR 25; 591(7851):639-644
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 78 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.7 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with the development of variable levels of antibodies with neutralizing activity, which can protect against infection in animal models(1,2). Antibody levels decrease with time, but, to our knowledge, the nature and quality of the memory B cells that would be required to produce antibodies upon reinfection has not been examined. Here we report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We find that titres of IgM and IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 decrease significantly over this time period, with IgA being less affected. Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by fivefold in pseudotype virus assays. By contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remains unchanged at 6.2 months after infection. Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies that they express have greater somatic hypermutation, resistance to RBD mutations and increased potency, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response. Immunofluorescence and PCR analyses of intestinal biopsies obtained from asymptomatic individuals at 4 months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revealed the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids and immunoreactivity in the small bowel of 7 out of 14 individuals. We conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.