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Found 34783 matches. Displaying 181-190
Zeng X, Hunt A, Jin SC, Duran D, Gaillard J, Kahle KT
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EphrinB2-EphB4-RASA1 Signaling in Human Cerebrovascular Development and Disease

Recent whole exome sequencing studies in humans have provided novel insight into the importance of the ephrinB2-EphB4-RASA1 signaling axis in cerebrovascular development, corroborating and extending previous work in model systems. Here, we aim to review the human cerebrovascular phenotypes associated with ephrinB2-EphB4-RASA1 mutations, including those recently discovered in Vein of Galen malformation: the most common and severe brain arteriovenous malformation in neonates. We will also discuss emerging paradigms of the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of disease-causing ephrinB2-EphB4-RASA1 mutations, including the potential role of somatic mosaicism. These observations have potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications for patients with rare congenital cerebrovascular diseases and their families.
Kim B, Wang YC, Hespen CW, Espinosa J, Salje J, Rangan KJ, Oren DA, Kang JY, Pedicord VA, Hang HC
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Enterococcus faecium secreted antigen A generates muropeptides to enhance host immunity and limit bacterial pathogenesis

ELIFE 2019 APR 10; 8(?):? Article e45343
We discovered that Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), a ubiquitous commensal bacterium, and its secreted peptidoglycan hydrolase (SagA) were sufficient to enhance intestinal barrier function and pathogen tolerance, but the precise biochemical mechanism was unknown. Here we show E. faecium has unique peptidoglycan composition and remodeling activity through SagA, which generates smaller muropeptides that more effectively activates nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) in mammalian cells. Our structural and biochemical studies show that SagA is a NlpC/p60-endopeptidase that preferentially hydrolyzes crosslinked Lys-type peptidoglycan fragments. SagA secretion and NlpC/p60-endopeptidase activity was required for enhancing probiotic bacteria activity against Clostridium difficile pathogenesis in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the peptidoglycan composition and hydrolase activity of specific microbiota species can activate host immune pathways and enhance tolerance to pathogens.
Fu J, Akat KM, Sun ZG, Zhang WJ, Schlondorff D, Liu ZH, Tuschl T, Lee K, He JC
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Single-Cell RNA Profiling of Glomerular Cells Shows Dynamic Changes in Experimental Diabetic Kidney Disease

Background Recent single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analyses have offered much insight into cell-specific gene expression profiles in normal kidneys. However, in diseased kidneys, understanding of changes in specific cells, particularly glomerular cells, remains limited. Methods To elucidate the glomerular cell-specific gene expression changes in diabetic kidney disease, we performed scRNA-seq analysis of isolated glomerular cells from streptozotocin-induced diabetic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-deficient (eNOS(-/-)) mice and control eNOS(-/-) mice. Results We identified five distinct cell populations, including glomerular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, podocytes, immune cells, and tubular cells. Using scRNA-seq analysis, we confirmed the expression of glomerular cell-specific markers and also identified several new potential markers of glomerular cells. The number of immune cells was significantly higher in diabetic glomeruli compared with control glomeruli, and further cluster analysis showed that these immune cells were predominantly macrophages. Analysis of differential gene expression in endothelial and mesangial cells of diabetic and control mice showed dynamic changes in the pattern of expressed genes, many of which are known to be involved in diabetic kidney disease. Moreover, gene expression analysis showed variable responses of individual cells to diabetic injury. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the ability of scRNA-seq analysis in isolated glomerular cells from diabetic and control mice to reveal dynamic changes in gene expression in diabetic kidneys, with variable responses of individual cells. Such changes, which might not be apparent in bulk transcriptomic analysis of glomerular cells, may help identify important pathophysiologic factors contributing to the progression of diabetic kidney disease.
Pisa R, Cupido T, Kapoor TM
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Designing Allele-Specific Inhibitors of Spastin, a Microtubule-Severing AAA Protein

