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Heads of Laboratories

Head shot of Charles Gilbert
Charles D. Gilbert, M.D., Ph.D.
Arthur and Janet Ross Professor
Laboratory of Neurobiology

Dr. Gilbert studies the mechanisms underlying visual perception, including the specific role of the brain’s primary visual cortex in analyzing visual images and in perceptual learning. To this end, his laboratory investigates the circuitry of the brain and how the interactions between groups of neurons contribute to perception, learning, and memory.

The Gilbert laboratory studies the primary visual cortex, a credit card-sized region of cells at the back of the brain. The job of the visual cortex is to take signals from the retina, group features belonging to objects, and determine their shapes. The laboratory investigates the mechanism, at the level of cortical circuitry, by which this occurs. They discovered a plexus of long-range horizontal connections that mediate the assembly of contours and the parsing of visual scenes into objects and background. Using a combination of techniques, Dr. Gilbert has found close correspondence between the geometry of these connections, the functional properties of visual cortical neurons, and the perception of visual stimuli.

The laboratory also studies the way visual experience shapes the strategy by which the cortex analyzes sensory information, a process known as perceptual learning. The Gilbert laboratory has found that, even in adults, the visual cortex is capable of altering its functional properties and circuitry. These long-term changes aid in analyzing visual scenes as a result of normal experience and assist recovery from injury. For example, following a retinal lesion that initially silences parts of the visual cortex, the cortex gradually regains its ability to respond to visual stimuli. The lab is studying the molecular mechanisms underlying experience-dependent changes in cortical circuits. Understanding adaptive changes in cortical function provides important insights into the mechanism of recovery after brain lesions and neurodegenerative disease, including macular degeneration.

Research in the Gilbert lab suggests each cortical area is an adaptive processor that runs different programs according to the immediate demands of the perceptual task. Object recognition, for example, involves a countercurrent process of feedforward and feedback interactions. The top-down signal conveys information about attentional locus, perceptual task, and object expectation. These results led to a novel view of cortical processing: Rather than having fixed functional properties, adult neurons are dynamically tuned, changing their specificities with sensory experience and behavioral context. This work is likely relevant to behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, which have been described as dysfunctions of top-down interactions. Based on these findings, Dr. Gilbert’s lab uses computational models to link cortical circuits and the properties of neuronal ensembles to visual perception.

Dr. Gilbert and his colleagues use electrophysiology, imaging, and molecular approaches to understand the mechanisms of adult cortical plasticity. This research includes examining the contribution of different neuronal types and circuit components to experience dependent changes, the circuitry and synaptic mechanisms underlying the dynamic changes in cortical cells in behaving animals, and using human psychophysics to explore the perceptual consequences of dynamic changes in cortical properties.


B.A. in biophysics, 1971
Amherst College

M.D., 1977
Harvard Medical School

Ph.D. in neurobiology, 1977
Harvard University


Harvard Medical School, 1977–1981


Assistant Professor, 1981–1983
Harvard Medical School

Assistant Professor, 1983–1985
Associate Professor, 1985–1991
Professor, 1991–
The Rockefeller University


W. Alden Spencer Award, 2002
Edward M. Scolnick Prize, 2015


National Academy of Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science


Gilbert, C.D. and Li, W. Top-down influences on visual processing. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14, 350–363 (2013).

Ramalingam, N. et al. Top-down modulation of lateral interactions in visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 33, 1773–1789 (2013).

Gilbert, C.D. and Li, W. Adult visual cortical plasticity. Neuron 75, 250–264 (2012).

McManus, J.N. et al. Adaptive shape processing in primary visual cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 9739–9746 (2011).

Yamahachi, H. et al. Rapid axonal sprouting and pruning accompany functional reorganization in primary visual cortex. Neuron 64, 719–729 (2009).

Dr. Gilbert is a faculty member in the David Rockefeller Graduate Program and the Tri-Institutional M.D.-Ph.D. Program.