The Rockefeller University consists of independent laboratories that are separate academic and budgetary units led by a Head of Laboratory holding the faculty rank of Professor, Associate Professor or Assistant Professor. Head of Laboratory appointments are made by the President, subject to the Board of Trustees approval, at the recommendation of a search committee, following a search conducted as part of the University's overall academic plan. All Head of Laboratory appointments are subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees. While Head of Laboratory appointments are not initiated through Human Resources, all new Heads of Laboratory must complete registration with the Immigration and Academic Appointments office in Human Resources. The academic titles administered through this office are non-tenure track appointments made to an established laboratory at the written request of a Head of Laboratory. Individuals holding academic appointments, with the exception of visiting students, must have attained the terminal degree in their field of scholarship, either a Ph.D., M.D., D.V.M, or their equivalent.