The bump hole approach is a powerful chemical biology strategy to specifically probe the functions of closely related proteins. However, for many protein families, such as the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA), we lack structural data for inhibitor-protein complexes to design allele-specific chemical probes. Here we report the X-ray structure of a pyrazolylaminoquinazoline-based inhibitor bound to spastin, a microtubule-severing AAA protein, and characterize the residues involved in inhibitor binding. We show that an inhibitor analogue with a single-atom hydrogen-to-fluorine modification can selectively target a spastin allele with an engineered cysteine mutation in its active site. We also report an X-ray structure of the fluoro analogue bound to the spastin mutant. Furthermore, analyses of other mutant alleles suggest how the stereoelectronics of the fluorine cysteine interaction, rather than sterics alone, contribute to the inhibitor allele selectivity. This approach could be used to design allele-specific probes for studying cellular functions of spastin isoforms. Our data also suggest how tuning stereoelectronics can lead to specific inhibitor allele pairs for the AAA superfamily.
Understanding the genetic and metabolic bases of obesity is helpful in planning and developing health strategies. Therefore, the first family-based joint linkage and linkage disequilibrium study was conducted in Iranian pedigrees to assess the relationship between obesity and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the 16q12.2 region. In the present study, a total of 13,344 individuals were included, of whom 12,502 individuals were within 3,109 pedigrees and 842 were unrelated singletons. To investigate the relationship between obesity and genetic variants, a joint model of linkage and linkage disequilibrium was applied. Moreover, a sequence kernel association test (SKAT) was used to evaluate the association of the SNP set with body size and lipid profile measurements. The joint model showed that rs13334070, in the intron 4 of the RPGRIP1L gene, has a significant association with obesity. According to the 4-gamete rule, which is a procedure for constructing SNP sets by considering recombination occurrence between SNPs, this polymorphism has a high correlation with six nearby SNPs that make an SNP set. SKAT showed that this SNP set has a significant association with body size factors, but almost no association with most of the lipid profile measurements. In conclusion, from the result of this study, it might be reasonable to consider RPGRIP1L as an important gene whose variations could be associated with obesity risk factors.
Vibholm LK, Lorenzi JCC, Pai JA, Cohen YZ, Oliveira TY, Barton JP, Noceda MG, Lu CL, Ablanedo-Terrazas Y, Estrada PMD, Reyes-Teran G, Tolstrup M, Denton PW, Damsgaard T, Sogaard OS, Nussenzweig MC
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Characterization of Intact Proviruses in Blood and Lymph Node from HIV-Infected Individuals Undergoing Analytical Treatment Interruption

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 2019 APR; 93(8):? Article e01920-18
The role of lymphoid tissue as a potential source of HIV-1 rebound following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is uncertain. To address this issue, we compared the latent viruses obtained from CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes to viruses emerging during treatment interruption. Latent viruses were characterized by sequencing near-full-length (NFL) proviral DNA and env from viral outgrowth assays (VOAs). Five HIV-1-infected individuals on ART were studied, four of whom participated in a clinical trial of a TLR9 agonist that included an analytical treatment interruption. We found that 98% of intact or replication-competent clonal sequences overlapped between blood and lymph node. In contrast, there was no overlap between 205 latent reservoir and 125 rebound sequences in the four individuals who underwent treatment interruption. However, rebound viruses could be accounted for by recombination. The data suggest that CD4(+) T cells carrying latent viruses circulate between blood and lymphoid tissues in individuals on ART and support the idea that recombination may play a role in the emergence of rebound viremia. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 persists as a latent infection in CD4(+) T cells that can be found in lymphoid tissues in infected individuals during ART. However, the importance of this tissue reservoir and its contribution to viral rebound upon ART interruption are not clear. In this study, we sought to compare latent HIV-1 from blood and lymph node CD4(+) T cells from five HIV-1-infected individuals. Further, we analyzed the contribution of lymph node viruses to viral rebound. We observed that the frequencies of intact proviruses were the same in blood and lymph node. Moreover, expanded clones of T cells bearing identical proviruses were found in blood and lymph node. These latent reservoir sequences did not appear to be the direct origin of rebound virus. Instead, latent proviruses were found to contribute to the rebound compartment by recombination.
Sarker M, Lee HT, Mei L, Krokhotin A, de los Reyes SE, Yen L, Costantini LM, Griffith J, Dokholyan NV, Alushin GM, Campbell SL
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Cardiomyopathy Mutations in Metavinculin Disrupt Regulation of Vinculin-Induced F-Actin Assemblies

JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 2019 APR 5; 431(8):1604-1618
Debilitating heart conditions, notably dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (CMs), are associated with point mutations in metavinculin, a larger isoform of the essential cytoskeletal protein vinculin. Metavinculin is co-expressed with vinculin at sub-stoichiometric ratios in cardiac tissues. CM mutations in the metavinculin tail domain (MVt) occur within the extra 68-residue insert that differentiates it from the vinculin tail domain (Vt). Vt binds actin filaments (F-actin) and promotes vinculin dimerization to bundle F-actin into thick fibers. While MVt binds to F-actin in a similar manner to Vt, MVt is incapable of F-actin bundling and inhibits Vt-mediated F-actin bundling. We performed F-actin co-sedimentation and negative-stain EM experiments to dissect the coordinated roles of metavinculin and vinculin in actin fiber assembly and the effects of three known metavinculin CM mutations. These CM mutants were found to weakly induce the formation of disordered F-actin assemblies. Notably, they fail to inhibit Vt-mediated F-actin bundling and instead promote formation of large assemblies embedded with linear bundles. Computational models of MVt bound to F-actin suggest that MVt undergoes a conformational change licensing the formation of a protruding sub-domain incorporating the insert, which sterically prevents dimerization and bundling of F-actin by Vt. Sub-domain formation is destabilized by CM mutations, disrupting this inhibitory mechanism. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the ability of metavinculin to tune actin organization by vinculin and suggest that dysregulation of this process by CM mutants could underlie their malfunction in disease. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Posey JE, O'Donnell-Luria AH, Chong JX, Harel T, Jhangiani SN, Akdemir ZHC, Buyske S, Pehlivan D, Carvalho CMB, Baxter S, Sobreira N, Liu PF, Wu N, Rosenfeld JA, Kumar S, Avramopoulos D, White JJ, Doheny KF, Witmer PD, Boehm C, Sutton VR, Muzny DM, Boerwinkle E, Gunel M, Nickerson DA, Mane S, MacArthur DG, Gibbs RA, Hamosh A, Lifton RP, Matise TC, Rehm HL, Gerstein M, Bamshad MJ, Valle D, Lupski JR
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Insights into genetics, human biology and disease gleaned from family based genomic studies

