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Mojsov’s long-standing interests are in understanding how peptides and small proteins regulate physiological processes in healthy and disease states. She applied her expertise in the chemical synthesis of peptides and small proteins to a wide range of studies, starting with the discovery of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its key role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. Based on Mojsov’s work, Novo Nordisk developed a GLP-1 analogue as a new therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes approved for use in Europe, Japan, China, and the United States under the trade name Victoza. Close to two million individuals with type 2 diabetes use Victoza to control their glucose levels. Recently, Victoza was approved for the treatment of obesity under the trade name Saxenda. Mojsov’s work with gluco-regulatory hormones include studies on the diversification, during vertebrate evolution, of the functions of genes encoding GLP-1-related peptides and their G protein coupled receptors.

Mojsov has collaborated with members of Ralph Steinman’s and Brian Chait’s groups on developing a proteomic approach to identify the peptide repertoire presented by the major histocompatibility complex on dendritic cells after immunizations with proteins that are specifically delivered to dendritic cells. This work is part of the effort to develop dendritic cell–based vaccines against HIV and other infectious agents.