GENETICS IN MEDICINE 2019 APR; 21(4):798-812
Identifying genes and variants contributing to rare disease phenotypes and Mendelian conditions informs biology and medicine, yet potential phenotypic consequences for variation of >75% of the similar to 20,000 annotated genes in the human genome are lacking. Technical advances to assess rare variation genome-wide, particularly exome sequencing (ES), enabled establishment in the United States of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) and have facilitated collaborative studies resulting in novel "disease gene" discoveries. Pedigree-based genomic studies and rare variant analyses in families with suspected Mendelian conditions have led to the elucidation of hundreds of novel disease genes and highlighted the impact of de novo mutational events, somatic variation underlying nononcologic traits, incompletely penetrant alleles, phenotypes with high locus heterogeneity, and multilocus pathogenic variation. Herein, we highlight CMG collaborative discoveries that have contributed to understanding both rare and common diseases and discuss opportunities for future discovery in single-locus Mendelian disorder genomics. Phenotypic annotation of all human genes; development of bioinformatic tools and analytic methods; exploration of non-Mendelian modes of inheritance including reduced penetrance, multilocus variation, and oligogenic inheritance; construction of allelic series at a locus; enhanced data sharing worldwide; and integration with clinical genomics are explored. Realizing the full contribution of rare disease research to functional annotation of the human genome, and further illuminating human biology and health, will lay the foundation for the Precision Medicine Initiative.
Hubel P, Urban C, Bergant V, Schneider WM, Knauer B, Stukalov A, Scaturro P, Mann A, Brunotte L, Hoffmann HH, Schoggins JW, Schwemmle M, Mann M, Rice CM, Pichlmair A
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A protein-interaction network of interferon-stimulated genes extends the innate immune system landscape

NATURE IMMUNOLOGY 2019 APR; 20(4):493-502
Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) form the backbone of the innate immune system and are important for limiting intra- and intercellular viral replication and spread. We conducted a mass-spectrometry-based survey to understand the fundamental organization of the innate immune system and to explore the molecular functions of individual ISGs. We identified interactions between 104 ISGs and 1,401 cellular binding partners engaging in 2,734 high-confidence interactions. 90% of these interactions are unreported so far, and our survey therefore illuminates a far wider activity spectrum of ISGs than is currently known. Integration of the resulting ISG-interaction network with published datasets and functional studies allowed us to identify regulators of immunity and processes related to the immune system. Given the extraordinary robustness of the innate immune system, this ISG network may serve as a blueprint for therapeutic targeting of cellular systems to efficiently fight viral infections.
Campo AT, Vazquez Y, Alvarez M, Zainos A, Rossi-Pool R, Deco G, Romo R
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Feed-forward information and zero-lag synchronization in the sensory thalamocortical circuit are modulated during stimulus perception

The direction of functional information flow in the sensory thalamocortical circuit may play a role in stimulus perception, but, surprisingly, this process is poorly understood. We addressed this problem by evaluating a directional information measure between simultaneously recorded neurons from somatosensory thalamus (ventral posterolateral nucleus, VPL) and somatosensory cortex (S1) sharing the same cutaneous receptive field while monkeys judged the presence or absence of a tactile stimulus. During stimulus presence, feed-forward information (VPL -> S1) increased as a function of the stimulus ampli- tude, while pure feed-back information (S1 -> VPL) was unaffected. In parallel, zero-lag interaction emerged with increasing stimulus amplitude, reflecting externally driven thalamocortical synchronization during stimulus processing. Furthermore, VPL -> S1 information decreased during error trials. Also, VPL -> S1 and zero-lag interaction decreased when monkeys were not required to report the stimulus presence. These findings provide evidence that both the direction of information flow and the instant synchronization in the sensory thalamocortical circuit play a role in stimulus perception.